Applied sciences

Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi - Mineral Resources Management

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Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi - Mineral Resources Management | 2012 | vol. 28 | No 1 |

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Abstract

Feldspar raw materials belong to such raw materials for which demand has risen in Poland in the last years to a largest extent. The reason of it is the expansion of domestic branch of ceramic tiles. Larger and larger demand of the Polish industry of ceramic tiles for feldspar raw materials is covered among others in greater and greater extent by import from Turkey. Feldspar raw materials in that country are mainly obtained from albite-rich rocks which occur in the west part of the country in Menderes Massif particularly in its south fragment (Submassif Çine). Their exploitation and proccessing are carried out by many companies from which KALTUN, ESAN ECZACIBASI, ÇINE AKMADEN, KALEMADEN and ERMAD are of the greatest importance in the Polish market. The raw material of the highest quality [...] is obtained as a result of benefication of primary rocks by flotation. The main compounds - apart from quartz - of studied samples analized by means of microscopic method are feldspars represented first of all by albite. This mineral occurs in two varieties. First of them - which strongly dominates - is so called chessboard albite. This variety is formed as a result of albitization of feldspars of various types. On the other hand, typical, multitwinned crystals of this mineral are observed significantly rarer. Albite most often contains 5-10 mol.% of anorthite molecule. Sporadically minor and/or trace minerals (e.g. titanite, rutile, micas) occur in samples studied. They are the carriers of colouring oxides (Fe2O3, TiO2) presence of which is outstandingly undesirable, especially in raw materials for the production of ceramic tiles of the highest quality such as gres porcellanato. The characteristic feature of the Turkish feldspar raw materials is occurrence of minor or trace amount of TiO2 in domination compared to Fe2O3 which mostly is more common colouring oxide in feldspar raw materials. It is connected with sporadic occurrence of such titanium minerals as titanite [...] and rutile TiO2. However, in the majority of investigated samples the presence of these carriers of colouring oxides was not stated which confirms the opinion about high quality of feldspar raw materials of Turkish production.

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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Wyszomirski
Ferdynand Gacki
Tadeusz Szydłak
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Abstract

Chromium ore is treated as an important strategic raw material. It is used by many branches of the industry. The most important applications are metallurgical, refractory and chemical. Unfortunately, no chromium ore deposits have been found in Poland until now, with the exception of two chromium ore sites described in the Lower Silesia region. These concentrations are formed by chromitite, which is rock consisting mainly of chromian spinel. They are localized within so called Sudetic Ophiolite rocks along the edge of the Góry Sowie Massif. They form typical podiform deposits, which are characterized by the high Al content of the rock. The first locality, near Tąpadła village (the Gogołów-Jordanów Massif), is better known. The ore was exploited here at the turn of the19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. According to the literature, 3500 tons of the ore was obtained - all the resources at this location. The second locality, situated at the Braszowice-Brzeźnica Massif, was never studied and described properly, falling into obscurity since the 19th century. During the field work at the Braszowice-Brzeźnica Massif, the author has found numerous chromium ore fragments among the debris. The rising prices of chromium on the world's markets suggest that it is reasonable to study the ore quality and overall resource potential of this deposit. The preliminary studies have shown that chromitities from Braszowice are typical ores of the podiform variety, the majority texturally massive and nodular. The chemical analyses of the primary chromianspinels grains revealed that they could be treated as refractory chromite (38% wt. of Cr2O3, lower than 30% wt. of Al2O3, and Cr/Fe ratio about 3:1). However, the metamorphic processes modified the primary chemical composition of the studied ore. They caused enrichment in Fe and Cr, and a decrease in Al in comparison to the primary ore. Moreover, the whole rock chemical analyses revealed that the content of the main elements is insufficient to use the ore without enrichment processes. Furthermore, the size and number of the potential ore bodies are presumably small. Consequently, both the chemical composition and the resources of the chromium ores from the Braszowice–Brzeźnica Massif are insufficient to allow for profitable exploitation, despite the high price of chromium.

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Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Delura
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Abstract

In the construction industry carbonate aggregates are commonly used in processes such as concrete production. Aggregates which contain (in their mineral composition) dolomite and an admixture of clay minerals and amorphous silica , can react with alkalis. These reactions can lead to a destructive expansion in concrete. This article explains the mechanisms and the essence of this phenomenon. What is more, some effective and fast methods of the estimation and evaluation of Polish aggregates consisting of carbonate rocks suggests effective methods to determine the usefulness of Polish carbonate aggregates in concrete production are discussed in the paper. Underneath the quality criteria to determine the reactivity of the aggregates will be given. It has been agreed that alkaline reaction and expansion are two separate phenomena related to each other genetically. The aggregates in which reactions caused by clay-siliceous admixtures occur are subjected to expansion. Mineral composition of expansive aggregates as well as their texture indicate that epigenetic dolomites with a distinctive texture are the most reactive. The phase transformations do not end with a complete disintegration of dolomite. They have a cyclical character. They consist of interchangeable reactions of dedolomitization and dolomitization of secondary calcite formed as a result of dolomite's disintegration. The secondary calcite can be effected by Mg+2 ions from pores' solutions and it can form a secondary dolomite. The Mg2+ ions originate from brucite [Mg(OH)2], created in dolomitization process. As a consequence of its reaction with silica, brucite can dissolve and enrich secondary calcite with magnesium. Therefore the reactions which take place in reactive carbonate aggregates and concrete that ismade of it are in fact ongoing processes which consist of dolomite's changes into calcite and vice versa. They are reactions between dedolomitization products (brucite, silica) and products from outside (water, alkalis). The described dedolomitization reactions are a phase of the process that enables expansion due to formation of pressure in inter-granular cracks, with pressure being a result of dry clay-minerals' expansion under the influence of water solutions. Loosening of the aggregate's structure as an effect of dedolomitization reaction makes it easier for water solutions to migrate far into the aggregate's grains followed by their contact with clay minerals.

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Authors and Affiliations

Stefan Góralczyk
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Abstract

Research of metallurgical slags chemical composition, originating both from current production as well as gathered in dumping grounds formany years, show that they are very diversified. Slags contain substantial amounts of metals, including heavy metals, apart from elements from groups of non-metals and lanthanoids. In the article occurrence forms and relations with phase components of selected metals (iron, manganese, zinc, lead and others) on the basis of mineralogical and chemical research on slags after steel and ore Zn-Pb production were characterized. It was stated that metals may occur in metallurgical slags as fine drops not separated from slag during a metallurgical process, may form polymetallic aggregates, their own phases (especially oxide ones) and hide in structures of silicate phases. A considerable amount of metals is dissipated in glaze and amorphous substance. The conducted research delivers information on the occurrence of metals in metallurgical slags, which is extremely important during work connected with economic exploitation of slags. It especially refers to increasing attempts of acquiring elements from metallurgical slags. These activities determine the necessity of analyzing chemical and phase composition of slags because they may be an important indication, for instance while working on a proper technology of elements recovery.

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Authors and Affiliations

Iwona Jonczy
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Abstract

Safe mine operations and optimal economical decision making in the context of lignite resources require an adequate level of knowledge about the spatial distribution of critical attributes in terms of geometry and quality in the deposit. Therefore, ore body models are generated using different approaches in geostatistics, depending on the problem to be solved. In this article the analysis of geostatistical methods used for deposits modeling has been presented. Based on exploration data concerning caloric value Q, models of one exemplary lignite deposit has been made. Two models of deposit were prepared using two different methods: ordinary kriging (OK) and sequential Gaussian conditional simulation (SGSIM). Different models of the same deposit were analyzed and compared with source data using criterion of fidelity to statistical attributes like: mean value, variance, statistical distribution. Models, which have been created based on exploration data, were compared with in-situ data gained from survey activities in the exploitation process. As a result of comparison correlation factor and measures of deviations were computed: average relative error, absolute relative error. Models were compared with in situ data, considering statistical features and local variability as well. In conclusion, the study gives valuable information into the benefits of using certain geostatistical approaches for variable tasks and problems in the lignite deposits design process. For the assessment of average values of deposit parameters ordinary kriging provides appropriate effects. Geostatisical simulation (e.g. sequential Gaussian simulation - SGSIM) provides much more relevant information for tasks connected to probability (or risk) of defined threshold exceedences than ordinary kriging. Models made with simulation method are characterized by high fidelity of spatial distribution in comparison to source data.

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Authors and Affiliations

Wojciech Naworyta
Jörg Benndorf
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Abstract

The road tunnel in Laliki was excavated in highly heterogeneous, severely tectonically damaged and mainly very weak rocks of the Western Carpathians flysch. In particular, the conditions were characterized by a high percentage of very weak laminated shale and weathered rock mass, an unfavorable and very steep slope of the rock layers and unstable hydrological conditions with outflows of water in loosened tectonic zones. That structure and properties of the rock mass highly uncertain. This paper describes the influence of geological engineering and geotechnical conditions on the primary lining of a main road tunnel. The deformation of the primary lining was analyzed in terms of the percentage share of sandstones and shale, geomechanical classifications RMR (Bieniawski 1989) and QTS (Tesar 1979), types of the primary lining and the use of rock bolts and micropiles. The analysis was preceded by characterization of geological engineering conditions and technological characterization of applied primary linings. Displacements of the primary lining, greater than acceptable, occurred several times in a top heading during tunneling. The primary lining was reinforced by additional rock bolts and wire mesh, a thicker layer of shotcrete and micropiles if deformation reached the emergency state for some types of linings and they didn't indicate any tendency for stabilization. The reinforcement was used until the deformation stabilization was achieved. In the most difficult conditions, the lining was reinforced by a longer micropile umbrella. Parameters for the primary lining were selected on the basis of ongoing geological engineering and geotechnical measurements, in accordance with NATM's principles. The rock mass around the tunnel in Laliki is an example of weak carrying capacity. The observed displacements in the rock mass indicate that the disturbed zone around the tunnel was heavily developed. The primary lining used in such conditions must bear a relatively high load capacity from overlying loosened material and therefore the lack of interaction with the surrounding rock mass should be assumed. The data obtained indicate that the use of the primary lining in the highly variable conditions in the Carpathian flysch requires accurate geological engineering and geotechnical analysis during the day-to-day process of tunneling in order to verify the projected assumptions. The primary linings should be reinforced as needed based on the results of geotechnical measurements, monitoring the interaction between the rock mass and the system of lining.

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Authors and Affiliations

Tadeusz Majcherczyk
Zenon Pilecki
Zbigniew Niedbalski
Elżbieta Pilecka
Mateusz Blajer
Joanna Pszonka
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Abstract

In this study some of the experimental results of water shut-off treatments in oil and gas production wells were presented. The effect of water saturation of Miocene rocks of the Carpathian Foredeep on the relative permeability to gas was analyzed. Also, wide review of the worldwide publications from the point of view of the results obtained in water shut-off treatments in oil and gas formation was presented. Based on experimental results efficiency of relative permeability modification of sandstone from Szydłowiec to brine and nitrogen by four selected chemicals polymers and microgels was evaluated. Experimental results indicated that trend changes of permeability modification strongly depends on the fluid used in the RPM treatment. Moreover, efficiency of permeability modification to brine depends on flow rate of brine through the core - the lower brine flow rate the higher efficiency of the RPM treatment. RPM product number 1 caused significant loss of permeability to brine ca. 60% and slight permeability modification to gas ca. 18%. This permeability change to brine and gas was obtained by modification of formation wettability what affects well productivity. In the case of product number 2 which is based on microgels technology, also significant modification of selective permeability to brine was observed. Loss of permeability to brine was in the range of 65 to 90% while to gas ca. 50%.

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Authors and Affiliations

Sławomir Falkowicz
Stanisław Dubiel
Renata Cicha-Szot
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Abstract

An article presented hereby relates to valuation of undeveloped deposits of minerals which are not sold on markets in unprocessed form and their processing into a marketable commodity calls for construction of an additional plant which usually is not operated by a mining company. In practices lignite and limestone deposits fall into the above defined category. Difficulties in their valuation are caused by their two major properties: any economically justifiable development of such deposits can be carried out only in close co-operation with a neighboring power plant or cement factory and development of such fields is usually lengthy. Therefore, out of four methods recommended by the POLVAL Code to be used for valuation of undeveloped mineral deposits only the options based approach seems to offer, however with some important limitations, useful tools for appraisal of lignite and limestone deposits.

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Authors and Affiliations

Robert Uberman
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Abstract

The results of drill stem tests made on the autochthonous Miocene deposits of the Upper Badenian - Lower Sarmatian age in the Carpathian Foredeep were analyzed. Reservoir tests were performed in open and cased holes, where inflows of formation water of varying saturation degree and sometimes contaminated with drilling mud filtrate, were observed. A total of 58 intervals, geophysically qualified as gas-bearing, were analyzed. Statistical analysis methods were used for determining the influence of the formation depth on the depth of deposition of the Miocene, and also dependence of initial back-pressure exerted on the reservoir during DST, on the depth of deposition of the reservoir. No correlation was found between water flow rate and initial differential pressure. A satisfactory correlation was obtained between hydrostatic pressure of water cushion in the tubing string and reservoir pressure for selected 22 the Miocene intervals in the Dębica region. In this region the pressure quotient php/pz broadly ranged between 0.05 and 0.57. Another correlation was noted between initial back-pressure and a depth at which pressure was measured and initial back-pressure, and formation water flow rate. The regression equations determined with statistical methods can be used for predicting values of formation pressure, initial value of back-pressure, formation water flow rate and initial differential pressure during DST. On this basis technological parameters of successive reservoir tests can be determined for in the analyzed area of the Carpathian Foredeep, particularly in the Dębica region.

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Authors and Affiliations

Stanisław Dubiel
Barbara Uliasz-Misiak
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to identify thoroughly the geological structure of the Choszczno Anticline for potential CO2 storage. The paper presents the interpretation of seismic materials for a selected seismic profile reprocessed into a section of reflection coefficients characterized by increased recording resolution as compared to the wave image. Particular attention was paid to the geological complexes associated with the Jurassic reservoir formations suitable for carbon dioxide storage within the anticline. The correlation of the identified layers reflects the lithology and structure of the rock series. It allows determination of the thicknesses of the series and changes within them, and enables linking the individual layers with the lithologic units, based on geological data. The study refers to the whole Zechstein-Mesozoic succession of the Choszczno Anticline, with special emphasis on these series, in which there are potential reservoir formations for CO2 storage. The interpretation has significantly expanded the amount of data provided in standard seismic documentations. While assessing the suitability of the formations for CO2 storage, special attention should be paid to the tectonic disturbances within the Komorowo Formation, especially in the top part of the Choszczno structure. The Reed Sandstone bed is more continuous in this respect. The obtained results seem to suggest wider application of reprocessing of seismic materials into effective reflection coefficients to study the geological structure, also for other structures.

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Authors and Affiliations

Lidia Dziewińska
Radosław Tarkowski

Editorial office

Editorial Board
  • Editor-in-Chief: Eugeniusz Mokrzycki
  • Deputy Editor-in-Chief: Ryszard Uberman (section: mining)
  • Editorial Secretary: Krzysztof Galos (section: mineralogy)
  • Deputy Editorial Secretary: Lidia Gawlik (section: mineral and energy economy)
  • Deputy Editorial Secretary: Beata Klojzy-Karczmarczyk (section: environmental engineering in mining)
  • Statistical Editor: Jacek Mucha
Advisory Board
  • Mattias Bäckström, Assistant Professor, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
  • Wiesław Blaschke, PhD(Eng), Professor, The Institute of Mechanised Construction and Rock Mining, Katowice, Poland
  • Jan Butra, Professor, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wrocław, Poland
  • Dennis L. Buchanan, Professor, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, United Kingdom
  • Michal Cehlár – Technical University of Košice, Slovak Republic
  • Józef Dubiński, Professor, The Central Mining Institute, Katowice, Poland
  • Jakub Jirasek, Associate Professor, The Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic
  • Roman Magda, Professor, The AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland
  • Antonio Mateus, Professor, Universidade de Lisboa, Lizbona, Portugal
  • Jacek Motyka, Professor, The AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland
  • Marek Nieć, DSc(Eng), Professor, The MEERI PAS, Kraków, Poland
  • James Otto, Professor, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, USA
  • Marian Radetzki, Professor, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden
  • Anton Sroka, Professor, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, University of Resources, Freiberg, Germany
  • Krzysztof Szamałek, Professor, The University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
  • Günter Tiess, Assistant Professor, MinPol GmbH, Dreistetten, Austria
Publishing Committee
  • Emilia Rydzewska – linguistic editor (Polish)
  • Michelle Atallah – linguistic editor (English)
  • Barbara Sudoł – technical editor

Contact

Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of
Sciences J. Wybickiego 7A, 31-261 Kraków,
Phone: (+48) 12 632 33-00, Fax: +48 12 632 35-24
Email: gsm@min-pan.krakow.pl

Additional information

The subject matter of the articles published in Mineral Resources Management covers issues related to minerals and raw materials, as well as mineral deposits, with particular emphasis on:

  • The scientific basis for mineral resources management,
  • The strategy and methodology of prospecting and exploration of mineral deposits,
  • Methods of rational management and use of deposits,
  • The rational exploitation of deposits and the reduction in the loss of raw materials,
  • Mineral resources management in processing technologies,
  • Environmental protection in the mining industry,
  • Optimization of mineral deposits and mineral resources management,
  • The rational use of mineral resources,
  • The economics of mineral resources,
  • The raw materials market,
  • Raw materials policy,
  • The use of accompanying minerals,
  • The use of secondary raw materials and waste,
  • Raw material recycling,
  • The management of waste from the mining industry.

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