Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research


Polish Polar Research | 2009 | vol. 30 | No 1 |

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Penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes) hold much interest for many people, including (but not limited to) scientists. According to results of molecular studies, penguin history began in the Cretaceous, but the oldest bones assigned to these birds are Paleocene in age. The first fossil representative of Sphenisciformes formally described was Palaeeudyptes antarcticus, and this event took place 150 years ago. Since that time, several dozens of species have been erected, though not all of them have stood a test of time. The 21st century entered new dynamics into the paleontology of penguins, and (importantly) it concerned both the new material, and new theories. This paper summarizes what we currently know about extinct penguins and indirectly suggests the most promising areas for further research.

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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Jadwiszczak
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A large sample of more than 1500 individuals of scavenging Amphipoda from fur seal carcass was studied. Six species have been identified. The two most abundant species, Abyssorchomene plebs and Waldeckia obesa, are sublittoral, necrophagous amphipods that could attack the carcass when submerged in the sea. After stranding on the beach they became an attractive food source for birds eating not only the seal tissues but also the scavenging amphipods. The species composition of the present sample as well as earlier data on Antarctic tern stomach content and baited traps taken in the same area and at the same time agreed quite well. These observations confirm the expectation that Antarctic tern feeds on necrophagous amphipods picked out from carcasses stranding on the sea shore.

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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Jażdżewska
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Since 1978 the retreat of Ecology Glacier in the vicinity of Henryk Arctowski Station has opened new ice-free areas for colonization by terrestrial organisms initiated by pioneer microbes. Samples were collected from the soil surface, at 0, 5 and 20 cm below surface close to glacier front, then stored at below -20°C . Total bacterial count (TC), estimated by epifluorescence microscopy, reached high values, of 1010 g-1 dry wt. Healthy looking bacterial cells of mean volume 0.0209 µm3 at 0 cm to 0.0292 µm3 at 20 cm made up from 7% at 0 cm , to 30% at 20 cm of total bacterial population. The number of colony forming units (CFU) accounted for only 0.02% of TC. Taxonomically they belonged to the a, b, g subdivisions of the proteobacteria and to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group. Morphophysiologically CFU bacteria were diverse, from Gram variable short coccal forms to very long rods or filaments. Randomly selected CFU colonies were characterized by low sugar assimilation and high esterase/lipase activity. Spore forming bacteria – absent from 0 and 5 cm , formed a small fraction of 175 cells g-1 dry wt at the 20 cm depth. Filamentous fungi were relatively abundant and represented mainly by oligotrophs.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jakub Grzesiak
Magdalena Żmuda−Baranowska
Piotr Borsuk
Marek Zdanowski
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The aim of this study was to assess the anisakid nematode distribution pattern in the fish collected from the South Shetland Islands . A total of 32 fish species were examined for the presence of nematodes in 1978, 1979, 1981 and 2007/2008. The fish were caught off the South Shetland Islands ( Elephant Island , Shishkov Island and in Admiralty Bay – King George Island ). Three genera of L3 larval nematodes were identified: Anisakis sp., Contracaecum spp. and Pseudoterranova decipiens. The infection level was higher on the shelf around the islands than in Admiralty Bay . This is explained by a higher abundance of the final hosts in the region. A comparison of the infection data from 1978/79 and 2007/2008 with data from 1994/96 (Palm et al. 1998, 2007) was done. The parameters of infection of Notothenia coriiceps and Lepidonotothen nudifrons by Pseudoterranova decipiens were decreasing within the 30 years period.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jerzy Rokicki
Galina Rodjuk
Krzysztof Zdzitowiecki
Zdzisław Laskowski
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The aim of this study was to examine the pollution level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and selected chloroorganic pesticides (HCH isomers, DDT and its metabolites, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, endosulfan I and II, and methoxychlor) in surface sediments from selected fjords, tidal plains and lakes from the North Svalbard area. The sediments were collected from 34 sampling stations in July 2005. Only endosulfan I and methoxychlor, among selected chloroorganic pesticides, were measured in concentrations near detection limit (LoD) in fourteen sediment samples. The sum of seven PCB congeners varied from < 0.9 to 5.6 ng g-1 d.w. in sediments from fjords and tidal plains and from < 0.1 to 14.6 ng g-1 d.w. in sediments from lakes. The concentrations of analysed PAH compounds in surface sediments from lakes were over ten times higher (Ʃ16PAHs to 429 ng g-1 d.w.) than in sediments from fjords and tidal plains (Ʃ16PAHs to 36 ng g-1 d.w.).

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Authors and Affiliations

Grażyna Sapota
Barbara Wojtasik
Dorota Burska
Kamil Nowiński

Editorial office


Magdalena BŁAŻEWICZ (Life Sciences), University of Łódź, Poland

Wojciech MAJEWSKI (Geosciences), Institute of Paleobiology PAS, Poland

Michał ŁUSZCZUK (Social Science and Hummanities), UMCS, Poland

Associate Editors

Piotr JADWISZCZAK (Białystok),


Krzysztof JAŻDŻEWSKI (Łódź),


Monika KĘDRA (Sopot)


Ewa ŁUPIKASZA (Sosnowiec)


Piotr PABIS (Łódź),


Editorial Advisory Board

Angelika BRANDT (Hamburg),

Claude DE BROYER (Bruxelles),

Peter CONVEY (Cambridge, UK),

J. Alistair CRAME (Cambridge, UK),

Rodney M. FELDMANN (Kent, OH),

Jane E. FRANCIS (Cambridge, UK),

Andrzej GAŹDZICKI (Warszawa)

Aleksander GUTERCH (Warszawa),

Jacek JANIA (Sosnowiec),

Jiří KOMÁREK (Třeboň),

Wiesława KRAWCZYK (Sosnowiec),

German L. LEITCHENKOV (Sankt Petersburg),

Jerónimo LÓPEZ-MARTINEZ (Madrid),

Sergio A. MARENSSI (Buenos Aires),

Jerzy NAWROCKI (Warszawa),

Ryszard OCHYRA (Kraków),

Maria OLECH (Kraków)

Sandra PASSCHIER (Montclair, NJ),

Jan PAWŁOWSKI (Genève),

Gerhard SCHMIEDL (Hamburg),

Jacek SICIŃSKI (Łódź),

Michael STODDART (Hobart),

Witold SZCZUCIŃSKI (Poznań),

Andrzej TATUR (Warszawa),

Wim VADER (Tromsø),

Tony R. WALKER (Halifax, Nova Scotia),

Jan Marcin WĘSŁAWSKI (Sopot) - President.



phone: (48 22) 697 88 53

Instytut Paleobiologii PAN
ul. Twarda 51/55
00-818 Warszawa, POLAND

Life Sciences
phone: (48 22) 635 42 97

Zakład Biologii Polarnej i Oceanobiologii Uniwersytet Łódzki
ul. S. Banacha 12/16
90-237 Łódź, POLAND

Social Science and Hummanities
phone: (48 81) 537 68 99

Instytut Geografii Społeczno-Ekonomicznej i Gospodarki Przestrzennej UMCS
Al. Kraśnicka 2D
20-718 Lublin, POLAND

Instructions for authors

Instructions for authors

The quarterly Polish Polar Research invites original scientific papers dealing with all aspects of polar research. The journal aims to provide a forum for publication of high-quality research papers, which are of international interest.

Articles must be written in English. Authors are requested to have their manuscript read by a person fluent in English before submission. They should not be longer than 30 typescript pages, including tables, figures and references. However, upon request, longer manuscripts may be considered for publication. All papers are peer-reviewed. With a submitted manuscript, authors should provide their names, affiliations, ORCID number and e-mail addresses of at least three suggested reviewers.

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Title should be concise, informative and no longer than 15 words. Abstract should have no more than 250 words. The authors are requested to supply up to 5 keywords, different than words used in the title. The references should be arranged alphabetically and chronologically. Journal names should not be abbreviated. Please, ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list and vice versa.
Responsibility for the accuracy of bibliographic citations lies entirely with the authors. The inline references to published papers should consist of the surname of the author(s) followed by the year of publication. More than two authors should be cited with the first author’s surname, followed by et al. (Dingle et al. 1998) but in full in the References.

ANDERSON J.B. 1999. Antarctic Marine Geology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
BIRKENMAJER K. 1991. Tertiary glaciation in the South Shetland Islands, West Antarctica: evaluation of data. In: M.R.A. Thomson, J.A. Crame and J.W. Thomson (eds) Geological Evolution of Antarctica. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 629–632.
DINGLE S.A., MARENSSI S.A. and LAVELLE M. 1998. High latitude Eocene climate deterioration: evidence from the northern Antarctic Peninsula. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 11: 571–579.
SEDOV R.V. 1997. Glaciers of the Chukotka. Materialy Glyatsiologicheskikh Issledovaniy 82: 213–217 (in Russian).
SOBOTA I. and GRZEŚ M. 2006. Characteristic of snow cover on Kaffioyra’s glaciers, NW Spitsbergen in 2005. Problemy Klimatologii Polarnej 16: 147–159 (in Polish).
WARD B.L. 1984. Distribution of modern benthic foraminifera of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. M.Sc. Thesis. Victoria University, Wellington (unpublished).

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Please submit your manuscripts to Polish Polar Research using our online submission system.

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Polish Polar Research jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 3.0.

Polish Polar Research is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 3.0

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