Nauki Techniczne

Metrology and Measurement Systems

Zawartość

Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2012 | No 1 |

Abstrakt

The paper presents analyses of current research projects connected with explosive material sensors. Sensors are described assigned to X and γ radiation, optical radiation sensors, as well as detectors applied in gas chromatography, electrochemical and chemical sensors. Furthermore, neutron techniques and magnetic resonance devices were analyzed. Special attention was drawn to optoelectronic sensors of explosive devices.

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The goal of the proposed computational model was to evaluate the dynamical properties of air gauges in order to exploit them in such industrial applications as in-process control, form deviation measurement, dynamical measurement. The model is based on Reynolds equations complemented by the k-ε turbulence model. The boundary conditions were set in different areas (axis of the chamber, side surfaces, inlet pipeline and outlet cross-section) as Dirichlet's and Neumann's ones. The TDMA method was applied and the efficiency of the calculations was increased due to the "line-by-line" procedure. The proposed model proved to be accurate and useful for non-stationary two-dimensional flow through the air gauge measuring chamber.

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The article presents a new modification of the the least squares Prony method. The so-called variable-frequency Prony method can be a useful tool for estimating parameters of sinusoidal components, which, in the analyzed signal, are characterized by time-dependent frequencies. The authors propose use of the presented method for testing the quality of electric energy. It allows observation of phenomena which, when using traditional methods, are averaged in the analysis window. The proposed modification of least squares Prony method is based on introduction and specific selection of a frequency matrix. This matrix represents frequencies of estimated components and their variability in time.

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The work presented in the paper concerns a very important problem of searching for string alignments. The authors show that the problem of a genome pattern alignment could be interpreted and defined as a measuring task, where the distance between two (or more) patterns is investigated. The problem originates from modern computation biology. Hardware-based implementations have been driving out software solutions in the field recently. The complex programmable devices have become very commonly applied. The paper introduces a new, optimized approach based on the Smith-Waterman dynamic programming algorithm. The original algorithm is modified in order to simplify data-path processing and take advantage of the properties offered by FPGA devices. The results obtained with the proposed methodology allow to reduce the size of the functional block and radically speed up the processing time. This approach is very competitive compared with other related works.

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Current methods of fault diagnosis for the grounding grid using DC or AC are limited in accuracy and cannot be used to identify the locations of the faults. In this study, a new method of fault diagnosis for substation grounding grids is proposed using a square-wave. A frequency model of the grounding system is constructed by analyzing the frequency characteristics of the soil and the grounding conductors into which two different frequency square-wave sources are injected. By analyzing and comparing the corresponding information of the surface potentials of the output signals, the faults of the grounding grid can be diagnosed and located. Our method is verified by software simulation, scale model experiments and field experiments.

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The paper presents an analogue circuit testing method that engages the analysis of the time response to a non-periodic stimulus specialized for the verification of selected specifications. The decision about the current circuit diagnostic state depends on an amplitude spectrum decomposition of the time response measured during the test. A shape of the test excitation spectrum is optimized with the use of a differential evolution algorithm and it allows for achieving maximum fault coverage and the optimal conditions for fault isolation. Genotypes of the evolutionary system encode the amplitude spectrum of candidates for testing stimuli by means of rectangle frequency windows with amplitudes determined evolutionarily.

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This paper presents results of the study devoted to analysis of impact of upper extremities' momentum on the jump length and analysis of selected kinematic data changes during the standing long jump. Four young sportsmen participated in the initial study. They have performed standing long jump in two measuring conditions: with and without arms swinging. Motion was captured using a 3D opto-electronic camera system SMART (BTS) and selected kinematic data were evaluated using software packages and data processing: trajectory of body centre of gravity (COG), velocity of COG, maximal vertical distance of COG, take-off angle together with momentum of upper extremities were analyzed. The data were statistically evaluated using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Statistical significance of the kinematic data and jump length were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and post-hoc test (p<0.05) in Statistics toolbox of Matlab program. Statistically significant differences were assessed within intraindividual and intraclass comparison of data.

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Passive radar does not have its own emitter. It uses so-called signals of opportunity emitted by non-cooperative illuminators. During the detection of reflected signals, a direct signal from a non-cooperative emitter is used as the reference signal. Detection of electromagnetic echoes is, in present day radars, performed by finding the maximum of the cross ambiguity function. This function is based on the multiplication of the received signal and the reference signal. Detection of echoes by means of a quadrature microwave phase discriminator QMPD was proposed in the work as an alternative solution for ambiguity function evaluation. This discriminator carries out vectorial summing of the received and the reference signals. The summing operations in QMPD are carried out with the aid of microwave elements and without the use of expensive digital signal processors. Definitions of the phase and phase difference of the so-called simple signals and noise signals were described. A proposal of a passive radar equipped with several independent quadrature microwave phase discriminators was presented. Ideas of algorithms of object detection and of the distance-to-object estimation designed for this radar have been also sketched.

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The Multi-Tone (MT) signal with uniform amplitudes can be used for DAC testing. This paper shows an easier way to generate a MT signal using several impulse signals. The article also analyzes qualities of methods for testing the dynamic parameters of Digital to Analog Converters using an impulse signal. The MT, Damped Sine Wave (DSW) and Sinx/x (SINC) signals will be used as the source for these tests. The Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) and Signal to noise and distortion (SINAD) are evaluated in the frequency domain and they are modified using the Crest Factor (CF) correction and compared with the standard results of the Sine Wave FFT test. The first advantage of the test using an impulse signal is that you need fewer input parameters to create the band signal for testing the DAC. The second one is to reduce the testing time using a band signal in comparison with multiple tests using a single sine wave.

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The article presents results of the influence of the GMDH (Group Method of Data Handling) neural network input data preparation method on the results of predicting corrections for the Polish timescale UTC(PL). Prediction of corrections was carried out using two methods, time series analysis and regression. As appropriate to these methods, the input data was prepared based on two time series, ts1 and ts2. The implemented research concerned the designation of the prediction errors on certain days of the forecast and the influence of the quantity of data on the prediction error. The obtained results indicate that in the case of the GMDH neural network the best quality of forecasting for UTC(PL) can be obtained using the time-series analysis method. The prediction errors obtained did not exceed the value of ± 8 ns, which confirms the possibility of maintaining the Polish timescale at a high level of compliance with the UTC.

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LTCC-based pressure sensors are promising candidates for wet-wet applications in which the effect of the surrounding media on the sensor's characteristics is of key importance. The effect of humidity on the sensor's stability can be a problem, particularly in the case of capacitive sensors. A differential mode of operation can be a good solution, but manufacturing the appropriate sensing capacitors remains a major challenge. In the case of piezoresistive sensors the influence of humidity is less critical, but it still should be considered as an important parameter when designing sensors for low-pressure ranges. In this paper we discuss the stability of the sensors' offset characteristics, which was inspected closely using experimental and numerical analyses.

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The aim of the presented work was the development of a tracking algorithm for a stereoscopic camera setup equipped with an additional inertial sensor. The input of the algorithm consists of the image sequence, angular velocity and linear acceleration vectors measured by the inertial sensor. The main assumption of the project was fusion of data streams from both sources to obtain more accurate ego-motion estimation. An electronic module for recording the inertial sensor data was built. Inertial measurements allowed a coarse estimation of the image motion field that has reduced its search range by standard image-based methods. Continuous tracking of the camera motion has been achieved (including moments of image information loss). Results of the presented study are being implemented in a currently developed obstacle avoidance system for visually impaired pedestrians.

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Geometric deviations of free-form surfaces are attributed to many phenomena that occur during machining, both systematic (deterministic) and random in character. Measurements of free-form surfaces are performed with the use of numerically controlled CMMs on the basis of a CAD model, which results in obtaining coordinates of discrete measurement points. The spatial coordinates assigned at each measurement point include both a deterministic component and a random component at different proportions. The deterministic component of deviations is in fact the systematic component of processing errors, which is repetitive in nature. A CAD representation of deterministic geometric deviations might constitute the basis for completing a number of tasks connected with measurement and processing of free-form surfaces. The paper presents the results of testing a methodology of determining CAD models by estimating deterministic geometric deviations. The research was performed on simulated deviations superimposed on the CAD model of a nominal surface. Regression analysis, an iterative procedure, spatial statistics methods, and NURBS modelling were used for establishing the model.

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The paper deals with an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) facilitating voltage conversion in thermoelectric energy harvesters. The chip is intended to be used to boost up the voltage coming from a thermoelectric module to a level that is required by electronic circuits constituting wireless sensor nodes. The designed charge pump does not need any external parts for its proper operation because all the capacitors, switches and oscillator are integrated on the common silicon die. The topography of the main functional blocks and post-layout simulations of the designed integrated circuit are shown in the article.

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Redakcja

Editor-in-Chief
  • Janusz SMULKO, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
International Programme Committee
  • Andrzej ZAJĄC, Chairman, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Bruno ANDO, University of Catania, Italy
  • Martin BURGHOFF, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany
  • Marcantonio CATELANI, University of Florence, Italy
  • Numan DURAKBASA, Vienna University of Technology, Austria
  • Domenico GRIMALDI, University of Calabria, Italy
  • Laszlo KISH, Texas A&M University, USA
  • Eduard LLOBET, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain
  • Alex MASON, Liverpool John Moores University, The United Kingdom
  • Subhas MUKHOPADHYAY, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
  • Janusz MROCZKA, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Antoni ROGALSKI, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Wiesław WOLIŃSKI, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Associate Editors
  • Zbigniew BIELECKI, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Vladimir DIMCHEV, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia
  • Krzysztof DUDA, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland
  • Janusz GAJDA, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland
  • Teodor GOTSZALK, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Ireneusz JABŁOŃSKI, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Piotr JASIŃSKI, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
  • Piotr KISAŁA, Lublin University of Technology, Poland
  • Manoj KUMAR, University of Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • Grzegorz LENTKA, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
  • Czesław ŁUKIANOWICZ, Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
  • Rosario MORELLO, University Mediterranean of Reggio Calabria, Italy
  • Fernando PUENTE LEÓN, University Karlsruhe, Germany
  • Petr SEDLAK, Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
  • Hamid M. SEDIGHI, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
  • Roman SZEWCZYK, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Language Editors
  • Andrzej Stankiewicz, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Technical Editors
  • Agnieszka Kondratowicz, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland

Kontakt

Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems

Contact:
E-mail: metrology@pg.edu.pl
URL: www.metrology.pg.gda.pl
Phone: (+48) 58 347-1357

Post address:
Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems
Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics

Instrukcje dla autorów

Types of contributions

The following types of papers are published in Metrology and Measurement Systems:
•    invited review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge (max. 20 edited pages, 3000 characters each),
•    research papers reporting original scientific or technological advancements (10‒12 pages),
•    papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
•    short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).

Manuscript preparation

The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The form similar to “camera-ready” with an attached separate file – containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is preferred. For the details of the preferred format of the manuscripts, Authors should consult a recent issue of the journal or the sample article and the guidelines for manuscript preparation. The text of a manuscript should be printed on A4 pages (with margins of 2.5 cm) using a font whose size is 12 pt for main text and 10 pt for the abstract; an even number of pages is strongly recommended. The main text of a paper can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, ...), subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., ...) and – if needed – paragraphs (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., ...). The title page should include: manuscript title, Authors’ names and affiliations with e-mail addresses. The corresponding Author should be identified by the symbol of an envelope and phone number. A concise abstract of approximately 100 words and with 3–5 keywords should accompany the main text.
Illustrations, photographs and tables provided in the camera-ready form, suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction) should be additionally submitted one per page, larger than final size. All illustrations should be clearly marked on the back with figure number and author’s name. All figures are to have captions. The list of figures captions and table titles should be supplied on separate page. Illustrations must be produced in black ink on white paper or by computer technique using the laser printer with the resolution not lower than 300 dpi, preferably 600 dpi. The thickness of lines should be in the range 0.2–0.5 mm, in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Original photographs must be supplied as they are to be reproduced (e.g. black and white or colour). Photocopies of photographs are not acceptable.
References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, e.g. [4]; their list numbered in citation order should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should be as follows: for a journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, journal name (in italics), volume, issue and page numbers. The exemplary format of the references is available at the sample article.

Manuscript submission and processing

Submission procedure. Manuscript should be submitted via Internet Editorial System (IES) ‒ an online submission and peer review system http://www.editorialsystem.com/mms
In order to submit the manuscript via IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. From the account you create, you will be able to monitor your submission and make subsequent submissions.
The submission of the manuscript in two files is preferred: “Paper File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures and tables embedded in the text) and “Figures File” containing illustrations, photographs and tables. Both files should be sent in DOC and PDF format as well as. In the submission letter or on separate page in “Figures File”, the full postal address, e-mail and phone numbers must be given for all co-authors. The corresponding Author should be identified.
Copyright Transfer. The submission of a manuscript means that it has not been published previously in the same form, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License which has to be signed before publication.
Review and amendment procedures. Each submitted manuscript is subject to a peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on reviewers’ comments; if necessary, Authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to suit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the scientific community, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs. Proofs will be sent to the corresponding Author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours of receipt.

Other information

Author Benefits. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding Author free of charge.
Colour. For colour pages the Authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of main distributor must be acquitted before the date pointed to Authors by Editorial Office.

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