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Abstract

An analysis of the effect of feed foaming on the efficiency of sunflower oil encapsulation on selected product properties is presented in the paper. Experiments were carried out in a pilot-plant concurrent spray dryer using the gas-admixing technique. The analysis of the product properties showed that the application of foaming makes it possible to control final product properties, e.g. apparent density, bulk density, distribution of particle diameters, etc. at a high efficiency of sunflower oil encapsulation.
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Abstract

Leon Król (1842 -1927) was born at Rogalin near Kórnik to the family of the manor administrator of Count Raczyński and was educated to become a saddler and harness-maker in Kórnik, Poznan, and Łowicz. In 1863, Leon joined Leon Young’s insurgent detachment. After the defeat suff ered by Brdów on 29 May, he subsequently came under the command of Alojzy Seyfried, Ludwik Oborski, and Edmund Taczanowski. He fought in the battles of Babsk (17 May), Niewiesz (23 May), Sędziejowice (26 August; it was here that he rendered outstanding services), and Kruszyna (29 August), where Taczanowski’s detachment was finally smashed. He then participated in insurgent gendarmerie actions at Łask and Szadek, and in the battle of Jeżew on 5 December 1863. Having returned to his family area, he was subsequently punitively conscripted into the Prussian army, served in several campaigns, and finally settled at Kórnik. After Poland regained independence in 1918, Leon Król was promoted to the rank of a lieutenant, received a uniform as a military veteran, and participated in the production of one of the first Polish historical fi lms. Many of his descendants still live in Kórnik today. The text of his unfi nished memories of 1863, written in 1911, has survived in the Kórnik Library in the form of a typescript copy, and was edited by Stanisława Andrejewska.
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Abstract

In this article the structural and mechanical properties of grain refinement of Cu-Sn alloys with tin content of 10%, 15% and 20% using the KOBO method have been presented. The direct extrusion by KOBO (name from the combination of the first two letters of the names of its inventors – A. Korbel and W. Bochniak) method employs, during the course of the whole process, a phenomenon of permanent change of strain travel, realized by a periodical, two-sided, plastic metal torsion. Moreover the aim of this work was to study corrosion resistance. The microstructure investigations were performed using an optical microscope Olimpus GX71, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The mechanical properties were determined with INSTRON 4505/5500 machine. Corrosion tests were performed using «Autolab» set – potentiostat/galvanostat from EcoChemie B.V. with GPES software ver. 4.9. The obtained results showed possibility of KOBO deformation of Cu-Sn casting alloys. KOBO processing contributed to the refinement of grains and improved mechanical properties of the alloys. The addition of tin significantly improved the hardness. Meanwhile, with the increase of tin content the tensile strength and yield strength of alloys decrease gradually. Ductility is controlled by eutectoid composition and especially δ phase, because they initiate nucleation of void at the particle/matrix interface. No significant differences in the corrosion resistance between cast and KOBO processed materials were found.
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