Applied sciences

Metrology and Measurement Systems

Content

Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2020 | vol. 27 | No 4 |

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Abstract

This article concerns a new method of assessing the thread cutting process and the quality of the formed thread using the method of optical observation of the workpiece during machining. A series of digital images of the thread profile was taken in transmitted light for each tool infeed. Such images, obtained with high resolution for three angular positions, were binarized, with the space between ridges taken in successive infeeds identified as “void”, and its projection was then parameterized. Two of these parameters, area of void and aspect ratio, were used as indicators of the technological quality of the thread. The suitability of the selected parameters for technological description of the thread was verified using the example of titanium alloy thread turning under ambient and cryogenic conditions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Zawada-Tomkiewicz
Łukasz Żurawski
Dariusz Tomkiewicz
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Abstract

The paper presents a circuit structure that can be used for powering an IoT (Internet of Things) sensor node and that can use energy just from its surroundings. The main advantage of the presented solution is its very low cost that allows mass applicability e.g. in the IoT smart grids and ubiquitous sensors. It is intended for energy sources that can provide enough voltage but that can provide only low currents such as piezoelectric transducers or small photovoltaic panels (PV) under indoor light conditions. The circuit is able to accumulate energy in a capacitor until a certain level and then to pass it to the load. The presented circuit exhibits similar functionality to a commercially available EH300 energy harvester (EH). The paper compares electrical properties of the presented circuit and the EH300 device, their form factors and costs. The EH circuit’s performance is tested together with an LTC3531 buck-boost DC/DC converter which can provide constant voltage for the following electronics. The paper provides guidelines for selecting an optimal capacity of the storage capacitor. The functionality of the solution presented is demonstrated in a sensor node that periodically transmits measured data to the base station using just the power from the PV panel or the piezoelectric generator. The presented harvester and powering circuit are compact part of the sensor node’s electronics but they can be also realized as an external powering module to be added to existing solutions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Adam Bouřa
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Abstract

In automatic and accurate reading recognition of analog meters based on machine vision, one of important issues is the detection of pointer features, which includes the meter center and pointer image processing. The current automatic-recognition approaches to reading analog meters often consist in locating the meter center based on the dial region or its border. The located center is not coincident with the rotation center of pointer which leads to inevitable reading errors. In the paper, the centripetalism of annular scale lines is used to calculate the position of the pointer rotation center. First, it uses the region growing method to locate the dial region and uses the eccentricity measure to extract annular scale lines. Second, the parameters of these scale lines are estimated with the Hough transform method. Then, the common intersection of a group of lines, i.e., the meter rotation center, is determined with the maximum probability criterion. Finally, the pointer centerline and direction are detected through the calculated center and the Hough transform results. The simulated and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can accurately locate the pointer rotation center and obtain pointer centerline. Moreover, it is applicable to the meter image captured under a slant camera view or with uneven light illumination.

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Authors and Affiliations

Hai-Bo Zhuo
Fu-Zhong Bai
Yong-Xiang Xu
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Abstract

Virtual reality (VR) has become a realistic alternative to conventional learning methods in numerous fields including military training. Accurate and precise tracking of a user wearing a head-mounted display is necessary to achieve an immersive VR experience. The widely available SteamVR system, where licensed users can design and construct trackers optimized for a given application can be an alternative to very expensive professional motion tracking. This paper presents the complete design process of a SteamVR tracker dedicated to a shooting simulation in a VR environment.We describe the optimization and simulation of the tracker’s shape and configuration of the sensors. In the simulation phase the developed model had better parameters than its commercial counterparts. Next, the optimized prototype was constructed and configured. The dedicated and automated measuring arrangement provided experimental verification of the tracker’s performance. Tracking performance as well as the accuracy and precision of both position and orientation measurements were determined and compared with simulations, which proved that the simulation software can accurately predict selected properties of the proposed tracker.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marcin Maciejewski
Marek Piszczek
Mateusz Pomianek
Norbert Pałka
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Abstract

The Lithuanian national standard of electric resistance is maintained as the basis for calibration and measurement capabilities published in the key comparison database of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM). The stability and uncertainty of the resistance value measurements, performed since 2004 using the calibrated values of the standard resistors to predict their future behaviour as well as influence of environmental conditions, are discussed. Also discussed is the recovery of a standard resistor which had undergone a mechanical disturbance. It is concluded that the standard resistors operated by the Lithuanian National Electrical Standards Laboratory feature stable drift of resistance, which is well predicted by means of linear regression.

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrius Bartašiunas
Rimantas Miškinis
Dmitrij Smirnov
Emilis Urba
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Abstract

The paper presents a detailed theoretical background for coordinate measurement uncertainty evaluation by means of Type B evaluation method, taking into account information on accuracy of a coordinate measuring system given with the formula for maximum permissible errors of length measurement and verification test results. A proposal for evaluation of the verification test results is made. A measurement model based on the point-plane distance equation is presented. A detailed analysis of the partial derivatives (sensitivity factors in an uncertainty budget) of the measurement model is presented. The analyses of measurement uncertainty for different geometrical characteristicswere conducted using this measurement model. Examples of uncertainty evaluation for geometrical deviations are presented: position of a point related to a datum plane and flatness in the case of convex or concave surfaces. The examples include detailed uncertainty budgets.

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Authors and Affiliations

Wojciech Płowucha
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Abstract

Electrified railways are an example of AC single phase distribution networks. A non-negligible amount of active and nonactive power may be related to harmonics, especially for distorted highly-loaded systems. The paper considers the relevance of the harmonic power terms in order to identify distortion sources in a single-point perspective, in line with the approach of EN 50463 for the quantification of the power and energy consumption. Some single-point Harmonic Producer Indicators (HPI) based on harmonic active power direction and nonactive distortion power terms are reviewed and evaluated using pantograph voltage and current measured during several hours of runs in two European AC railways (operated at 16.7 and 50 Hz). The HPI based on active power shows to be consistent and provides detailed information of rolling stock characteristic components under variable operating conditions; those based on nonactive distortion power are global indexes and hardly can operate with complex harmonic patterns in variable operating conditions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrea Mariscotti
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Abstract

The objective of the study was to assess the potential use of optical measuring instruments to determine the minimum chip thickness in face milling. Images of scanned surfaces were analyzed using mother wavelets. Filtration of optical signals helped identify the characteristic zones observed on the workpiece surface at the beginning of the cutting process. The measurement data were analyzed statistically. The results were then used to estimate how accurate each measuring system was to determine the minimum uncut chip thickness. Also, experimental verification was carried out for each mother wavelet to assess their suitability for analyzing surface images.

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Authors and Affiliations

Damian Gogolewski
Włodzimierz Makieła
Łukasz Nowakowski
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Abstract

HPM meters are required for the assessment of fields generated by sources of high-power microwaves. Finding the inverse calibration curves for such instruments is important for ensuring accuracy. The procedure is relatively simple for meters consisting of linear devices but there can also be hardware solutions implementing nonlinear ones. The objective of the present work was to develop a convenient procedure to allow finding such a curve when the meter uses a D-dot probe and a power detector. For that purpose, the results of low voltage measurements describing the properties of the detector were first analysed. Then a software code was developed to estimate the RMS value of an incident field based on measured output and frequency response. The response was estimated with very low electric field. And finally, the performance of the proposed procedure was verified by tests conducted with high electric field in a TEM cell. High conformity of the output of the meter with fields of known values was demonstrated. The maximum error related to the meter range did not exceed 4%.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jacek Jakubowski
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Abstract

The article presents methodology for testing the electric strength of vacuum chambers designed for modern medium voltage switchgear developed by the authors, using two innovative test stands designed and constructed by the research team above. Verification of the correctness of operation of the test stands, as well as the validity of the developed methodology was carried out by performing a series of tests. It was determined that below certain pressure values in the tested chamber (from about 5.0×10 0 Pa for station 1 and for about 4.0×10 -1 Pa for station 2), the electric strength maintains a constant value, which guarantees stable operation of the vacuum chamber. The values of the total measurement uncertainty for the electric strength tests were also estimated.

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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Węgierek
Michał Lech
Czesław Kozak
Justyna Pastuszak
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Abstract

We present spectral emission characteristics from laser-plasma EUV/SXR sources produced by irradiation of < 1 J energy laser pulse on eleven different double stream gas puff targets, with most intense electronic transitions identified in the spectral range from 1 nm to 70 nm wavelength which corresponds to photon energy from 18 eV to 1240 eV. The spectra were obtained using grazing incidence and transmission spectro- graphs from laser-produced plasma emission, formed by the interaction of a laser beam with a double stream gas puff target. Laser pulses with a duration of 4 ns and energy of 650 mJ were used for the experiment. We present the results obtained from three different spectrometers in the wavelength ranges of SXR (1–5.5 nm), SXR/EUV (4–15.5 nm), and EUV (10–70 nm). In this paper, detailed information about the source, gas targets under investigation, the experimental setup, spectral measurements and the results are presented and discussed. Such data may be useful for the identification of adequate spectral emissions from gasses in the EUV and SXR wavelength ranges dedicated to various experiments (i.e. broadband emission for the X-ray coherence tomography XCT) or may be used for verification of magnetohydrodynamic plasma codes.

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Authors and Affiliations

Antony Jose Arikkatt
Przemysław Wachulak
Henryk Fiedorowicz
Andrzej Bartnik
Joanna Czwartos
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Abstract

The paper examines the usage of Convolutional Bidirectional Recurrent Neural Network (CBRNN) for a problem of quality measurement in a music content. The key contribution in this approach, compared to the existing research, is that the examined model is evaluated in terms of detecting acoustic anomalies without the requirement to provide a reference (clean) signal. Since real music content may include some modes of instrumental sounds, speech and singing voice or different audio effects, it is more complex to analyze than clean speech or artificial signals, especially without a comparison to the known reference content. The presented results might be treated as a proof of concept, since some specific types of artefacts are covered in this paper (examples of quantization defect, missing sound, distortion of gain characteristics, extra noise sound). However, the described model can be easily expanded to detect other impairments or used as a pre-trained model for other transfer learning processes. To examine the model efficiency several experiments have been performed and reported in the paper. The raw audio samples were transformed into Mel-scaled spectrograms and transferred as input to the model, first independently, then along with additional features (Zero Crossing Rate, Spectral Contrast). According to the obtained results, there is a significant increase in overall accuracy (by 10.1%), if Spectral Contrast information is provided together with Mel-scaled spectrograms. The paper examines also the influence of recursive layers on effectiveness of the artefact classification task.

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Authors and Affiliations

Kamila Organiściak
Józef Borkowski

Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief
  • Janusz SMULKO, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
International Programme Committee
  • Andrzej ZAJĄC, Chairman, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Bruno ANDO, University of Catania, Italy
  • Martin BURGHOFF, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany
  • Marcantonio CATELANI, University of Florence, Italy
  • Numan DURAKBASA, Vienna University of Technology, Austria
  • Domenico GRIMALDI, University of Calabria, Italy
  • Laszlo KISH, Texas A&M University, USA
  • Eduard LLOBET, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain
  • Alex MASON, Liverpool John Moores University, The United Kingdom
  • Subhas MUKHOPADHYAY, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
  • Janusz MROCZKA, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Antoni ROGALSKI, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Wiesław WOLIŃSKI, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Associate Editors
  • Zbigniew BIELECKI, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Vladimir DIMCHEV, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia
  • Krzysztof DUDA, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland
  • Janusz GAJDA, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland
  • Teodor GOTSZALK, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Ireneusz JABŁOŃSKI, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Piotr JASIŃSKI, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
  • Piotr KISAŁA, Lublin University of Technology, Poland
  • Manoj KUMAR, University of Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • Grzegorz LENTKA, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
  • Czesław ŁUKIANOWICZ, Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
  • Rosario MORELLO, University Mediterranean of Reggio Calabria, Italy
  • Fernando PUENTE LEÓN, University Karlsruhe, Germany
  • Petr SEDLAK, Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
  • Hamid M. SEDIGHI, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
  • Roman SZEWCZYK, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Language Editors
  • Andrzej Stankiewicz, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Technical Editors
  • Agnieszka Kondratowicz, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland

Contact

Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems

Contact:
E-mail: metrology@pg.edu.pl
URL: www.metrology.pg.gda.pl
Phone: (+48) 58 347-1357

Post address:
Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems
Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics

Instructions for authors

Types of contributions

The following types of papers are published in Metrology and Measurement Systems:
•    invited review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge (max. 20 edited pages, 3000 characters each),
•    research papers reporting original scientific or technological advancements (10‒12 pages),
•    papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
•    short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).

Manuscript preparation

The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The form similar to “camera-ready” with an attached separate file – containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is preferred. For the details of the preferred format of the manuscripts, Authors should consult a recent issue of the journal or the sample article and the guidelines for manuscript preparation. The text of a manuscript should be printed on A4 pages (with margins of 2.5 cm) using a font whose size is 12 pt for main text and 10 pt for the abstract; an even number of pages is strongly recommended. The main text of a paper can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, ...), subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., ...) and – if needed – paragraphs (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., ...). The title page should include: manuscript title, Authors’ names and affiliations with e-mail addresses. The corresponding Author should be identified by the symbol of an envelope and phone number. A concise abstract of approximately 100 words and with 3–5 keywords should accompany the main text.
Illustrations, photographs and tables provided in the camera-ready form, suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction) should be additionally submitted one per page, larger than final size. All illustrations should be clearly marked on the back with figure number and author’s name. All figures are to have captions. The list of figures captions and table titles should be supplied on separate page. Illustrations must be produced in black ink on white paper or by computer technique using the laser printer with the resolution not lower than 300 dpi, preferably 600 dpi. The thickness of lines should be in the range 0.2–0.5 mm, in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Original photographs must be supplied as they are to be reproduced (e.g. black and white or colour). Photocopies of photographs are not acceptable.
References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, e.g. [4]; their list numbered in citation order should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should be as follows: for a journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, journal name (in italics), volume, issue and page numbers. The exemplary format of the references is available at the sample article.

Manuscript submission and processing

Submission procedure. Manuscript should be submitted via Internet Editorial System (IES) ‒ an online submission and peer review system http://www.editorialsystem.com/mms
In order to submit the manuscript via IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. From the account you create, you will be able to monitor your submission and make subsequent submissions.
The submission of the manuscript in two files is preferred: “Paper File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures and tables embedded in the text) and “Figures File” containing illustrations, photographs and tables. Both files should be sent in DOC and PDF format as well as. In the submission letter or on separate page in “Figures File”, the full postal address, e-mail and phone numbers must be given for all co-authors. The corresponding Author should be identified.
Copyright Transfer. The submission of a manuscript means that it has not been published previously in the same form, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License which has to be signed before publication.
Review and amendment procedures. Each submitted manuscript is subject to a peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on reviewers’ comments; if necessary, Authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to suit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the scientific community, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs. Proofs will be sent to the corresponding Author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours of receipt.

Other information

Author Benefits. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding Author free of charge.
Colour. For colour pages the Authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of main distributor must be acquitted before the date pointed to Authors by Editorial Office.

Open Access policy

Metrology and Measurement Systems jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Metrology and Measurement Systems is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

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