Nauki Techniczne

Metrology and Measurement Systems

Zawartość

Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2017 | vol. 24 | No 1 |

Abstrakt

A new time interval/frequency generator with a jitter below 5 ps is described. The time interval generation mechanism is based on a phase shifting method with the use of a precise DDS synthesizer. The output pulses are produced in a Spartan-6 FPGA device, manufactured by Xilinx in 45 nm CMOS technology. Thorough tests of the phase shifting in a selected synthesizer are performed. The time interval resolution as low as 0.3 ps is achieved. However, the final resolution is limited to 500 ps to maximize precision. The designed device can be used as a source of high precision reference time intervals or a highly stable square wave signal of frequency up to 50 MHz.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Paweł Kwiatkowski
Krzysztof Różyc
Marek Sawicki
Zbigniew Jachna
Ryszard Szplet

Abstrakt

When a frequency domain sensor is under the effect of an input stimulus, there is a frequency shift at its output. One of the most important advantages of such sensors is their converting a physical input parameter into time variations. In consequence, changes of an input stimulus can be quantified very precisely, provided that a proper frequency counter/meter is used. Unfortunately, it is well known in the time-frequency metrology that if a higher accuracy in measurements is needed, a longer time for measuring is required. The principle of rational approximations is a method to measure a signal frequency. One of its main properties is that the time required for measuring decreases when the order of an unknown frequency increases. In particular, this work shows a new measurement technique, which is devoted to measuring the frequency shifts that occur in frequency domain sensors. The presented research result is a modification of the principle of rational approximations. In this work a mathematical analysis is presented, and the theory of this new measurement method is analysed in detail. As a result, a new formalism for frequency measurement is proposed, which improves resolution and reduces the measurement time.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Fabian N. Murrieta-Rico
Vitalii Petranovskii
Oleg Y. Sergiyenko
Daniel Hernandez-Balbuena
Lars Lindner

Abstrakt

Effectiveness of operation of a weapon stabilization system is largely dependent on the choice of a sensor, i.e. an accelerometer. The paper identifies and examines fundamental errors of piezoelectric accelerometers and offers measures for their reduction. Errors of a weapon stabilizer piezoelectric sensor have been calculated. The instrumental measurement error does not exceed 0.1 × 10−5 m/s2. The errors caused by the method of attachment to the base, different noise sources and zero point drift can be mitigated by the design features of piezoelectric sensors used in weapon stabilizers.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Igor Korobiichuk

Abstrakt

Minimally invasive procedures for the kidney tumour removal require a 3D visualization of topological relations between kidney, cancer, the pelvicalyceal system and the renal vascular tree. In this paper, a novel methodology of the pelvicalyceal system segmentation is presented. It consists of four following steps: ROI designation, automatic threshold calculation for binarization (approximation of the histogram image data with three exponential functions), automatic extraction of the pelvicalyceal system parts and segmentation by the Locally Adaptive Region Growing algorithm. The proposed method was applied successfully on the Computed Tomography database consisting of 48 kidneys both healthy and cancer affected. The quantitative evaluation (comparison to manual segmentation) and visual assessment proved its effectiveness. The Dice Coefficient of Similarity is equal to 0.871 ± 0.060 and the average Hausdorff distance 0.46 ± 0.36 mm. Additionally, to provide a reliable assessment of the proposed method, it was compared with three other methods. The proposed method is robust regardless of the image acquisition mode, spatial resolution and range of image values. The same framework may be applied to further medical applications beyond preoperative planning for partial nephrectomy enabling to visually assess and to measure the pelvicalyceal system by medical doctors.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Katarzyna Heryan
Andrzej Skalski
Jacek Jakubowski
Tomasz Drewniak
Janusz Gajda

Abstrakt

Precise measurement of rail vehicle velocities is an essential prerequisite for the implementation of modern train control systems and the improvement of transportation capacity and logistics. Novel eddy current sensor systems make it possible to estimate velocity by using cross-correlation techniques, which show a decline in precision in areas of high accelerations. This is due to signal distortions within the correlation interval. We propose to overcome these problems by employing algorithms from the field of dynamic programming. In this paper we evaluate the application of correlation optimized warping, an enhanced version of dynamic time warping algorithms, and compare it with the classical algorithm for estimating rail vehicle velocities in areas of high accelerations and decelerations.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Stefan Hensel
Marin B. Marinov

Abstrakt

Ionizing radiation applied on food eliminates harmful microorganisms, prevents sprouting and delays ripening. All methods for detection of irradiated food are based on physical, chemical, biological or microbiological changes caused by the treatment with ionizing radiation. When minerals are exposed to ionizing radiation, they accumulate radiation energy and store it in the crystal lattice, by which some electrons remain trapped in the lattice. When these minerals are exposed to optical stimulation, trapped electrons are released. The phenomenon, called optically stimulated luminescence or photostimulated luminescence, occurs when released electrons recombine with holes from luminescence centers in the lattice, resulting in emission of light with certain wavelengths.

In this paper, the results of measurements performed on seven different samples of herbs and spices are presented. In order to make a comparison between luminescence signals from samples treated with different doses, unirradiated samples are treated with Co-60 with doses of 1 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy. In all cases it was shown that the higher the applied dose, the higher the luminescence signal.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ivana Sandeva
Hristina Spasevska
Margarita Ginovska
Lihnida Stojanovska-Georgievska

Abstrakt

Autocorrelation of signals and measurement data makes it difficult to estimate their statistical characteristics. However, the scope of usefulness of autocorrelation functions for statistical description of signal relation is narrowed down to linear processing models. The use of the conditional expected value opens new possibilities in the description of interdependence of stochastic signals for linear and non-linear models. It is described with relatively simple mathematical models with corresponding simple algorithms of their practical implementation.

The paper presents a practical model of exponential autocorrelation of measurement data and a theoretical analysis of its impact on the process of conditional averaging of data. Optimization conditions of the process were determined to decrease the variance of a characteristic of the conditional expected value. The obtained theoretical relations were compared with some examples of the experimental results.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Adam Kowalczyk
Anna Szlachta
Robert Hanus
Rafał Chorzępa

Abstrakt

The paper presents methods of on-line and off-line estimation of UAV position on the basis of measurements from its integrated navigation system. The navigation system installed on board UAV contains an INS and a GNSS receiver. The UAV position, as well as its velocity and orientation are estimated with the use of smoothing algorithms. For off-line estimation, a fixed-interval smoothing algorithm has been applied. On-line estimation has been accomplished with the use of a fixed-lag smoothing algorithm. The paper includes chosen results of simulations demonstrating improvements of accuracy of UAV position estimation with the use of smoothing algorithms in comparison with the use of a Kalman filter.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Piotr Kaniewski
Rafał Gil
Stanisław Konatowski

Abstrakt

Hydroxyapatite (HAp) has been attracting widespread interest in medical applications. In a form of coating, it enables to create a durable bond between an implant and surrounding bone tissues. With addition of silver nanoparticles HAp should also provide antibacterial activity. The aim of this research was to evaluate the composition of hydroxyapatite with silver nanoparticles in a non-destructive and non-contact way. For control measurements of HAp molecular composition and solvent evaporation efficiency the Raman spectroscopy has been chosen. In order to evaluate dispersion and concentration of the silver nanoparticles inside the hydroxyapatite matrix, the optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used. Five samples were developed and examined ‒ a reference sample of pure HAp sol and four samples of HAp colloids with different silver nanoparticle solution volume ratios. The Raman spectra for each solution have been obtained and analyzed. Furthermore, a transverse-sectional visualization of every sample has been created and examined by means of OCT.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Maciej J. Głowacki
Marcin Gnyba
Paulina Strąkowska
Mateusz Gardas
Maciej Kraszewski
Michał Trojanowski
Marcin R. Strąkowski

Abstrakt

With development of medical diagnostic and imaging techniques the sparing surgeries are facilitated. Renal cancer is one of examples. In order to minimize the amount of healthy kidney removed during the treatment procedure, it is essential to design a system that provides three-dimensional visualization prior to the surgery. The information about location of crucial structures (e.g. kidney, renal ureter and arteries) and their mutual spatial arrangement should be delivered to the operator. The introduction of such a system meets both the requirements and expectations of oncological surgeons. In this paper, we present one of the most important steps towards building such a system: a new approach to kidney segmentation from Computed Tomography data. The segmentation is based on the Active Contour Method using the Level Set (LS) framework. During the segmentation process the energy functional describing an image is the subject to minimize. The functional proposed in this paper consists of four terms. In contrast to the original approach containing solely the region and boundary terms, the ellipsoidal shape constraint was also introduced. This additional limitation imposed on evolution of the function prevents from leakage to undesired regions. The proposed methodology was tested on 10 Computed Tomography scans from patients diagnosed with renal cancer. The database contained the results of studies performed in several medical centers and on different devices. The average effectiveness of the proposed solution regarding the Dice Coefficient and average Hausdorff distance was equal to 0.862 and 2.37 mm, respectively. Both the qualitative and quantitative evaluations confirm effectiveness of the proposed solution.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Andrzej Skalski
Katarzyna Heryan
Jacek Jakubowski
Tomasz Drewniak

Abstrakt

We present an alternative method to detect and measure the concentration changes in liquid solutions. The method uses Digital Holographic Interferometry (DHI) and is based on measuring refractive index variations. The first hologram is recorded when a wavefront from light comes across an ordinary cylindrical glass container filled with a liquid solution. The second hologram is recorded after slight changing the liquid’s concentration. Differences in phase obtained from the correlation of the first hologram with the second one provide information about the refractive index variation, which is directly related to the changes in physical properties related to the concentration. The method can be used − with high sensitivity, accuracy, and speed − either to detect adulterations or to measure a slight change of concentration in the order of 0.001 moles which is equivalent to a difference of 0.003 g of sodium chloride in solutions. The method also enables to measure and calculate the phase difference among each pixel of two samples. This makes it possible to generate a global measurement of the phase difference of the entire sensed region.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Carlos Guerrero-Méndez
Tonatiuh Saucedo-Anaya
Maria Araiza-Esquivel
Raúl E. Balderas-Navarro
Alfonso López-Martínez
Carlos Olvera-Olvera

Abstrakt

The paper analyses the distorted data of an electronic nose in recognizing the gasoline bio-based additives. Different tools of data mining, such as the methods of data clustering, principal component analysis, wavelet transformation, support vector machine and random forest of decision trees are applied. A special stress is put on the robustness of signal processing systems to the noise distorting the registered sensor signals. A special denoising procedure based on application of discrete wavelet transformation has been proposed. This procedure enables to reduce the error rate of recognition in a significant way. The numerical results of experiments devoted to the recognition of different blends of gasoline have shown the superiority of support vector machine in a noisy environment of measurement.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Stanisław Osowski
Krzysztof Siwek

Abstrakt

The integrated Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) method can recursively estimate the attitude and attitude rates of a nanosatellite. At first, Wahba’s loss function is minimized using the SVD and the optimal attitude angles are determined on the basis of the magnetometer and Sun sensor measurements. Then, the UKF makes use of the SVD’s attitude estimates as measurement results and provides more accurate attitude information as well as the attitude rate estimates. The elements of “Rotation angle error covariance matrix” calculated for the SVD estimations are used in the UKF as the measurement noise covariance values. The algorithm is compared with the SVD and UKF only methods for estimating the attitude from vector measurements. Possible algorithm switching ideas are discussed especially for the eclipse period, when the Sun sensor measurements are not available.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Demet Cilden
Halil Ersin Soken
Chingiz Hajiyev

Abstrakt

The theoretical aspects of a new type of piezo-resistive pressure sensors for environments with rapidly changing temperatures are presented. The idea is that the sensor has two identical diaphragms which have different coefficients of linear thermal expansion. Therefore, when measuring pressure in environments with variable temperature, the diaphragms will have different deflection. This difference can be used to make appropriate correction of the sensor output signal and, thus, to increase accuracy of measurement. Since physical principles of sensors operation enable fast correction of the output signal, the sensor can be used in environments with rapidly changing temperature, which is its essential advantage. The paper presents practical implementation of the proposed theoretical aspects and the results of testing the developed sensor.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Myroslav Tykhan
Orest Ivakhiv
Vasyl Teslyuk

Abstrakt

A single photovoltaic panel under uniform illumination has only one global maximum power point, but the same panel in irregularly illuminated conditions can have more maxima on its power-voltage curve. The irregularly illuminated conditions in most cases are results of partial shading. In the work a single short pulse of load is used to extract information about partial shading. This information can be useful and can help to make some improvements in existing MPPT algorithms. In the paper the intrinsic capacitance of a photovoltaic system is used to retrieve occurrence of partial shading.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Mateusz Bartczak

Abstrakt

In this paper a programmable input mode instrumentation amplifier (IA) utilising second generation, multiple output current conveyors and transmission gates is presented. Its main advantage is the ability to choose a voltage or current mode of inputs by setting the voltage of two configuration nodes. The presented IA is prepared as an integrated circuit block to be used alone or as a sub-block in a microcontroller or in a field programmable gate array (FPGA), which shall condition analogue signals to be next converted by an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC). IA is designed in AMS 0.35 µm CMOS technology and the power supply is 3.3 V; the power consumption is approximately 9.1 mW. A linear input range in the voltage mode reaches ± 1.68 V or ± 250 µA in current mode. A passband of the IA is above 11 MHz. The amplifier works in class A, so its current supply is almost constant and does not cause noise disturbing nearby working precision analogue circuits.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Bogdan Pankiewicz

Abstrakt

Determination of the physico-chemical interactions between liquid and solid substances is a key technological factor in many industrial processes in metallurgy, electronics or the aviation industry, where technological processes are based on soldering/brazing technologies. Understanding of the bonding process, reactions between materials and their dynamics enables to make research on new materials and joining technologies, as well as to optimise and compare the existing ones. The paper focuses on a wetting force measurement method and its practical implementation in a laboratory stand – an integrated platform for automatic wetting force measurement at high temperatures. As an example of using the laboratory stand, an analysis of Ag addition to Cu-based brazes, including measurement of the wetting force and the wetting angle, is presented.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Marcin Bąkała
Rafał Wojciechowski
Dominik Sankowski
Adam Rylski

Redakcja

Editorial Board

Editor-in-Chief
Ryszard SZPLET
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: ryszard.szplet@wat.edu.pl

Vice Editor-in-Chief
Paweł KWIATKOWSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: pawel.kwiatkowski@wat.edu.pl

Technical Editor and Webmaster

Dominik SONDEJ
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: dominik.sondej@wat.edu.pl

Language Editor

Andrzej ŁUKASZEWICZ
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: andrzej.lukaszewicz@wat.edu.pl


International Programme Committee


Andrzej ZAJĄC,
Chairman Military University of Technology, Poland
Bruno ANDO
University of Catania, Italy
Martin BURGHOFF
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany
Marcantonio CATELANI
University of Florence, Italy
Numan DURAKBASA
Vienna University of Technology, Austria
Janusz GAJDA AGH
University of Science and Technology, Poland
Domenico GRIMALDI
University of Calabria, Italy
Laszlo KISH
Texas A&M University, USA
Juha KOSTAMOVAARA
University of Oulu, Finland
Eduard LLOBET
Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain
Alex MASON
Liverpool John Moores University, The United Kingdom
Subhas MUKHOPADHYAY
Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Janusz MROCZKA
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Poland
Antoni ROGALSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
Wiesław WOLIŃSKI
Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Associate Editors

Sławomir CIĘSZCZYK
Lublin University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: s.cieszczyk@pollub.pl
Albin CZUBLA
Central Office of Measure, Poland
e-mail: albin.czubla@gum.gov.pl
Vladimir DIMCHEV
Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia
e-mail: vladim@feit.ukim.edu.mk
Krzysztof DUDA AGH
University of Science and Technology, Poland
e-mail: kduda@agh.edu.pl
Agnieszka IWAN
Military University of Land Forces, Poland
e-mail: agnieszka.iwan@awl.edu.pl
Ireneusz JABŁOŃSKI
Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Poland
e-mail: ireneusz.jablonski@pwr.wroc.pl
Jacek JAKUBOWSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: jacek.jakubowski@wat.edu.pl
Jussi-Pekka JANSSON
University of Oulu, Finland
e-mail: jussi.jansson@oulu.fi
Mieczysław JESSA
Poznan University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: mieczyslaw.jessa@put.poznan.pl
Piotr KANIEWSKI
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: piotr.kaniewski@wat.edu.pl
Piotr KISAŁA
Lublin University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: p.kisala@pollub.pl
Manoj KUMAR
Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Uttar Pradesh, India
e-mail: my.hunn.manoj@gmail.com
Grzegorz LENTKA
Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
e-mail:lentka@eti.pg.edu.pl
Czesław ŁUKIANOWICZ
Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: czeslaw.lukianowicz@tu.koszalin.pl
Rosario MORELLO
University Mediterranean of Reggio Calabria, Italy
e-mail: rosario.morello@unirc.it
Fernando PUENTE LEÓN
University Karlsruhe, Germany
e-mail: f.puente@me.com
Hamid M. SEDIGHI
Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
e-mail: h.msedighi@scu.ac.ir
Petr SEDLAK
Brno University of Technology, Brno, Czech Republic
e-mail: sedlakp@feec.vutbr.cz
Tadeusz SONDEJ
Military University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: tadeusz.sondej@wat.edu.pl
Mirosław SZMAJDA
Opole University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: m.szmajda@po.edu.pl
Michał STRZELECKI
Lodz University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: michal.strzelecki@p.lodz.pl
Grzegorz ŚWIRNIAK
Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: grzegorz.swirniak@pwr.wroc.pl
Michał WIECZOROWSKI
Poznan University of Technology, Poland
e-mail: jmichal.wieczorowski@put.poznan.pl
Jacek WOJTAS
Military University of Technology, Poland

Kontakt

E-mail: metrology@wat.edu.pl
URL: www.metrology.wat.edu.pl

Post address:
Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems
Military University of Technology
Faculty of Electronics
gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2
00-908 Warsaw
Poland

Instrukcje dla autorów

Sample article with Author guidelines

Types of contributions
Metrology and Measurement Systems welcomes submissions of the following article types:
• invited special issue or review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge within scope of the journal (about 20 edited pages, approximately 3000 characters each),
• research papers reporting high-quality original scientific or technological advancements (max. 12 pages),
• papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
• short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).

Manuscript preparation
General The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The camera-ready format – with attached separate files containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is required. A cover letter with clear explanation of scientific novelty of the paper is strongly recommended. Papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences, or strongly related to previous authors’ works, must be accompanied with a cover letter file, which should explain in details changes made in the manuscript in comparison with the original conference paper and highlight the novelty in reference to other authors’ works.
The main text of a manuscript should be printed on an A4 page (with margins of 2.5 cm) using Times New Roman style with a font size of 12 pt; the paragraphs should start with the indentation of 5 mm, and titles should be written in bold. That text can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, …), first-order subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., …, written in italics), and – if needed – second-order subsections (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., …, written same as first-order subsections). The only acceptable manuscript formats are in Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx).
The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors. The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors.

Figures
Figures (illustrations, photographs) and tables, provided in the camera-ready form suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction), should be additionally submitted (one per page), larger than the final size. While preparing figures we encourage to start with defining expected size and minimum font size that fit to all graphics in the manuscript – using the same style in all of your graphics visually improves the article. Final figure formats must be in one of the following: (vectors) .eps, .pdf, .ai or .cdr, and (bitmaps) .bmp, .gif, .tif or .jpg.
As far as plots, block diagrams, schematics etc. are concerned, we suggest to use one of vector formats to improve quality and scalability. Figures in vector formats must be saved using RGB colours and with fully white background (0% K). Hidden layers are unacceptable. Minimum line thickness printed in a single colour is 0.25 pt (0.09 mm), and 1 pt (0.36 mm) when using more colours. Typically we suggest 0.2-0.5 mm but in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Lines in plots should be distinguished not only by using different colours but also using different line types and markers, if needed.

Equation
All equations must be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Each equation should be preceded and followed by a 6-point spacing. Punctuate equations when they are part of a sentence. Equation numbers should be enclosed in parentheses. Equations should be prepared with the use of MathType or Microsoft Equation editors. The type size in the equation is the same as for the text. To make your equations more compact, you may use the appropriate mathematical symbols or expressions. The symbols used in an equation have to be defined before that equation or immediately after it. Use italics for variables (e.g. i, x, n), physical quantity symbol (e.g. voltage U, temperature T), letter pointers and general function symbols. Do not use italics for constants, indexes, minimum, maximum and trigonometric functions, mathematical operators, differentials, etc. To refer to the equation use “(1)”, not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, except at the beginning of a sentence where “Equation (1)” should be used. We recommend to use International System of Units SI i.e. metre-kilogram-second system of units. As a decimal separator dot should be used in the entire manuscript (text, figures, tables).

References
The paper has to be clearly positioned in the context of relevant literature in the field of measurements and instrumentation. Note that lack of references from the main field of Metrology and Measurement Systems interest may suggest that the content of manuscript does not exactly correspond to the scope of metrological journals. It may reduce possibility that a proposed paper will be read by audience society. In such a case our Editorial Board may suggest to send the manuscript to a more appropriate journal. Also note that the use of possibly up-to-date references may indicate importance of your work. Table below gives examples of some relevant and renewable journals related to widely understood metrology.

Journal

Publisher

ISSN

Metrologia

IOP Publishing

0026-1394

IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

IEEE

0018-9456

Measurement

Elsevier

0263-2241

Measurement Science and Technology

IOP Publishing

0957-0233

Metrology and Measurement Systems

PAS

0860-8229

Review of Scientific Instruments

IOP Publishing

0034-6748

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE

1557-9948

IET Science, Measurement & Technology

IET

1751-8822

Journal of Instrumentation

SISSA, IOP Publishing

1748-0221

Measurement Science Review

Walter de Gruyter

1335-8871

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine

IEEE

1094-6969

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences

PAS

2300-1917

Opto-Electronics Review

PAS

1896-3757

IEEE Sensors Journal

IEEE

1558-1748

Sensors

MDPI

1424-8220



References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, i.e. [1]; their list, numbered in citation order, should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should follow the APA 7th edition formatting style, i.e.: for an journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, full journal name, volume, issue (in brackets) and page numbers. Put all author names unless there are more than 20. Otherwise, after the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author’s name (do not place an ampersand before it).

Submission process
Manuscript should be submitted via the Internet Editorial System (IES) – an online submission and peer review system. In order to submit the manuscript via the IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. The submission of the manuscript in a single file, i.e. “Article File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures of high quality and tables embedded in the text), is preferred. All figures have to be uploaded in separate files. The generated PDF file has to be approved. The PDF file has lower quality of the embedded figures to limit its size only.
The submission of a manuscript means that its content has not been published previously, it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which has to be signed before publication. The copyright form is available in the IES.
The Authors are urged to suggest 4 to 5 reviewers in their application (with names, affiliations and addresses) with whom the Editorial Board could co-operate while processing the paper. Proposed reviewers should be experts deeply involved in issues related to the subject matter of the paper and they are intended to come from different universities or research centres.
Each submitted manuscript is subject to a single-blind peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on the reviewers’ comments. If necessary, the authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to exactly fit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the research field, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours from receipt. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding author free of charge. For colour pages the authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of the main distributor (given in “Subscription Information”) must be completed before the date indicated by the Editorial Office.

Other information
It is possible to include supplementary files related to the article content, such as e.g. developed databases. These files can be then used by other researchers to compare their algorithms using the same input data. For more details about supplementary files please contact the Editorial Board: metrology@wat.edu.pl. The biographical statements, at the very end of the article, are not obligatory, however, they are kindly recommended. Each statement should include the author’s full name and brief personal history focused on areas of research and scientific achievements. The biographical statement may not exceed 100 words and should be written using Times New Roman style with a font size of 8 pt.
The publication of your article is a great achievement but then it needs to be further promoted to make it more visible to the research community. Responsibility for this task lies with the Authors and our Editorial Board. We guarantee free access to the article in the Journals PAN of the Polish Academy of Science, including articles in Early Access form (published just after acceptance decision), indexing in popular and renewable databases (e.g. Thomson Scientific Master Journal List, Elsevier’s Scopus, Google Scholar). Furthermore, selected articles are highlighted on the journal website and are reprinted for promotion at conferences and other events. The Authors can share the final form of the article on various social networks and research-sharing platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin, ResearchGate, Academia.edu, SciProfiles. They are also encouraged to update personal and institutional webpages by adding the title and a link of the article. Feel free also to share your work with your colleagues using any other methods that do not conflict with the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license.
For more detailed description about how to write a paper for the Metrology and Measurement Systems journal please look at the Author guidelines for manuscript preparation. We strongly recommend using this file as a template for manuscript preparation.

Polityka Open Access

Metrology and Measurement Systems jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Metrology and Measurement Systems is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

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