Humanities and Social Sciences

Studia Nauk Teologicznych

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Studia Nauk Teologicznych | 2010 | Tom 5 |

Abstract

In this article the author tries to resolve the problem of what is the relation (is it a dialogue?) between Christianity and the European culture in the past and today. He tries to see it in the light of John Paul II’s teaching in a few steps: the role of Christianity in the origin of Europe, the role of Christianity in the history of Europe, the role of Christianity in the identity of Europe and its culture, and the modern European culture in its relation to Christianity. Christianity has created Europe and the culture (and ethos) of dialogue. Christianity was present in – sometimes tragic – history of Europe motivating many positive changes, although christians were not always following the principles of their religion. Christianity is the most important element of the Europe’s identity and culture, although during its history some other elements, far from Christianity, appeared. Modern european culture, which is still in a process of building its identity, consists of many tendencies – far or close to christianity. far from it do not dialogue with it, but close to it – do so. Christianity and the Church, who represents it, is ready to the dialogue, although she is aware of its diffculties and necessity.

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Abstract

This paper constitutes out of necessity only a partial/fragmentary analysis of the infuence of Christianity on the culture of the United Sates. There is no doubt that the wish to create a truly Christian society which could be a “new Israel” was a strong motive which became the underlying cause for the founding of the USA. The “founding myth” has been refected not only in the proclaimed constitution with a pioneering principle of separating the state from the religion but also present in everyday life of a rapidly developing nation, continually fuelled by Protestant leaders. The power of the myth was sustained and spontaneously stimulated by the successive waves of European immigrants systematically Americanized by the local population. the inseparable element of American lifestyle is a specifc presence of Christianity in the public sphere in the form of civil religion. After the crisis associated with the expansion of secularism (intellectuals’ heresy after the Second World War) there was a great revival of Christianity in the eighties of the previous century. It was infuenced by a fervent religious rhetoric of President R. Reagan and by the attack of Protestant conservatives soon allied with conservatism of Catholic writers/publicists. Despite the growing attitudes of religious indifference, political and social life of contemporary America is permeated with religious elements, declaration of faith in God being perceived positively. A marked religious revival although encompassing only some part of the society makes America, in contrast to Europe, a country of a clearly Christian character.

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Abstract

The purpose of the article is to systematize the main issues related to the encounter of Christianity with Latin American cultures. The study is based on both Latin American theological publications and various documents of the Roman Catholic Church. In the first part the problem of Christianity’s encounter with cultures of this region from historic perspective is discussed by pointing out to its negative, ambiguous and positive aspects. The second part is devoted to classification of culture circles, significant from the point of view of evangelization and inculturation (cultures of urban agglomeration, rural regions, Indian and Afro-Latin American cultures, poverty, elites, cyber culture and popular culture). In the final section we paid attention to the issue of up-coming culture and its trends (modernism and postmodernism, secularism, socio-political ideologies, the role of mass media, the tensions between globalization process and appreciation of local traditions).

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Abstract

This article focuses on an extremely urgent problem of today’s Christian dialogue with China, i.e. the culture (and politics) of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and asks whether a Christian dialogue with China – which understand herself as an atheist and Communist state, which, however, is a country of many religious traditions, is possible, and if so in what form? What are its prospects and challenges?

The starting point of the article, after some historical remarks, is a kind of heterotopy of the dialogue in Chinese context, involving (III.1.) the historical and political context, then (III.2) its partners, and fnally (III.3) its forms and contents. in this framework, this article is (IV) refection on the challenges, opportunities and prospects of the Christian dialogue with Chinese culture. This refection is not taken here from the standpoint of theology, but is rather a phenomenological description of the status quo. At the end of the article (V) some statements of pope John Paul II with regard to the dialogue of Christianity with Chinese culture are quoted as a kind of summary.

The article states a great asymmetry of partners of the dialogue in China caused by the restrictive religious policy. There are some forms of dialogue which, however, are realized outside of the institutionalized Christianity, i.e. the Christian Churches. The Churches themselves, due to their historical background, are not very interested in or prepared for an inter-religious dialogue.

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Abstract

The aim of this article is to present the relation between Christianity and Korean culture. The problem here is not the concept of Christianity, but the concept of Korean culture. In the Korean thought is hard to distinguish between religion and philosophy. Philosophy, religion and culture are synonyms for “philosophy of life”.

The original Korean philosophy is Shamanism and received from China Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. In the case of Christianity we have to consider Catholic Church, Protestant Church and Orthodox Church. Special attention we have to pay to the Korean theology, which is based on Korean tradition. Special role in the history of Catholic Church in Korea played Korean martyrs. Sanguis martyrum, semen christianorum.

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Abstract

The aim of this article is to present the relation between Christianity and Japanese culture. The problem here is not the concept of Christianity, but the concept of Japanese culture. In the Japanese thought is hard to distinguish between religion and philosophy. Philosophy, religion and culture are synonyms for “philosophy of life”. The original Japanese philosophy is Shinto and received from China Confucianism, and Buddhism. In the case of Christianity we have to consider Catholic Church and Orthodox Church. Special attention we have to pay to the process of inculturation of the Good news in the Japanese soil.

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Abstract

The title of the article, formulated by the Editors, requires a few clarifcations of terms. Both phenomena – Christianity and the African culture – are de facto plural and have to be regarded and treated as such. The title also juxtaposes a term that describes a religious reality with a cultural one (this also touches on the understanding of the relation between religion and culture). This can only be done on the assumption that “Christianity” means “a culture permeated by the Gospel message”.

The author argues that Christians have never presented a unifed attitude towards the African culture. As in the Christian antiquity, as in later times (including the present) Christians showed ambivalent attitudes towards the African culture. Some strongly opposed it, some allowed a restricted borrowing, some engaged actively with the African culture. One cannot see these attitudes in terms of development or regress because they have been synchronically present at all times. The attitudes towards African culture also changed at times within the particular strands of Christianity. What was rejected of hardly acceptable at one time becomes the order of the day at other. However, these attitudes have not been synchronized in all christian churches and communities.

After stating the article’s argument and making the terminological reservations, the author substantiate the argument presenting three types of interaction between Christianity and African culture giving examples from different times and regions.

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Abstract

The article describes the Roman Catholic understanding of the ecumenical dialogue as stated in the Decree on ecumenism of the Second Vatican Council and in further documents of the RC Church. This ecumenical dialogue may be conducted only among Christian Churches and Church Communities as it aims the restoration of full visible unity of Christians.

The dialogue should primarily lead to the common rediscovery of the truth, and never to any kind of establishing the truth, of elaborating it or reaching the compromise. The true dialogue has nothing to do with negotiating the common position, where each party wants to force oneself upon another and to make the less concessions possible. This is because we cannot reduce the requirements of the Gospel to any kind of necessary minimum, a common basis recognized by all the churches and ecclesial communities.

Such a dialogue contains its inner dynamics, its existential dimension. The truth is personal, as Christ himself is the Truth, so the search for unity belongs to the proper essence of being a Christian. So the ecumenical dialogue is “an imperative of Christian conscience” (John Paul II), so it is something that inevitably ought to be taken and accomplished by Christians.

The ecumenical dialogue however is not the goal for itself. Neither it is only mutual recognition of Christian Communities or even common prayer. The common aimis the restoration of full visible unity of divided Churches. On the way of ecumenism we cannot limit to the prayer or the ecumenical dialogue. On the contrary – we should develop all the possible ways of collaboration, because unity of action leads to the full unity of faith. Neither the unity nor uniformity of doctrine or churchly traditions, but only the unity in one faith is the far-reaching goal of the ecumenical dialogue.

The documents of the RC Church give also clear hints how to lead the ecumenical dialogues: the dialoguing parties must be expert in theology, seeking the truth, not a victory, moving from easier topics to the more diffcult ones, trying to use the language free of polemical connotations.

Before the Second Vatican Council the Catholic Church didn’t lead any offcial ecumenical dialogue, what didn’t mean the lack of any ecumenical encounters. The first ones, however, were unoffcial and did not engage the offcial Church authority. Widespread engagement in the ecumenical dialogues in the time of popes Paul VI and John Paul II can be justly perceived as a direct fruit of the Second Vatican council and its Decree on ecumenism.

During the decades the commissions of dialogue have already elaborated thousands of pages of common statements and agreed declarations. The Churches must be however aware, that without strong effort of reception of these documents in their midst, the fruits of the dialogues will have no infuence on the reconciliation of Christians in one faith.

Even if there may be some kind of deception because of slowness of ecumenical process, we can be certain that meetings in the dialogue enabled Christians of various Churches an Church Communities to grow towards full, visible unity wanted by our Lord for His disciples.

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Abstract

Since Vatican II there have been issued many Church documents of different rank, which are explicitly devoted to dialogue with non-Christian religions or contain statements on the matter; there is also a very comprehensive bibliography on interreligious dialogue. The article presents three issues which occupy a signifcant place in these works. The frst is the theological bases for dialogue. They have been expressed in the trinitarian structure. At the heart of the dialogue is faith in God, the creator and father of all people, in the Son, through whom universal salvation took place and the Spirit, which everywhere personifes the salvation work of God in three persons. The second issue, which is the content of the article, expresses a unique position of Judaism in dialogue of Christianity with other religions. The importance of Israel for the emergence and existence of the Church, and at the same time for her salvation role for the entire Jewish people, is an important spur to the refection on the salvation relationship of christianity to other religions. The dialogue is diffcult to operate without a proper spiritual attitude. This issue is the subject of interest of the third point in the article. Spirituality shaped by attitudes of conversion and submission to the will of God, especially in the prayerful elation of the human heart, becomes a source of behaviours which are conducive to dialogue.

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Abstract

The present overview of current Christian-Jewish dialogue shape firstly specifes the dialogue and its partners concept meaning applied to the relations between religious societies. It draws our attention to the polarisations within the Christianity and Judaism as well as to the differencies in dialogue advancement between bodies keeping the dialogue and the general public. It points out the different motivation prompting Jews and Christians to keep the dialogue and the infuence of this on understanding the sense, the choice of its representatives and the theme of the dialogue.

The deepening mutual cognition along with the growing awareness of both; chances and limits of consensus in the dialogue, are indicated among the previous achievements. From the side of the catholic church, irreversible will of the dialogue along with the appropriate directions of doctrinal clarifcations of the Church Teaching are strongly emphasized.

The theological questions are raised that on the Christian side develop from the acknowledgment of irremovability of the covenant between God and Israel. The questions refer to the contemporary situation and the eschatological perspective of existence of two communities considering themselves as continuation of the covenant between God and Abraham, as well as their relation towards Israel Land. The article at its conclusion stipulates the deepening of the awareness of the mystery whenever resuming the religious topics in the dialogue.

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Abstract

Since the beginning of islam in the 7th century christians and Muslims have been a permanent challenge for themselves. the confrontation and the closeness which accompany them through the entire history are rooted in the universal and monotheistic character of both religions. From the christian point of view it would be diffcult to talk about interreligious dialogue or at least its modern developments, without the Second Vatican council (1962–1965) and the declaration nostra aetate. The council recognized in it the spiritual, moral and cultural values present in different religions, emphasizing spiritual and moral values between Muslim and christians. For the frst time in the history of the Catholic Church, the council’s fathers offcially called for the co-operation with Muslims. This is the starting point of the real dialogue between Christians and Muslims.

This article attempts to describe and analyse – in three parts – some aspects of the dialogical initiatives of Christian-Muslim relations. A greater part of it refers to the Roman Catholic Church, but some examples of interpretation and dialogical initiatives of the Orthodox and protestant churches are included as well. Islam as a point of reference is taken as a whole. After a short introduction containing a general defnition of dialogue and its interreligious form the frst part deals with historical facts which shaped the dialogical attitudes. The selected historical facts build a background for some theological ideas on islam in orthodox, catholic and protestant traditions. The second part focuses on the practical aspects of dialogue – its forms and representative institutions, i.e. the pontifcal council for interreligious Dialogue, World council of churches and Orthodox center of the ecumenical patriarch in chambésy which are engaged in the dialogue on behalf of the main christian churches. The third part offers some ideas concerning aarguments for dialogue, its effciency and quality which might be important for the future of dialogue. The modern history of Christian-Muslim relations shows that the dialogue between adherents of these two largest religions is possible despite that it is not an easy undertaking. the author underlines that there is no alternative to dialogue as there is no better way to defeat prejudices and heal the wounds of the past.

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Abstract

Das Vernunftelement, das dem Glauben zugeordnet ist, den Glauben auch sucht, ist gegenwärtig – zwar nicht so deutlich, wie es früher war – ausschließlich in der philosophie präsent. Denn gegenwärtig beeinfusst dieses element den Glauben von den unterschiedlichen Bereichen der allgemein dominierenden Wissenschaften her. Die neueste Geschichte des Verhältnisses zwischen kirche und Wissenschaft ist durch kongresse, Symposien und tagungen, die einen interdisziplinären charakter haben, geschrieben. In den Begegnungen bemühen sich theologen im gemeinsamen Gespräch mit den repräsentanten der Human- und naturwissenschaften um größere Harmonie zwischen den jeweiligen Wissenschaften. Die Absicht des Artikels ist die Analyse der Verlautbarungen der kirchlichen Lehre von papst pius iX (1792–1878) bis zum papst Benedikt XVi (*1927). Besonderes werden die Ansprachen des papstes Johannes paul ii (1920–2005) an die Mitglieder der päpstlichen Akademie zum thema: im Verhältnis der kirche zu Wissenschaft bzw. naturwissenschaft analysiert. Solche interesse seitens des kirchlichen Lehramtes spricht die Anfrage der profanem Wissenschaften, die neben ihren ständigen Spezialisierungen auch für die Weisheitsdimensionen der wissenschaftlichen forschungen offen bleiben. Das Verfahren bewegt sich in drei Schritten. Zuerst wird die unmöglichkeit eines Widerspruchs zwischen christlichen Glauben und Wissenschaft dargestellt (1). Dann wird auf das fundament für die Gespräche zwischen kirche und Wissenschaft – die gegenseitige Anerkennung der Autonomie zwischen der irdischen und ewigen Ordnung – hingewiesen (2). Zum Abschluss werden nachkonziliare Dokumente, die auf die kooperation zwischen kirche und Wissenschaft hinweisen, analisiert. Als resultat wurde nachgewiesen, dass die kirchliche Lehre eindeutig auf eine evolution der Öffnung der kirche auf Wissenschaft zeigt. Die nachkonziliare Dokumente weisen nicht nur auch auf eine Möglichkeit und notwendigkeit der Zusammenarbeit zwischen kirche und Wissenschaft, sondern auch beschreiben einige Bedingungen dieser kooperation. Es geht in dieser kooperation in ersten Linie um die Suche nach der Wahrheit und gegenseitiges erkennen.

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Editorial office

Rada Naukowa:
Prof. dr hab. Clemens Breuer (Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule St. Pölten/Austria)
Ks. prof. dr hab. Bogdan Częsz (UAM Poznań)
Ks. dr hab. prof. UKSW Stanisław Dziekoński (UKSW Warszawa)
Ks. prof. dr hab. Bogdan Ferdek (PWT Wrocław)
Ks. prof. dr hab. Krzysztof Góźdź (KUL Lublin)
Ks. bp dr hab. prof. ChAT Marcin Hintz (ChAT Warszawa)
Ks. prof. dr Dariusz Kowalczyk SJ (Pontificia Università Gregoriana Rzym/Włochy)
Ks. prof. dr hab. Józef Kulisz (Bobolanum Warszawa)
Ks. prof. Piotr Morciniec (UO Opole)
O. prof. dr hab. Andrzej Napiórkowski (UJPII)
Ks. prof. dr hab. Jan Perszon (UMK Toruń)
Ks. prof. dr hab. Jan Słomka (UŚ Katowice)

 

Komitet Redakcyjny:
Ks. prof. dr hab. Tadeusz Dola (UO Opole)
Ks. prof. dr hab. Marian Machinek (UWM OLsztyn) - przewodniczący
Ks. dr hab. Artur Malina (UŚ Katowice)
Ks. prof. Dr hab. Sławomir Nowosad (KUL Lublin)
Prof. dr hab. Eugeniusz Sakowicz (UKSW Warszawa)
Ks. prof. dr hab. Henryk Seweryniak (UKSW Warszawa)
Dr Małgorzata Laskowska (UKSW Warszawa) - sekretarz

 

Redaktorzy tematyczni:
Ks. prof. dr hab. Paweł Bortkiewicz (UAM Poznań) - teologia moralna
Ks. prof. dr hab. Waldemar Chrostowski (UKSW Warszawa) - nauki biblijne
O. prof. dr hab. Jacek Salij (UKSW Warszawa) - teologia dogmatyczna
Ks. prof. dr hab. Łukasz Kamykowski (UPJPII) - teologia fundamentalna
Prof. dr hab. Krystian Wojaczek (UO Opole) - teologia pastoralna
Ks. prof. dr hab. Henryk Pietras (AI Kraków) - patrologia, historia Kościoła

 

Redaktorzy językowi:
Alois Hüging - Biesdorf/Niemcy (j. niemiecki)
Raymund Brennan - Londyn/Wielka Brytania (j. angielski)

 

Contact

studia.nt@pan.pl

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2. Cytowanie książek: inicjał imienia, nazwisko (-a) autora (-ów), tytuł dzieła (pisany kursywą bez cudzysłowu), wydawnictwo, miejsce i rok wydania (przed rokiem zaznaczamy części wydawnicze (np. 32007), wykaz cytowanych stron. Fragmenty opuszczone w cytatach należy zaznaczyć trzema kropkami w nawiasach kwadratowych.

3. Powtarzanie przypisu: nie stosujemy takich słów, jak np. tamże, tenże, itp., ale powtarzamy skrócony zapis bibliograficzny (inicjał imienia, nazwisko, tytuł lub jego część oraz strony).

4. Przykład zapisu przypisów

1 A. Derdziuk, Teologia moralna w służbie wiary Kościoła, Wydawnictwo KUL Lublin 2010, 125-134.

2 A. Derdziu, k, Teologia moralna …, s. 89.

3 P. Feyerabend, Mentale Ereignisse und das Gehirn, w: P. Bieri (red.), Analytische Philosophie des Geistes, Beltz Verlag, Weinheim-Basel 42007, s. 121-125.

5 Pius XII, Divino afflante Spiritu, AAS 35 (1943), s. 297–325.

6 DWR 10.

7 TWNT, t. 1, s. 321.

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