Applied sciences

Metrology and Measurement Systems


Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2010 | No 2 |


A checkweigher is an automatic machine to measure the weight of in-motion products. It is usually located around the end of the production process and ensures the weight of a product within specified limits. Any products are taken out of line if their weights are out of the specified limits. It is usually equipped with an optical device. It is used to make a trigger to set the time duration to allow a product to move completely on the weigh belt for sampling the weight. In this paper, a new method of mass measurement for checkweighers is proposed which uses just signal processing without the optical device. The effectiveness of the method is shown through experiments. Also a possibility of faster estimation of weight is shown.
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This paper considers the problem of reconstructing a class of generalized sampled signals of which a special case occurs in, e.g., a generalized sampling system due to non-ideal analysis basis functions. To this end, we propose an improved reconstruction system and a reconstruction algorithm based on generalized inverse, which can be viewed as a reconstruction method that reduces reconstruction error as well. The key idea is to add an additional channel into a generalized sampling system and apply the generalized inverse theory to the reconstruction algorithm. Finally, the approach is applied, respectively, to an oscilloscope, which shows the proposed method yields better performance as compared to the existing technique.
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A real narrowband noise signal representation in the form of an analytical signal in the Hilbert space is presented in the paper. This analytical signal is illustrated in a variable complex plane as a mark with defined amplitude, phase, pulsation and instantaneous frequency. A block diagram of a broadband product detector in a quadrature system is presented. Measurement results of an autocorrelation function of a noise signal are shown and the application of such solution in a noise radar for precise determination of distance changes as well as velocities of these changes are also presented. Conclusions and future plans for applications of the presented detection technique in broadband noise radars bring the paper to an end.
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In this paper, a comparison analysis of three different algorithms for the estimation of sine signal parameters in two-channel common frequency situations is presented. The relevance of this situation is clearly understood in multiple applications where the algorithms have been applied. They include impedance measurements, eddy currents testing, laser anemometry and radio receiver testing for example. The three algorithms belong to different categories because they are based on different approaches. The ellipse fit algorithm is a parametric fit based on the XY plot of the samples of both signals. The seven parameter sine fit algorithm is a least-squares algorithm based on the time domain fitting of a single tone sinewave model to the acquired samples. The spectral sinc fit performs a fitting in the frequency domain of the exact model of an acquired sinewave on the acquired spectrum. Multiple simulation situations and real measurements are included in the comparison to demonstrate the weaknesses and strong points of each algorithm.
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Paper deals with the new localizer GLOP2 designed for detection of the miners trapped in underground hard coal mines. The results of a field test conducted in coal mine BOBREK show that the presented localizer allows for efficient measurement of the distance between a trapped miner and the rescuer in the range of up to 15 m.
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Many studies have been developed aiming to improve digital filters realizations, recurring to intricate structures and analyzing probabilistically the error's behavior. The work presented in this paper analyzes the feasibility of fixed-point implementation of classical infinite impulse response notch filters: Butterworth, Chebyshev I and II, and elliptic. To scrutinize the deformations suffered for distinct design specifications, it is assessed: the effect of the quality factor and normalized cut-off frequency, in the number of significant bits necessary to represent the filter's coefficients. The implications brought to FPGA implementation are also verified. The work focuses especially on the implementation of power line notch filters used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in biomedical signals. The results obtained, when quantizing the digital notch filters, show that by applying second-order sections decomposition, low-order digital filters may be designed using only part of double precision capabilities. High-order notch filters with harsh design constraints are implementable using double precision, but only in second-order sections. Thus, it is revealed that to optimize computation time in real-time applications, an optimal digital notch filter implementation platform should have variable arithmetic precision. Considering these implementation constraints, utmost operation performance is finally estimated when implementing digital notch filters in Xilinx Virtex-5 field-programmable gate arrays. The influence of several design specifications, e.g. type, and order, in the filter's behavior was evaluated, namely in regard to order, type, input and coefficient number of bits, quality factor and cut-off frequency. Finally the implications and potential applications of such results are discussed.
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Nowadays a geometrical surface structure is usually evaluated with the use of Fourier transform. This type of transform allows for accurate analysis of harmonic components of surface profiles. Due to its fundamentals, Fourier transform is particularly efficient when evaluating periodic signals. Wavelets are the small waves that are oscillatory and limited in the range. Wavelets are special type of sets of basis functions that are useful in the description of function spaces. They are particularly useful for the description of non-continuous and irregular functions that appear most often as responses of real physical systems. Bases of wavelet functions are usually well located in the frequency and in the time domain. In the case of periodic signals, the Fourier transform is still extremely useful. It allows to obtain accurate information on the analyzed surface. Wavelet analysis does not provide as accurate information about the measured surface as the Fourier transform, but it is a useful tool for detection of irregularities of the profile. Therefore, wavelet analysis is the better way to detect scratches or cracks that sometimes occur on the surface. The paper presents the fundamentals of both types of transform. It presents also the comparison of an evaluation of the roundness profile by Fourier and wavelet transforms.
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This paper presents a study of the Fourier transform method for parameter identification of a linear dynamic system in the frequency domain using fractional differential equations. Fundamental definitions of fractional differential equations are briefly outlined. The Fourier transform method of identification and their algorithms are generalized so that they include fractional derivatives and integrals.
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The present work offers new equations for phase evaluation in measurements. Several phase-shifting equations with an arbitrary but constant phase-shift between captured intensity signs are proposed. The equations are similarly derived as the so called Carré equation. The idea is to develop a generalization of the Carré equation that is not restricted to four images. Errors and random noise in the images cannot be eliminated, but the uncertainty due to their effects can be reduced by increasing the number of observations. An experimental analysis of the errors of the technique was made, as well as a detailed analysis of errors of the measurement. The advantages of the proposed equation are its precision in the measures taken, speed of processing and the immunity to noise in signs and images.
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The interesting properties of a class of expanding systems are discussed. The operation of the considered systems can be described as follows: the input signal is processed by a linear dynamic converter in subsequent time intervals, each of them is equal to Ti. Processing starts at the moments n · Ti, always after zeroing of converter initial conditions. For smooth input signals and a given transfer function of the converter one can suitably choose Ti and the gain coefficient in order to realize the postulated linear operations on input signals, which is quite different comparing it to the operation realized by the converter. The errors of postulated operations are mainly caused by non-smooth components of the input signal. The principles for choice of system parameters and rules for system optimization are presented in the paper. The referring examples are attached too.
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The possibility or even necessity of revising definitions of some of the base units of the present SI has been discussed over the past 15 years. The last General Conference of Weights and Measures (2007) recommended to redefine the kilogram, the ampere, the kelvin, and the mole using fixed values of the fundamental constants by the time of the next General Conference in 2011. This paper is a review of proposals of new definitions of units of mentioned quantities and arguments voting for particular variants of definitions. Most relevant papers for this review have been published by Metrologia, the international journal appointed at the BIPM, and many other useful pieces of information are available on www pages of the BIPM. The author notes that not only new definitions have been discussed but as well as the set of the base units of the SI. It means a replacement of the ampere by the volt or the kelvin by the joule. Decisions concerning new definitions are not made and the discussions are still open.
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The use of surface analysis to investigate brake elements shows how a pair in contact works and wears out during regular operation. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the asperities from initial state to a moment when further use of the drum and shoe is not possible. Between exchange of vital brake elements a truck with total mass exceeding 3.5 tons can cover as many as 300 000 kilometres. Use of brakes during the first 1000 kilometres after maintenance should be rather gentle with possibly intensive use of engine brake installed in the truck itself, because if this rule is not adhered to it may lead to a significant decrease of the braking force and on the surface of the pair in contact a layer will appear that is not possible to wear off and that will make it impossible to stop a truck using brakes. In that condition the shoe should be immediately replaced and the drum should be remachined (by turning) to a repair dimension. In the paper the condition and analysis of a surface after different course of exploitation was presented.
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Referring to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), the paper proposes a theoretical contribution to assess the uncertainty interval, with relative confidence level, in the case of n successive observations. The approach is based on the Chi-square and Fisher distributions and the validity is proved by a numerical example. For a more detailed study of the uncertainty evaluation, a model for the process variability has been also developed.
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Editorial office

  • Janusz SMULKO, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
International Programme Committee
  • Andrzej ZAJĄC, Chairman, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Bruno ANDO, University of Catania, Italy
  • Martin BURGHOFF, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany
  • Marcantonio CATELANI, University of Florence, Italy
  • Numan DURAKBASA, Vienna University of Technology, Austria
  • Domenico GRIMALDI, University of Calabria, Italy
  • Laszlo KISH, Texas A&M University, USA
  • Eduard LLOBET, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain
  • Alex MASON, Liverpool John Moores University, The United Kingdom
  • Subhas MUKHOPADHYAY, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
  • Janusz MROCZKA, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Antoni ROGALSKI, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Wiesław WOLIŃSKI, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Associate Editors
  • Zbigniew BIELECKI, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Vladimir DIMCHEV, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia
  • Krzysztof DUDA, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland
  • Janusz GAJDA, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland
  • Teodor GOTSZALK, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Ireneusz JABŁOŃSKI, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Piotr JASIŃSKI, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
  • Piotr KISAŁA, Lublin University of Technology, Poland
  • Manoj KUMAR, University of Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • Grzegorz LENTKA, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
  • Czesław ŁUKIANOWICZ, Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
  • Rosario MORELLO, University Mediterranean of Reggio Calabria, Italy
  • Fernando PUENTE LEÓN, University Karlsruhe, Germany
  • Petr SEDLAK, Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
  • Hamid M. SEDIGHI, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
  • Roman SZEWCZYK, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Language Editors
  • Andrzej Stankiewicz, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Technical Editors
  • Agnieszka Kondratowicz, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland


Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems

Phone: (+48) 58 347-1357

Post address:
Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems
Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics

Instructions for authors

Types of contributions

The following types of papers are published in Metrology and Measurement Systems:
•    invited review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge (max. 20 edited pages, 3000 characters each),
•    research papers reporting original scientific or technological advancements (10‒12 pages),
•    papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
•    short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).

Manuscript preparation

The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The form similar to “camera-ready” with an attached separate file – containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is preferred. For the details of the preferred format of the manuscripts, Authors should consult a recent issue of the journal or the sample article and the guidelines for manuscript preparation. The text of a manuscript should be printed on A4 pages (with margins of 2.5 cm) using a font whose size is 12 pt for main text and 10 pt for the abstract; an even number of pages is strongly recommended. The main text of a paper can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, ...), subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., ...) and – if needed – paragraphs (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., ...). The title page should include: manuscript title, Authors’ names and affiliations with e-mail addresses. The corresponding Author should be identified by the symbol of an envelope and phone number. A concise abstract of approximately 100 words and with 3–5 keywords should accompany the main text.
Illustrations, photographs and tables provided in the camera-ready form, suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction) should be additionally submitted one per page, larger than final size. All illustrations should be clearly marked on the back with figure number and author’s name. All figures are to have captions. The list of figures captions and table titles should be supplied on separate page. Illustrations must be produced in black ink on white paper or by computer technique using the laser printer with the resolution not lower than 300 dpi, preferably 600 dpi. The thickness of lines should be in the range 0.2–0.5 mm, in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Original photographs must be supplied as they are to be reproduced (e.g. black and white or colour). Photocopies of photographs are not acceptable.
References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, e.g. [4]; their list numbered in citation order should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should be as follows: for a journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, journal name (in italics), volume, issue and page numbers. The exemplary format of the references is available at the sample article.

Manuscript submission and processing

Submission procedure. Manuscript should be submitted via Internet Editorial System (IES) ‒ an online submission and peer review system
In order to submit the manuscript via IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. From the account you create, you will be able to monitor your submission and make subsequent submissions.
The submission of the manuscript in two files is preferred: “Paper File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures and tables embedded in the text) and “Figures File” containing illustrations, photographs and tables. Both files should be sent in DOC and PDF format as well as. In the submission letter or on separate page in “Figures File”, the full postal address, e-mail and phone numbers must be given for all co-authors. The corresponding Author should be identified.
Copyright Transfer. The submission of a manuscript means that it has not been published previously in the same form, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License which has to be signed before publication.
Review and amendment procedures. Each submitted manuscript is subject to a peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on reviewers’ comments; if necessary, Authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to suit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the scientific community, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs. Proofs will be sent to the corresponding Author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours of receipt.

Other information

Author Benefits. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding Author free of charge.
Colour. For colour pages the Authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of main distributor must be acquitted before the date pointed to Authors by Editorial Office.

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