Nauki Techniczne

Metrology and Measurement Systems

Zawartość

Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2010 | No 1 |

Abstrakt

In the paper a new method of Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) noise identification is presented. The method is based on a standardized histogram of instantaneous noise values and processing by Gram-Charlier series. To find a device generating RTS noise by the presented method one should count the number of significant coefficients of the Gram-Charlier series. This would allow to recognize the type of noise. There is always one (first) significant coefficient (c0) representing Gaussian noise. If additional coefficients cr (where r > 0) appear it means that RTS noise (two-level as well as multiple-level) is detected. The coefficient representing the Gaussian component always has the highest value of all. The application of this method will be presented on the example of four devices, each with different noise (pure Gaussian noise signal, noise signal with two-level RTS noise, noise signal with three-level RTS noise and noise signal with not precisely visible occurrence of RTS noise).

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Barbara Stawarz-Graczyk
Dariusz Dokupil
Paweł Flisikowski

Abstrakt

A model-based approach, the Model-View-Interactor Paradigm, for automatic generation of user interfaces in software frameworks for measurement systems is proposed. The Model-View-Interactor Paradigm is focused on the "interaction" typical in a software framework for measurement applications: the final user interacts with the automatic measurement system executing a suitable high-level script previously written by a test engineer. According to the main design goal of frameworks, the proposed approach allows the user interfaces to be separated easily from the application logic for enhancing the flexibility and reusability of the software. As a practical case study, this approach has been applied to the flexible software framework for magnetic measurements at the European Organization for Nuclear research (CERN). In particular, experimental results about the scenario of permeability measurements are reported.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Pasquale Arpaia
Lucio Fiscarelli
Giuseppe Commara

Abstrakt

Additional motor vibrations are the result of a faulty bearing. They are reflected in the harmonic content of stator currents. The object of the investigation presented in the paper are measurements related to diagnostics of induction motors, especially damages caused to bearings. Due to the fact that the amplitude of the network voltage basic harmonic in the current spectrum is high in comparison with components responsible for damages of bearings, preliminary elimination of this component from the analog current signal has been proposed.

The problem with interpretation of diagnostic measurements in present systems is the difference between measurement results of characteristic frequencies and theoretical calculations.

In the proposed measurement system this problem was solved in such a way that the value of the angular speed and of the supply frequency is calculated on the basis of appropriate components in the very same current spectrum that is further used in the search for diagnostic components.

The paper presents also the measuring system and provides results of the investigations carried out on a motor encumbered with a specially prepared defect.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Leon Swędrowski

Abstrakt

When observations are autocorrelated, standard formulae for the estimators of variance, s2, and variance of the mean, s2 (x), are no longer adequate. They should be replaced by suitably defined estimators, s2a and s2a (x), which are unbiased given that the autocorrelation function is known. The formula for s2a was given by Bayley and Hammersley in 1946, this work provides its simple derivation. The quantity named effective number of observations neff is thoroughly discussed. It replaces the real number of observations n when describing the relationship between the variance and variance of the mean, and can be used to express s2a and s2a (x) in a simple manner. The dispersion of both estimators depends on another effective number called the effective degrees of freedom Veff. Most of the formulae discussed in this paper are scattered throughout the literature and not very well known, this work aims to promote their more widespread use. The presented algorithms represent a natural extension of the GUM formulation of type-A uncertainty for the case of autocorrelated observations.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Andrzej Zięba

Abstrakt

To gather reproducible measurement results, metrologists need a variety of competences. Yet, also other groups of staff in a manufacturing enterprise need competences in metrology in order to assure the appropriate specification of tolerances or sufficient consideration of inspectional requirements in production processes.

Therefore, the strict focus of metrological qualification on staff preparing or performing the actual measurements is insufficient for the efficient assurance of conformity. Additionally, on the one hand a demand-oriented qualification concept is needed to impart required fundamental knowledge on manufacturing metrology according to the specific needs of each user group. On the other hand, appropriate measures of knowledge management have to be applied in order to assure a proper application of the gathered knowledge and enhance mutual understanding for the requirements of other involved user groups.

Thus, as amendment for user-specific measures of formal qualification, a concept has been developed to enable knowledge transfer among different groups and departments in an enterprise. By this holistic approach, the impact of measures of qualification can be increased and high product quality can be achieved as a common aim of all related groups of staff.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Albert Weckenmann
Teresa Werner

Abstrakt

A thermal resistance characterization of semiconductor quantum-well heterolasers in the AlGaInAs-AlGaAs system (λst ≈ 0.8 μm), GaSb-based laser diodes (λst ≈ 2 μm), and power GaN light-emitting diodes (visible spectral region) was performed. The characterization consists in investigations of transient electrical processes in the diode sources under heating by direct current. The time dependence of the heating temperature of the active region of a source ΔT(t), calculated from direct bias change, is analyzed using a thermal RTCT equivalent circuit (the Foster and Cauer models), where RT is the thermal resistance and CT is the heat capacity of the source elements and external heat sink. By the developed method, thermal resistances of internal elements of the heterolasers and light-emitting diodes are determined. The dominant contribution of a die attach layer to the internal thermal resistance of both heterolaser sources and light-emitting diodes is observed. Based on the performed thermal characterization, the dependence of the optical power efficiency on current for the laser diodes is determined.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Yurii Bumai
Aleh Vaskou
Valerii Kononenko

Abstrakt

Outdoor remote temperature measurements in the infrared range can be very inaccurate because of the influence of solar radiation reflected from a measured object. In case of strong directional reflection towards a measuring device, the error rate can easily reach hundreds per cent as the reflected signal adds to the thermal emission of an object. As a result, the measured temperature is much higher than the real one. Error rate depends mainly on the emissivity of an object and intensity of solar radiation. The position of the measuring device with reference to an object and the Sun is also important. The method of compensation of such undesirable influence of solar radiation will be presented. It is based on simultaneous measurements in two different spectral bands, shor-twavelength and long-wavelength ones. The temperature of an object is derived from long-wavelength data only, whereas the short-wavelength band, the corrective one, is used to estimate the solar radiation level. Both bands were selected to achieve proportional changes of the output signal due to solar radiation. Knowing the relation between emissivity and solar radiation levels in both spectral bands, it is possible to reduce the measurement error several times.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Henryk Madura
Mariusz Kastek
Tomasz Sosnowski
Tomasz Orżanowski

Abstrakt

The paper presents traditional analogue and digital techniques in partial discharge measurement. The discharge current pulses are measured from high voltage machines like power plant generators and transformers. The presented modern digital techniques are suitable for all measurements where impulse energy will be calculated.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Josef Vedral
Martin Kříž

Abstrakt

A data logger has been built to record, for a month, the power consumption of various equipment and the temperature at different points inside and outside of a radio communication base station operated by Vodafone Portugal. Here we show how the concerns with measurement uncertainty led us to choose an analog system over a digital one for AC power measurement.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Francisco Alegria
Francisco Travassos

Abstrakt

The tendencies of modern industry are to increase the quality of manufactured products, simultaneously decreasing production time and cost. The hybrid system combines advantages of the high accuracy of contact CMM and the high measurement speed of non-contact structured light optical techniques. The article describes elements of a developed system together with the steps of the measurement process of the hybrid system, with emphasis on segmentation algorithms. Additionally, accuracy determination of such a system realized with the help of a specially designed ball-plate measurement standard is presented.

Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Jerzy Sładek
Robert Sitnik
Magdalena Kupiec
Paweł Błaszczyk

Abstrakt

The irregularity profiles of steel samples after vapour blasting were measured. A correlation analysis of profile parameters was then carried out. As the result, the following parameters were selected: Pq, Pt, PDq, Pp/Pt and Pku. Surface profiles after vapour blasting were modeled. The modeled surfaces were correctly matched to measured surfaces in 78% of all analyzed cases. The vapour blasting experiment was then carried out using an orthogonal selective research plan. The distance between the nozzle and sample d and the pressure of feed system p were input parameters; selected surface texture coefficients were output parameters. As the result of the experiment, regression equations connecting vapour blasting process parameters p and d with selected profile parameters were obtained. Finally, 2D profiles of steel samples were forecasted for various values of vapour blasting parameters. Proper matching accuracy of modeled to measured profiles was assured in 75% of analyzed cases.
Przejdź do artykułu

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Paweł Pawlus
Rafał Reizer

Redakcja

Editorial Board

Editor-in-Chief
Ryszard SZPLET
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: ryszard.szplet@wat.edu.pl

Vice Editor-in-Chief
Paweł KWIATKOWSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: pawel.kwiatkowski@wat.edu.pl

Technical Editor and Webmaster

Dominik SONDEJ
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: dominik.sondej@wat.edu.pl

Language Editor

Andrzej ŁUKASZEWICZ
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: andrzej.lukaszewicz@wat.edu.pl


International Programme Committee


Andrzej ZAJĄC,
Chairman Military University of Technology, Poland
Bruno ANDO
University of Catania, Italy
Martin BURGHOFF
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany
Marcantonio CATELANI
University of Florence, Italy
Numan DURAKBASA
Vienna University of Technology, Austria
Janusz GAJDA AGH
University of Science and Technology, Poland
Domenico GRIMALDI
University of Calabria, Italy
Laszlo KISH
Texas A&M University, USA
Juha KOSTAMOVAARA
University of Oulu, Finland
Eduard LLOBET
Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain
Alex MASON
Liverpool John Moores University, The United Kingdom
Subhas MUKHOPADHYAY
Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Janusz MROCZKA
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland
Antoni ROGALSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
Wiesław WOLIŃSKI
Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Associate Editors

Sławomir CIĘSZCZYK
Lublin University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: s.cieszczyk@pollub.pl
Albin CZUBLA
Central Office of Measure, Poland
e-mail: albin.czubla@gum.gov.pl
Vladimir DIMCHEV
Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia
e-mail: vladim@feit.ukim.edu.mk
Krzysztof DUDA AGH
University of Science and Technology, Poland
e-mail: kduda@agh.edu.pl
Agnieszka IWAN
Military University of Land Forces, Poland
e-mail: agnieszka.iwan@awl.edu.pl
Ireneusz JABŁOŃSKI
Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Poland
e-mail: ireneusz.jablonski@pwr.wroc.pl
Jacek JAKUBOWSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: jacek.jakubowski@wat.edu.pl
Jussi-Pekka JANSSON
University of Oulu, Finland
e-mail: jussi.jansson@oulu.fi
Mieczysław JESSA
Poznan University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: mieczyslaw.jessa@put.poznan.pl
Piotr KANIEWSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: piotr.kaniewski@wat.edu.pl
Piotr KISAŁA
Lublin University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: p.kisala@pollub.pl
Manoj KUMAR
Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Uttar Pradesh, India
e-mail: my.hunn.manoj@gmail.com
Grzegorz LENTKA
Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
e-mail:lentka@eti.pg.edu.pl
Czesław ŁUKIANOWICZ
Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: czeslaw.lukianowicz@tu.koszalin.pl
Rosario MORELLO
University Mediterranean of Reggio Calabria, Italy
e-mail: rosario.morello@unirc.it
Fernando PUENTE LEÓN
University Karlsruhe, Germany
e-mail: f.puente@me.com
Hamid M. SEDIGHI
Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
e-mail: h.msedighi@scu.ac.ir
Petr SEDLAK
Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republic
e-mail: sedlakp@feec.vutbr.cz
Tadeusz SONDEJ
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: tadeusz.sondej@wat.edu.pl
Mirosław SZMAJDA
Opole University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: m.szmajda@po.edu.pl
Michał STRZELECKI
Lodz University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: michal.strzelecki@p.lodz.pl
Grzegorz ŚWIRNIAK
Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: grzegorz.swirniak@pwr.wroc.pl
Michał WIECZOROWSKI
Poznan University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: jmichal.wieczorowski@put.poznan.pl
Jacek WOJTAS
Military University of Technology, Poland

Kontakt

E-mail: metrology@wat.edu.pl
URL: www.metrology.wat.edu.pl

Post address:
Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems
Military University of Technology
Faculty of Electronics
gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2
00-908 Warsaw
Poland

Instrukcje dla autorów

Sample article with Author guidelines

Types of contributions
Metrology and Measurement Systems welcomes submissions of the following article types:
• invited special issue or review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge within scope of the journal (about 20 edited pages, approximately 3000 characters each),
• research papers reporting high-quality original scientific or technological advancements (max. 12 pages),
• papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
• short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).

Manuscript preparation
General The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The camera-ready format – with attached separate files containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is required. A cover letter with clear explanation of scientific novelty of the paper is strongly recommended. Papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences, or strongly related to previous authors’ works, must be accompanied with a cover letter file, which should explain in details changes made in the manuscript in comparison with the original conference paper and highlight the novelty in reference to other authors’ works.
The main text of a manuscript should be printed on an A4 page (with margins of 2.5 cm) using Times New Roman style with a font size of 12 pt; the paragraphs should start with the indentation of 5 mm, and titles should be written in bold. That text can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, …), first-order subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., …, written in italics), and – if needed – second-order subsections (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., …, written same as first-order subsections). The only acceptable manuscript formats are in Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx).
The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors. The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors.

Figures
Figures (illustrations, photographs) and tables, provided in the camera-ready form suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction), should be additionally submitted (one per page), larger than the final size. While preparing figures we encourage to start with defining expected size and minimum font size that fit to all graphics in the manuscript – using the same style in all of your graphics visually improves the article. Final figure formats must be in one of the following: (vectors) .eps, .pdf, .ai or .cdr, and (bitmaps) .bmp, .gif, .tif or .jpg.
As far as plots, block diagrams, schematics etc. are concerned, we suggest to use one of vector formats to improve quality and scalability. Figures in vector formats must be saved using RGB colours and with fully white background (0% K). Hidden layers are unacceptable. Minimum line thickness printed in a single colour is 0.25 pt (0.09 mm), and 1 pt (0.36 mm) when using more colours. Typically we suggest 0.2-0.5 mm but in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Lines in plots should be distinguished not only by using different colours but also using different line types and markers, if needed.

Equation
All equations must be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Each equation should be preceded and followed by a 6-point spacing. Punctuate equations when they are part of a sentence. Equation numbers should be enclosed in parentheses. Equations should be prepared with the use of MathType or Microsoft Equation editors. The type size in the equation is the same as for the text. To make your equations more compact, you may use the appropriate mathematical symbols or expressions. The symbols used in an equation have to be defined before that equation or immediately after it. Use italics for variables (e.g. i, x, n), physical quantity symbol (e.g. voltage U, temperature T), letter pointers and general function symbols. Do not use italics for constants, indexes, minimum, maximum and trigonometric functions, mathematical operators, differentials, etc. To refer to the equation use “(1)”, not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, except at the beginning of a sentence where “Equation (1)” should be used. We recommend to use International System of Units SI i.e. metre-kilogram-second system of units. As a decimal separator dot should be used in the entire manuscript (text, figures, tables).

References
The paper has to be clearly positioned in the context of relevant literature in the field of measurements and instrumentation. Note that lack of references from the main field of Metrology and Measurement Systems interest may suggest that the content of manuscript does not exactly correspond to the scope of metrological journals. It may reduce possibility that a proposed paper will be read by audience society. In such a case our Editorial Board may suggest to send the manuscript to a more appropriate journal. Also note that the use of possibly up-to-date references may indicate importance of your work. Table below gives examples of some relevant and renewable journals related to widely understood metrology.

Journal

Publisher

ISSN

Metrologia

IOP Publishing

0026-1394

IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

IEEE

0018-9456

Measurement

Elsevier

0263-2241

Measurement Science and Technology

IOP Publishing

0957-0233

Metrology and Measurement Systems

PAS

0860-8229

Review of Scientific Instruments

IOP Publishing

0034-6748

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE

1557-9948

IET Science, Measurement & Technology

IET

1751-8822

Journal of Instrumentation

SISSA, IOP Publishing

1748-0221

Measurement Science Review

Walter de Gruyter

1335-8871

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine

IEEE

1094-6969

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences

PAS

2300-1917

Opto-Electronics Review

PAS

1896-3757

IEEE Sensors Journal

IEEE

1558-1748

Sensors

MDPI

1424-8220



References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, i.e. [1]; their list, numbered in citation order, should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should follow the APA 7th edition formatting style, i.e.: for an journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, full journal name, volume, issue (in brackets) and page numbers. Put all author names unless there are more than 20. Otherwise, after the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author’s name (do not place an ampersand before it).

Submission process
Manuscript should be submitted via the Internet Editorial System (IES) – an online submission and peer review system. In order to submit the manuscript via the IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. The submission of the manuscript in a single file, i.e. “Article File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures of high quality and tables embedded in the text), is preferred. All figures have to be uploaded in separate files. The generated PDF file has to be approved. The PDF file has lower quality of the embedded figures to limit its size only.
The submission of a manuscript means that its content has not been published previously, it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which has to be signed before publication. The copyright form is available in the IES.
The Authors are urged to suggest 4 to 5 reviewers in their application (with names, affiliations and addresses) with whom the Editorial Board could co-operate while processing the paper. Proposed reviewers should be experts deeply involved in issues related to the subject matter of the paper and they are intended to come from different universities or research centres.
Each submitted manuscript is subject to a single-blind peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on the reviewers’ comments. If necessary, the authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to exactly fit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the research field, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours from receipt. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding author free of charge. For colour pages the authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of the main distributor (given in “Subscription Information”) must be completed before the date indicated by the Editorial Office.

Other information
It is possible to include supplementary files related to the article content, such as e.g. developed databases. These files can be then used by other researchers to compare their algorithms using the same input data. For more details about supplementary files please contact the Editorial Board: metrology@wat.edu.pl. The biographical statements, at the very end of the article, are not obligatory, however, they are kindly recommended. Each statement should include the author’s full name and brief personal history focused on areas of research and scientific achievements. The biographical statement may not exceed 100 words and should be written using Times New Roman style with a font size of 8 pt.
The publication of your article is a great achievement but then it needs to be further promoted to make it more visible to the research community. Responsibility for this task lies with the Authors and our Editorial Board. We guarantee free access to the article in the Journals PAN of the Polish Academy of Science, including articles in Early Access form (published just after acceptance decision), indexing in popular and renewable databases (e.g. Thomson Scientific Master Journal List, Elsevier’s Scopus, Google Scholar). Furthermore, selected articles are highlighted on the journal website and are reprinted for promotion at conferences and other events. The Authors can share the final form of the article on various social networks and research-sharing platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin, ResearchGate, Academia.edu, SciProfiles. They are also encouraged to update personal and institutional webpages by adding the title and a link of the article. Feel free also to share your work with your colleagues using any other methods that do not conflict with the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license.
For more detailed description about how to write a paper for the Metrology and Measurement Systems journal please look at the Author guidelines for manuscript preparation. We strongly recommend using this file as a template for manuscript preparation.

Polityka Open Access

Metrology and Measurement Systems jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Metrology and Measurement Systems is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

Ta strona wykorzystuje pliki 'cookies'. Więcej informacji