Applied sciences

Metrology and Measurement Systems

Content

Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2011 | No 1 |

Abstract

The Histogram Test method is a popular technique in analog-to-digital converter (ADC) testing. The presence of additive noise in the test setup or in the ADC itself can potentially affect the accuracy of the test results. In this study, we demonstrate that additive noise causes a bias in the terminal based estimation of the gain but not in the estimation of the offset. The estimation error is determined analytically as a function of the sinusoidal stimulus signal amplitude and the noise standard deviation. We derive an exact but computationally difficult expression as well as a simpler closed form approximation that provides an upper bound of the bias of the terminal based gain. The estimators are validated numerically using a Monte Carlo procedure with simulated and experimental data.

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Abstract

Owing to the dramatic change in the thermal conductivity of 4He when its temperature crosses the transition of superfluid (HeI) and normalfluid (HeII), a sealed-cell with a capillary is used to realize the lambda transition temperature, Tλ. A small heat flow is controlled through the capillary of the sealed-cell so as to realize the coexistence of HeI and HeII and maintain the stay of HeI/HeII interface in the capillary. A stable and flat lambda transition temperature "plateau" is obtained. Because there is a depression effect of Tλ caused by the heat flow through the capillary, a series of heat flows and several temperature plateaus are made and an extrapolation is applied to determine Tλ with zero heat flow. A rhodium-iron resistance thermometer with series number A34 (RIRT A34) has been used in 24 Tλ -realization experiments to derive Tλ with a standard deviation of 0.022mK, which proves the stability and reproducibility of Tλ.

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Abstract

Signal analysis performed during surface texture measurement frequently involves applying the Fourier transform. The method is particularly useful for assessing roundness and cylindrical profiles. Since the wavelet transform is becoming a common tool for signal analysis in many metrological applications, it is vital to evaluate its suitability for surface texture profiles. The research presented in this paper focused on signal decomposition and reconstruction during roundness profile measurement and the effect of these processes on the changes in selected roundness profile parameters. The calculations were carried out on a sample of 100 roundness profiles for 12 different forms of mother wavelets using MATLAB. The use of Spearman's rank correlation coefficients allowed us to evaluate the relationship between the two chosen criteria for selecting the optimal mother wavelet.

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Abstract

This paper deals with the experimental validation of the suitability of the method for measuring radial variations of components on the process tool. The tests were conducted using a computerized PSA6, which was compared to a Talyrond 73. The results of measurement of roundness deviations as well as roundness profiles were analyzed for a sample of 70 shafts. The roundness deviations were assessed by determining the experimental errors, while the profiles obtained with the tested device were compared to those registered by the reference device using three correlation coefficients.

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Abstract

Air core solenoids, possibly single layer and with significant spacing between turns, are often used to ensure low stray capacitance, as they are used as part of many sensors and instruments. The problem of the correct estimation of the stray capacitance is relevant both during design and to validate measurement results; the expected value is so low to be influenced by any stray capacitance of the external measurement instrument. A simplified method is proposed that does not perturb the stray capacitance of the solenoid under test; the method is based on resonance with an external capacitor and on the use of a linear regression technique.

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Abstract

This paper describes the theoretical background of electromagnetic induction from metal objects modelling. The response function of a specific case of object shape - a homogenous sphere from ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic material is introduced. Experimental data measured by a metal detector excited with a linearly frequency-swept signal are presented. As a testing target various spheres from different materials and sizes were used. These results should lead to better identification of the buried object.

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Abstract

Inductive loop sensors are widely used for detection of presence, measurement of parameters as well as classification of vehicles. Vehicle classification may be performed based on their magnetic profiles. The magnetic profile is a signal which is proportional to the resultant of an impedance change of the sensor, caused by the measured object (the changes are minor - of the order of 1%). Generator and bridge circuits are most commonly used as conditioning circuits for such sensors. As a result we can obtain one output signal proportional to total changes of sensor parameters (R and L). In this paper, a modified bridge circuit that allows independent measurement of the components (R and L) of the sensor's impedance, has been proposed. With that provided, it is possible to receive broader information on the object, which allows higher classification resolution. This paper provides the concept of a circuit, model testing results, processing algorithms used and the test results of a real circuit.

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Abstract

Field programmable analog arrays (FPAA), thanks to their flexibility and reconfigurability, give the designers quite new possibilities in analog circuit design. The number of both academic projects on FPAA and applications of commercially available programmable devices is still growing. This paper explores the properties and parameters of two most popular FPAA circuits: the AnadigmVortex AN221E04 and AnadigmApex AN231E04 from the Anadigm company. The research conducted by the authors led to the discovery of some undocumented features of these devices. Several applications for audio processing were built and tested. The results show that these circuits can be used in medium-demanding audio applications. Thanks to dynamic reconfigurability, they also allow to build an universal analog audio signal processor. These circuits can also act as a versatile platform for rapid prototyping and educational purposes.

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Abstract

Automation in experiments carried out on animals is getting more and more important in research. Computers take over laborious and time-consuming activities like recording and analysing images of the experiment scene. The first step in an image analysis is finding and distinguishing between the observed animals and then tracking all objects during the experiment. In this paper four tracking methods are presented. Quantitative and qualitative figures of merit are applied to confront those methods. The comparison takes into consideration the level of correct object recognition during different disturbances, the speed of computation, requirements as to the frame rate and image illumination, quality of recovering from occluded situations and others.

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Abstract

In this paper, an experimental surface roughness analysis in milling of tungsten carbide using a monolithic torus cubic boron nitride (CBN) tool is presented. The tungsten carbide was received using direct laser deposition technology (DLD). The depth of cut (ap), feed per tooth (fz) and tool wear (VBc) influence on surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz) were investigated. The cutting forces and accelerations of vibrations were measured in order to estimate their quantitative influence on Ra and Rz parameters. The surface roughness analysis, from the point of view of milling dynamics was carried out. The dominative factor in the research was not feed per tooth fz (according to a theoretical model) but dynamical phenomena and feed per revolution f connected with them.

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Abstract

The paper presents a heuristic approach to the problem of analog circuit diagnosis. Different optimization techniques in the field of test point selection are discussed. Two new algorithms: SALTO and COSMO have been introduced. Both searching procedures have been implemented in a form of the expert system in PROLOG language. The proposed methodologies have been exemplified on benchmark circuits. The obtained results have been compared to the others achieved by different approaches in the field and the benefits of the proposed methodology have been emphasized. The inference engine of the heuristic algorithms has been presented and the expert system knowledge-base construction discussed.

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Abstract

The converging-diverging structure is introduced to extend the lower limit of measurement of vortex flowmeters. As a compact device, the converging-diverging vortex flowmeter is proposed and designed, and its performance is studied experimentally. It is found that, first of all, an up to 51% extension of the lower measurement limit can be realized through the converging-diverging structure, compared with conventional vortex flowmeters; second, the converging-diverging vortex flowmeter with a trapezoidal bluff body has a larger Strouhal number and smaller pressure loss. The results suggest that the converging-diverging vortex flowmeter provides an alternative device especially suitable for the measurement of low-velocity fluids.

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Abstract

The method of a phase shift angle measurement using conditional averaging of delayed signal absolute value (CAAV) is presented in this paper. The input sinusoidal signal x(t) is without noise. White noise with normal distribution and band limited to low frequencies has been applied as disturbance of delayed sinusoidal signal z(t). Noise n(t) - N(0, σn) is added to the delayed signal - the noised and delayed signal z(t) is obtained. The phase angle shift is proportional to time location of CAAV's minimum (minimum of the characteristic of conditional averaging of delayed signal's absolute value). The phase angle shift can be determined on the basis of conditional averaging value of elaborated algorithm. The characteristics of conditional average of delayed signal's absolute value in the surrounding of the minimum of this function (the results of practical investigations and theoretical calculation) are presented. The experimental variance of characteristic CAAV in surroundings of the minimum (obtained from practical investigations and calculation) is illustrated in the paper. The algorithms of conditional averaging have been elaborated and practically realized in the LabVIEW environment.

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Abstract

An electronic system and an algorithm for estimating pedestrian geographic location in urban terrain is reported in the paper. Different sources of kinematic and positioning data are acquired (i.e.: accelerometer, gyroscope, GPS receiver, raster maps of terrain) and jointly processed by a Monte-Carlo simulation algorithm based on the particle filtering scheme. These data are processed and fused to estimate the most probable geographical location of the user. A prototype system was designed, built and tested with a view to aiding blind pedestrians. It was shown in the conducted field trials that the method yields superior results to sole GPS readouts. Moreover, the estimated location of the user can be effectively sustained when GPS fixes are not available (e.g. tunnels).

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Abstract

A practical method with high accuracy in generation and application of error values for calibration of current transformer test sets is described. A PC-controlled three-phase power source with a standard wattmeter is used for generating the nominal and error test currents while an electronically compensated current comparator is used to provide summation and subtraction of them, precisely. With this method, any ratio error and phase displacement values could be generated automatically and nominal and test currents could be grounded on the test set safely. Because of its high accurate ratio and phase error generating capability, any type of test set regardless of its operating principles could be calibrated.

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Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief
  • Janusz SMULKO, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
International Programme Committee
  • Andrzej ZAJĄC, Chairman, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Bruno ANDO, University of Catania, Italy
  • Martin BURGHOFF, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany
  • Marcantonio CATELANI, University of Florence, Italy
  • Numan DURAKBASA, Vienna University of Technology, Austria
  • Domenico GRIMALDI, University of Calabria, Italy
  • Laszlo KISH, Texas A&M University, USA
  • Eduard LLOBET, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain
  • Alex MASON, Liverpool John Moores University, The United Kingdom
  • Subhas MUKHOPADHYAY, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
  • Janusz MROCZKA, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Antoni ROGALSKI, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Wiesław WOLIŃSKI, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Associate Editors
  • Zbigniew BIELECKI, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Vladimir DIMCHEV, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia
  • Krzysztof DUDA, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland
  • Janusz GAJDA, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland
  • Teodor GOTSZALK, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Ireneusz JABŁOŃSKI, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Piotr JASIŃSKI, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
  • Piotr KISAŁA, Lublin University of Technology, Poland
  • Manoj KUMAR, University of Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • Grzegorz LENTKA, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
  • Czesław ŁUKIANOWICZ, Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
  • Rosario MORELLO, University Mediterranean of Reggio Calabria, Italy
  • Fernando PUENTE LEÓN, University Karlsruhe, Germany
  • Petr SEDLAK, Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
  • Hamid M. SEDIGHI, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
  • Roman SZEWCZYK, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Language Editors
  • Andrzej Stankiewicz, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Technical Editors
  • Agnieszka Kondratowicz, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland

Contact

Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems

Contact:
E-mail: metrology@pg.edu.pl
URL: www.metrology.pg.gda.pl
Phone: (+48) 58 347-1357

Post address:
Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems
Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics

Instructions for authors

Types of contributions

The following types of papers are published in Metrology and Measurement Systems:
•    invited review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge (max. 20 edited pages, 3000 characters each),
•    research papers reporting original scientific or technological advancements (10‒12 pages),
•    papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
•    short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).

Manuscript preparation

The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The form similar to “camera-ready” with an attached separate file – containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is preferred. For the details of the preferred format of the manuscripts, Authors should consult a recent issue of the journal or the sample article and the guidelines for manuscript preparation. The text of a manuscript should be printed on A4 pages (with margins of 2.5 cm) using a font whose size is 12 pt for main text and 10 pt for the abstract; an even number of pages is strongly recommended. The main text of a paper can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, ...), subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., ...) and – if needed – paragraphs (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., ...). The title page should include: manuscript title, Authors’ names and affiliations with e-mail addresses. The corresponding Author should be identified by the symbol of an envelope and phone number. A concise abstract of approximately 100 words and with 3–5 keywords should accompany the main text.
Illustrations, photographs and tables provided in the camera-ready form, suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction) should be additionally submitted one per page, larger than final size. All illustrations should be clearly marked on the back with figure number and author’s name. All figures are to have captions. The list of figures captions and table titles should be supplied on separate page. Illustrations must be produced in black ink on white paper or by computer technique using the laser printer with the resolution not lower than 300 dpi, preferably 600 dpi. The thickness of lines should be in the range 0.2–0.5 mm, in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Original photographs must be supplied as they are to be reproduced (e.g. black and white or colour). Photocopies of photographs are not acceptable.
References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, e.g. [4]; their list numbered in citation order should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should be as follows: for a journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, journal name (in italics), volume, issue and page numbers. The exemplary format of the references is available at the sample article.

Manuscript submission and processing

Submission procedure. Manuscript should be submitted via Internet Editorial System (IES) ‒ an online submission and peer review system http://www.editorialsystem.com/mms
In order to submit the manuscript via IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. From the account you create, you will be able to monitor your submission and make subsequent submissions.
The submission of the manuscript in two files is preferred: “Paper File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures and tables embedded in the text) and “Figures File” containing illustrations, photographs and tables. Both files should be sent in DOC and PDF format as well as. In the submission letter or on separate page in “Figures File”, the full postal address, e-mail and phone numbers must be given for all co-authors. The corresponding Author should be identified.
Copyright Transfer. The submission of a manuscript means that it has not been published previously in the same form, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License which has to be signed before publication.
Review and amendment procedures. Each submitted manuscript is subject to a peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on reviewers’ comments; if necessary, Authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to suit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the scientific community, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs. Proofs will be sent to the corresponding Author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours of receipt.

Other information

Author Benefits. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding Author free of charge.
Colour. For colour pages the Authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of main distributor must be acquitted before the date pointed to Authors by Editorial Office.

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