Applied sciences

Archives of Civil Engineering

Content

Archives of Civil Engineering | 2018 | Vol. 64 | No 4/I |

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Abstract

As a result of the necessity to improve energy properties of prefabricated buildings, their thermo-modernizations are performed. In the paper various approaches to the modelling of prefabricated load bearing walls before and after thermo-modernization are presented. Simple one layer models with extra mass from ceilings and equivalent stiffness as well as multilayer ones are taken into consideration using the finite element method software. Values of the natural frequencies of the wall horizontal vibrations calculated using the various models, are compared. It was proved that even the very simple model with equivalent stiffness allows to compute natural vibration frequencies of wall with acceptable accuracy for engineering practice.

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Kuźniar
M. Zając
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Abstract

Sand drifting on road networks in the region of the Lower Algerian Sahara is one of the main problems for the sector. Machines are repeatedly deployed to overcome this phenomenon. The long experience acquired while dealing with the removal of sand from roads pushed us to focus on obstacles called "Draas". The purpose of this study is to perform an optimization of these special protective structures called “Draas”, using a reduced physical model. Model tests were performed in flow channel. The principle of modeling the wind transport using a reduced model is to simulate the wind using a liquid stream while respecting the laws of hydraulic and sedimentological similarity. The results obtained are extrapolated to make a normal size prototype.

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Authors and Affiliations

A.K. Sebaa
M. Belhamra
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Abstract

The main purpose of the study is to investigate the mechanical properties around an underground gas storage cavern in bedded salt rock. Firstly, considering the characteristics of the salt rock formation in China, the mechanical model was simplified into a hollow cylinder, which containing non-salt interlayer. In terms of elastic theory, Love displacement function was developed, and the elastic general solution of stress and deformation components were obtained after determining the undetermined coefficients. Under the same condition, numerical simulation was carried out. The validity of the elastic general solution is verified by comparing to numerical simulation results. Furthermore, Based on the feasible general elastic solution, viscoelastic solution was obtained through Laplace transformation and inverse Laplace transform, which could provide reference for the study on the stability and tightness of underground gas storage carven during operation to some extent.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Xie
H.J. Wen
G.J. Wang
J. Hu
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Abstract

The construction process of the tunnel ground deformation regularity of surrounding rock, stability, deformation control of tunnel surface based on the requirements, combined with the characteristics of shallow tunnel with large-span. Used three-dimensional numerical simulation software, established a dynamic tunnel analysis program to simulate the construction process of center cross-diagram method and double sidewall drift method. Based on the stratum deformation, supporting force and analysis of plastic zone distribution, comparative analysis of engineering adaptability of different construction methods from the construction process and construction mechanics, get optimization tunnel construction scheme.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jiao Pengfei
Xiao Zhang
Xinzhi Li
Bei Jiang
Bohong Liu
Haojie Zhang
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Abstract

This study presents a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) by integrating analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy cognition to evaluate the construction risks of tunnel portals. Wuguanyi Tunnel is taken as the research objective to validate the performance of the proposed method. The result shows that the proposed decision making method can effectively identify risk factors and determine the risk level during the construction of tunnel portals. Finally, the corresponding control measures during the construction of the Wuguanyi Tunnel portal are proposed according to the risk assessment results.

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Authors and Affiliations

Xianghui Deng
ORCID: ORCID
Rui Wang
ORCID: ORCID
Tian Xu
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Abstract

The actual load-bearing capacity of elements of a building system can be calculated by dynamic parameters, in particular by resonant frequency and compliance. The prerequisites for solving such a problem by the finite element method (FEM) are presented in the article. First, modern vibration tests demonstrate high accuracy in determination of these parameters, which reflects reliability of the diagnosis. Secondly, most modern computational complexes do not include a functional for calculating the load-bearing capacity of an element according to the input values of resonance frequencies. Thirdly, FEM is the basis for development of software tools for automating the computation process. The article presents the method for calculating flexural stiffness and moment of inertia of a beam construction system by its own frequencies. The method includes calculation algorithm realizing the finite element method.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Nesterenko
G. Stolpovskiy
M. Nesterenko
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Abstract

This paper presents the results of preliminary tests for estimating the modulus of elasticity of wooden beams from firs reinforced with PBO fiber mesh. The tests were carried out in the Materials Strength Laboratory at the Kielce University of Technology in Kielce, Poland with PN-EN 408:2004. The wooden elements were subjected to a four-point bending test with the aim of estimating the elastic modulus when bending, assuming the loading velocities of the loading forces of 5 mm/min. The obtained results show a significant increase in the load-bearing capacity of beams reinforced with PBO mesh.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Sokołowski
P.G. Kossakowski
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Abstract

The issues of local stability and ultimate resistance of a continuous beam with thin-walled box section (Class 4) were reduced to the analysis of the local buckling of bilaterally elastically restrained internal plate of the compression flange at longitudinal stress variation. Critical stress of the local buckling was determined using the so-called Critical Plate Method (CPM). In the method, the effect of the elastic restraint of the component walls of the bar section and the effect of longitudinal stress variation that results from varying distribution of bending moments were taken into account. On that basis, appropriate effective characteristics of reliable sections were determined. Additionally, ultimate resistances of those sections were estimated. The impact of longitudinal stress variation and of the degree of elastic restraint of longitudinal edges on, respectively, the local buckling of compression flanges in the span section (p) and support section (s) was analysed. The influence of the span length of the continuous beam and of the relative plate slenderness of the compression flange on the critical ultimate resistance of box sections was examined.

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Authors and Affiliations

K. Brzezińska
A. Szychowski
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Abstract

Within the INMOP 3 research project, an attempt was made to solve a number of problems associated with the methodology of modelling travel in urban areas and the application of intermodal models. One of these is the ability to describe the behaviour of transport system users, when it comes to making decisions regarding the selection of means of transport and searching for relationships between travel describing factors and the decisions made in regard of means of transport choice.

The paper describes a probabilistic approach to the determination of modal split, and the application of a logistic regression model to determine the impact of variables describing individual and mass transport travels on the probability of selecting specific means of transport. Travels in local model of Warsaw city divided into 9 motivation groups were tested, for which ultimately 8 models were developed, out of which 7 were deemed very well fitted (obtained pseudoR2 was well above 0.2).

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Brzeziński
K. Brzeziński
T. Dybicz
Ł. Szymański
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Abstract

Wood plastic composite (WPC) is a lightweight material, resistant against corrosion and damage, with recyclability of consuming materials. These materials usually used in marine structures frequently due to their unique features. In order to strengthen beams made by this material, usually Fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) sheets are used, and one of the fracture modes in these beams is debonding of FRP sheet from the surface of the beams. To deal with this problem some grooves are used in the surface of the beam to improve the contact surface. The grooves include longitudinal, transverse and diagonal grooves. The main goal of this study is to assess different grooving methods in WPC-FRP beams. In this regard, primarily criteria (improving resistance, performance speed, performance complexity, performance costs, displacement and absorbing energy) were determined through interviews with experts in this field in order to assess the beams. Then, SWARA method employed to evaluate criteria with a policy based perspective and finally EDAS method applied for evaluating related alternatives. Based on obtained results, the longitudinal groove method is the best way of strengthening WPC beams to prevent debonding.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mahdi Chini
Shahid Arefi Lale
Sarfaraz Zolfani Hashemkhani
Leonas Ustinovicius
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Abstract

The properties of expansive concretes made of two types of cement: Portland cement CEM I and blast furnace slag cement CEM III were tested. The expansion of the concrete was caused by using an expansive admixture containing aluminium powder added in an amount of 0.5; 1 and 1.5% of cement mass. It was found that the compressive strength of concrete with CEM I decreased after using an expansive admixture in the amount of more than 0.5% of the cement mass. The compressive strength of concrete with CEM III decrease after addition of admixture in the entire range of dosages used. On the basis of electrochemical measurements, it was found no influence of an expansive admixture on corrosion of reinforcing steel. The use of an expansive admixture causes a slight increase in the effective diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in concrete.

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Authors and Affiliations

W. Jackiewicz-Rek
J. Kuziak
B. Jaworska
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Abstract

Asphalt mixtures are commonly used for the pavement construction for national roads with a high traffic load, as well as local roads with low traffic load. The constructions of local road pavement consisting of thinner, more flexible layers located on less stable subbase than the pavement of national roads, require reinforcement with asphalt layers characterized by increased fatigue life. Technologies that allow quick repairs and reinforcements, while improving the durability of the road pavement are being sought. Such technologies include the use of modifications of asphalt mixtures with special fibers. The paper presents the results of investigations of the properties of asphalt mixtures modified with innovative basalt-polymer fibers FRP. On the basis of the obtained test results according to the Marshall method, stiffness modulus and fatigue durability, the technical properties of asphalt mixtures with FRP fibers addition were improved. This technology significantly increases the fatigue life of asphalt concrete dedicated for repairs and reinforcements of road pavements.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Radziszewski
M. Sarnowski
A. Plewa
P. Pokorski
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Abstract

The article presents a constitutive model for Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) along with result of dynamic simulations of SMA model. The applications of devices incorporating SMA in civil engineering focus mostly on mitigation of the seismic hazard effects in new-build and historical buildings or improvement of fatigue resilience. The unique properties of SMA, such as shape memory effect and superelasticity give promising results for such applications. The presented model includes additional phenomenon of SMA – internal loops. The paper shows the method of formulation of physical relations of SMA based on special rheological structure, which includes modified Kepes’s model. This rheological element, introduced as dual-phase plasticity body, is given in the context of martensite phase transformation. One of the advantages of such an approach is a possibility of formulation of constitutive relationships as a set of explicit differential equations. The application of the model is demonstrated on example of dynamic simulations of three dimensional finite element subjected to dynamic excitation.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Zbiciak
K. Wasilewski
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Abstract

Biskupin is one of the most recognizable archaeological site in Poland and Central Europe. The origins of the excavations dates back to year 1934 and had lasted almost continuously until 1974. In the framework of the grant from the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage interdisciplinary team of scientists from Archaeological Museum in Biskupin and Warsaw University of Technology performed multi-dimensional analysis of the settlement. Based on the integrated vector documentation, resulting from the photographic documentation, numerical models of structural systems of main types of buildings and defensive rampart were prepared. The aim of the analysis was a verification of the earlier findings of archaeological and architectural researches. The analysis allowed to verify both the arrangement of individual parts of structure of buildings, their work and the interconnection, as well as the possible dimensions of the individual components.

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Authors and Affiliations

Wojciech Terlikowski
Martyna Gregoriou-Szczepaniak
Ewa Sobczyńska
Kacper Wasilewski
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Abstract

The paper presents the test description and results of thermal bowing of RC beams exposed to non-uniform heating at high temperature. Bending of a non-uniformly heated element is caused by free thermal elongation of the material it is made of. The higher the temperature gradient, the greater the bending. In the case when an element is exposed to load and high temperature simultaneously, apart from free bending also deformation of the RC element may occur, which is caused by the decrease of the concrete or reinforcing steel mechanical properties. In order to examine the contribution of the deflection caused by thermal bowing to the total deformation of the bent element with a heated tension zone, an experimental study of freely heated (unloaded) beams was performed. RC beams were heated: (1) on three sides of the cross-section or (2) only on the bottom side. Deflection of elements loaded by a substitute temperature gradient was calculated using the Maxwell-Mohr formula. The test results show that deflection of freely heated RC beams (caused by the thermal bowing phenomenon) can be 10 to 20% of the total deflection of loaded RC beams with a heated tension zone.

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Authors and Affiliations

R. Kowalski
M. Głowacki
J. Wróblewska
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Abstract

The article presents an assessment of the suitability of the cone penetrometer to determine the soil state. The work describes the principle of the device operation, which is similar to commonly used dynamic DPL probes. Then, the results of research conducted in Polish conditions using the new conical penetrometer were presented. A series of measurements were performed in real field conditions. On their basis, an attempt was made to correlate the results obtained with a conical penetrometer and a static probe CPT. Then, the obtained correlations were validated. On this basis preliminary evaluation of the conical penetrometer suitability for the soil state determining.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Maślakowski
K. Brzeziński
A. Zbiciak
K. Józefiak
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Abstract

The paper presents a static load test of a pile with the largest vertical load in Poland to-date up to the force of 23000 kN. The test was performed in the centre of Warsaw on the construction site of a future high-rise building to be the tallest building in European Union. The designed building height measured from the ground level is 310 meters including an 80-metre mast. The foundation of the building was designed as a Combined Piled Raft Foundation (CPRF) utilising the barrettes and diaphragm walls technology. The test was carried out on barrettes with lengths of approx. 28 and 34 m and was aimed to estimate the stiffness (load-settlement relation) of the designed 17.5 metre-long barrette situated below the foundation level. In addition to that a series of extensometric sensors was placed inside the barrette to determine the distribution of the axial force.

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Authors and Affiliations

G. Kacprzak
S. Bodus
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Abstract

In the paper the results of experimental investigations concerning flat slabs made from reinforced lightweight concrete with sintered fly ash aggregate CERTYD were presented. In the research program 6 models made in a natural scale were included. The main variable parameter was slab longitudinal reinforcement ratio. The aim of investigation was the experimental verification of efficiency of double-headed studs as punching shear reinforcement. In the existing technical approvals such kind of reinforcement was allowed only in normal concrete slabs. It was demonstrated that double-headed studs can be an effective transverse reinforcement of lightweight aggregate concrete slabs. The use of double-headed studs resulted in increase in the ultimate load from 19% to 44%, depending on the slab reinforcement ratio which ranged from 0.5% to 1.2%. The comparative analysis showed that the Eurocode 2 provisions were conservative in relation to the experimental results, which were on average 42% higher than the theoretical ones however with a very low 7% coefficient of variation.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Gołdyn
Ł. Krawczyk
W. Ryżyński
T. Urban

Publication Ethics Policy

ETHICS POLICY

”Archives of Civil Engineering” respects and promotes the principles of publishing ethics. Being guided by COPE’s Guidelines ( https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines) we ensure that all participants of the publishing process comply with these rules, the journal pays special attention to:

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2. Deciding whether the paper fulfills all requirements i.e. formal and scientific and which articles submitted to the journal should be published. In making these decisions, the editor may be guided by the policies of the journal’s editorial board as well as by legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism.
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”Archives of Civil Engineering” makes sure to provide transparent policies for peer-review, and reviewers have an obligation to conduct reviews in an ethical and accountable manner. There is clear communication between the journal and the reviewers which facilitates consistent, fair, and timely review.

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-The editor decides whether the paper fulfills all requirements i.e. formal and scientific and which articles submitted to the journal should be published.
-In making these decisions, the editor may be guided by the policies of the journal’s editorial board as well as by legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism.
-The editor maintains the integrity of the academic record, precludes business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards, and is always willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed.
-The editor evaluates manuscripts for intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s).
-The editor does not disclose any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the editorial board members, as appropriate.

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Any manuscripts received for review are treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except if authorized by the editor. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review is kept confidential and not used for personal advantage Any invited reviewer who feels unqualified to review the manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible should immediately notify the editor so that alternative reviewers can be contacted. Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published data of which they have personal knowledge. Reviewers should not consider evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the submission. Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is unacceptable. Referees should express their views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments. All reviews must be carried out on a special form available in the Editorial System.

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