Applied sciences

Archives of Civil Engineering

Content

Archives of Civil Engineering | 2022 | vol. 68 | No 2

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Abstract

Bridges are particularly vulnerable elements of transport infrastructures. In many cases, bridge structures may be subject to higher volumes of traffic and higher loads as well as more severe environmental conditions than it was designed. Sound procedures to ensure monitoring, quality control, and preventive maintenance systems are therefore vital. The paper presents main challenges and arriving possibilities in management of bridge structures, including: relationships between environment and bridge infrastructure, improvement of diagnostic technologies, advanced modelling of bridges in computer-based management systems, development of knowledge-based expert systems with application of artificial intelligence, applications of technology of Bridge Information Modelling (BrIM) with augmented and virtual reality techniques. Presented activities are focused on monitoring the safety of bridges for lowering the risk of an unexpected collapse significantly as well as on efficient maintenance of bridges as components of transport infrastructure – by means of integrated management systems. The proposed classification of Bridge Management Systems shows the history of creating such systems and indicates the expected directions of their development, taking into account changing challenges and integrating new developing technologies, including automation of decision-making processes.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jan Bień
1
ORCID: ORCID
Marek Salamak
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering,Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
  2. Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, ul. Akademicka 5, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Abstract

In Eurocode 5, the stiffness equation for bolted steel-wood-steel is stated as a function ofwood density and fastener diameter only. In this research, an experimental study on various configurations of tested bolted steel-wood-steel (SWS) connections has been undertaken to predict the initial stiffness of each connection. In order to validate the Eurocode 5 stiffness equation, tests on 50 timber specimens (40 glued laminated timbers and 10 laminated veneer lumbers (LVL)) with steel plates were undertaken. The number of bolts was kept similar and the connector diameter, timber thickness, and wood density were varied. The results obtained in the experimental tests are compared with those obtained from the Eurocode 5 stiffness equation. From the analysis, it is signified that the stiffness equation specified in Eurocode 5 for bolted SWS connections does not adequately predict the initial stiffness. The results from Eurocode 5 stiffness equation are very far from the experimental values. The ratio of stiffness equation to experimental results ranges from 3.48 to 4.20, with the average at 3.77, where the equation overpredicted the experimental stiffness value for the connection. There is a need to consider or incorporated other parameters such as geometric configurations in Eurocode 5 stiffness equation to improve the ratio with the experimental data.
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Authors and Affiliations

Nur Liza Rahim
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Gary Raftery
3
ORCID: ORCID
Pierre Quenneville
3
ORCID: ORCID
Doh Shu Ing
4
ORCID: ORCID
Marcin Nabiałek
5
ORCID: ORCID
Ramadhansyah Putra Jaya
4 6
ORCID: ORCID
Norlia Mohamad Ibrahim
1 7
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
8 6
ORCID: ORCID
Agata Śliwa
9
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University Malaysia Perlis, Faculty of Civil Engineering Technology, 02600 Arau Perlis, Malaysia
  2. 2Sustainable Environment Research Group (SERG), Centre of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGeoGTech), University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 01000 Kangar Perlis, Malaysia
  3. University of Auckland, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Auckland, New Zealand
  4. Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang Kuantan, Pahang Malaysia
  5. Czestochowa University of Technology, Czestochowa, Poland
  6. Centre of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGeoGTech), University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 01000 Kangar Perlis, Malaysia
  7. Sustainable Environment Research Group (SERG), Centre of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGeoGTech), University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 01000 Kangar Perlis, Malaysia
  8. University Malaysia Perlis, Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, 02600 Arau Perlis, Malaysia
  9. Division of Materials Processing Technology and Computer Techniques in Materials Science, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Abstract

With the rapid development of industry, abundant industrial waste has resulted in escalating environmental issue. Steel slag is the by-product of steel-making and can be used as cementitious materials in construction. However, the low activity of steel slag limits its utilization. Much investigation has been conducted on steel slag, while only a fraction of the investigation focuses on the effect of steel slag particle size on the properties of mortar. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of steel slag particle size as cement replacement on properties of steel slag mortar activated by sodium sulphate (Na2SO4º. In this study, two types of steel slag, classified as fine steel slag (FSS) with particle sizes of 0.075mm and coarse steel slag (CSS) with particle sizes of 0.150 mm, were used for making alkali activated steel slag (AASS) mortar. Flow table test, compressive strength test, flexural strength test and UPV test were carried out by designing and producing AASS mortar cubes of (50 x 50 x 50) mm at 0, 10%, 20% and 30% replacement ratio and at 0.85% addition of Na2SO4. The results show that the AASS mortar with FSS possess a relatively good strength in AASS mortar. AASS mortar with FSS which is relatively finer shows a higher compressive strength than CSS up to 38.0% with replacement ratio from 10% to 30%. This study provided the further investigation on the combined influence of replacement ratio and particle size of SS in the properties of fresh and hardened AASS.
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Authors and Affiliations

Doh Shu Ing
1
ORCID: ORCID
Chia Min Ho
1
ORCID: ORCID
Xiaofeng Li
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ramadhansyah Putra Jaya
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
2
ORCID: ORCID
Siew Choo Chin
1
ORCID: ORCID
Nur Liza Rahim
2
ORCID: ORCID
Marcin Nabiałek
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. College of Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang Kuantan Pahang, Malaysia
  2. Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, University Malaysia Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Department of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland
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Abstract

Local roads in Poland, built for the most part in the previous economic system, are mostly unsuited to the ever-increasing traffic load, often built on a low-load organic substrate and need to be renovated. Linear objects are most often characterized by a significant variability in groundwater conditions in their area. The economical and safe design of the rebuild of a road structure often entails the need to implement ground improvement design of the low-bearing soil substrate, but areas of improvement should be adapted to the occurrence zones of low-bearing soil. The article presents a case study of the district road, for which ground and water conditions were recognized and organic soil were found. In addition to the rebuilding of the road structure to fulfill the requirements of the current traffic load and repairing the culverts, the reconstruction also included the ground improvement. The authors reviewed the types of road categories according to the admissible traffic loads (KR), the most important and commonly used methods of ground improvement, discussed the characteristics of the Benkelmann beam deflection method, proposed a design solution adapted to the existing conditions in the substrate and, after implementing it, presented the results of the deflection of the road before and after the reconstruction and soil improvement.
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Authors and Affiliations

Szymon Węgliński
1
Michalina Flieger-Szymańska
1
Miłosz Just
1
Dorota Anna Krawczyk
1

  1. Poznan University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Transport Engineering, Institute of Civil Engineering, Poznan, Poland
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Abstract

Elastic lateral-torsional buckling of double-tee section structural steelworks has been widely investigated with regard to the major axis bending of single structural elements as a result of certain loading conditions. No specific attention has been paid to the general formulation in which an arbitrary span load pattern was associated with unequal end moments as a result of the moment distribution between structural members of the load bearing system.Anumber of analytical solutionswere developed on the basis of the Vlasov theory of thin-walled members. Since the accurate closed-form solutions of lateral-torsional buckling (LTB) of beams may only be obtained for simple loading and boundary conditions, more complex situations are treated nowadays by using numerical finite element methods (FEM). Analytical and numerical methods are frequently combined for the purpose of: a) verification of approximate analytical formulae or b) presentation the results in the form of multiple curve nomograms to be used in design practice. Investigations presented in this paper deal with the energy method applied to LTB of any complex loading condition of elements of simple end boundary conditions, bent about the major axis. Firstly, a brief summary of the second-order based energy equation dealt with in this paper is presented and followed by its approximate solution using the so-called refined energy method that in the case of LTB coincides with the Timoshenko’s energy refinement. As a result, the LTB energy equation shape functions of twist rotation and minor axis displacement are chosen such that they cover both the symmetric and antisymmetric lateral-torsional buckling modes. The latter modes are chosen in relation to two lowest LTB eigenmodes of beams under uniform major axis bending. Finally, the explicit form of the general solution is presented as being dependent upon the dimensionless bending moment equations for symmetric and antisymmetric components, and the in-span loads. Solutions based on the present investigations are compared for selected loading conditions with those obtained in the previous studies and verified with use of the LTBeam software. Conclusions are drawn with regard to the application of obtained closed-form solutions in engineering practice.
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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Barszcz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Marian Giżejowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Malwina Pękacka
2

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Warsaw University of Technology Graduate, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Mechanical properties of FRP such as strength and stiffness as well as the bonding interface between FRP and concrete will be badly deteriorated when exposed to high temperature. Furthermore, the effect of thickness of insulation with different type of concrete strength has not yet been studied elsewhere in numerical studies. Therefore, this study is to assess the thermal-structural behaviour of insulated FRP strengthened RC beam exposed to elevated temperature using ABAQUS. The proposed numerical model of 200 ×300 mm RC beam subjected to 2 hours standard fire curve (ISO 834) had been validated with the analytical solution. The validated numerical model then is used in parametric study to investigate the behaviour of fire damaged normal strength concrete (40 MPa) and high strength concrete (60 MPa) of RC beam strengthened with CFRP using various fire insulation thickness of 12.5 mm, 25 mm and 40 mm, respectively. The result of steel characteristic strength reduction factor is compared with analytical using 500˚C Isotherm methods. The parametric studies indicated that the fire insulation layer is essential to provide fire protection to the CFRP strengthened RC beams when exposed to elevated temperature. The insulation layer thickness of 25 mm had been found to be the optimum thickness to be used as it is able to meet the criteria of temperature distribution and displacement requirement. In conclusion, the numerical model developed using ABAQUS in this study is to carry out assessment on the thermal-structural behaviour of the insulated CFRP-strengthened RC beams at elevated temperature.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ng Chee Keong
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mariyana Aida Ab Kadir
2 3
ORCID: ORCID
Nurizaty Zuhan
2
ORCID: ORCID
Muhammad Najmi Mohamad Ali Mastor
4
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Nur Asmawisham Alel
5
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Public Work Department, Jalan Sultan Salahuddin, 50582 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  2. School of Civil Engineering, University Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  3. Institute of Noise and Vibration, University Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  4. Candidate, School of Civil Engineering, University Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  5. Engineering Seismology and Earthquake Engineering Research (eSEER), Institute of Noise and Vibration, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
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Abstract

The non-linear analysis of hollow-core concrete slabs requires the use of advanced numerical techniques, proper constitutive models both for concrete and steel as well as particular computational skills. If prestressing, cracking, crack opening, material softening, etc. are also to be taken into account, then the computational task can far exceed the capabilities of an ordinary engineer. In order for the calculations to be carried out in a traditional design office, simplified calculation methods are needed. They should be based on the linear finite element (FE) method with a simple approach that takes into account material nonlinearities. In this paper the simplified analysis of hollow-core slabs based on the generalized nonlinear constitutive law is presented. In the proposed method a simple decomposition of the traditional iterative linear finite element analysis and the non-linear algebraic analysis of the plate cross-section is used. Through independent analysis of the plate cross-section in different deformation states, a degraded plate stiffness can be obtained, which allows for iterative update of displacements and rotations in the nodes of the FE model. Which in turn allows to update the deformation state and then correct translations and rotations in the nodes again. The results obtained from the full detailed 3D nonlinear FEM model and from the proposed approach are compared for different slab cross-sections. The obtained results from both models are consistent.
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Authors and Affiliations

Natalia Staszak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tomasz Garbowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Barbara Ksit
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Poznan University of Life Sciences, Department of Biosystems Engineering, Wojska Polskiego 50, 60-627 Poznań
  2. Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Building Engineering, Piotrowo 5, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
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Abstract

Glass is a material commonly used in construction. The development of technology related to it, and the increase in knowledge concerning its mechanical and strength properties offer opportunities for glass to be applied as a structural material. The advancement in glass structures, methods for their design, as well as guidelines and standards in this fields are being developed in parallel. This article describes the main assumptions contained in the German TRxV guidelines, the series of German DIN 18008 standards, and the European EN 16612, and EN 16613 standard. Moreover, the following article presents the concept of structural glass design included in the draft pre-standard prCEN/TS 19100, which provides the basis for the formulation of the European standard Eurocode 10. According to this pre-standard, structural elements of glass will be verified in four limit states, depending on the Limit State Scenario (LSS). Apart from the classic limit states, i.e., the ultimate limit state (ULS), and the serviceability limit state (SLS), it is also assumed to introduce a fracture limit state (FLS), and postfracture limit state (PFLS). The article also addresses the issue of laminated glass working in structural elements. Depending on the coupling between the glass panes and the polymer or ionomer interlayers, laminated glass can be divided into complete coupled or uncoupled, and can work in intermediate situations. The methods for determining the effective thickness contained in European standards and guidelines are discussed in this article.
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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Jóźwik
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture, Koszykowa Street 55, 00-659 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Balconies are elements of some multi-storey buildings. Thermo-insulated fasteners are components that connect balcony slabs with the building structure. Their main task is the transfer of loads in connections of balcony slabs with the building while also minimizing thermal bridges. The article presents analytical calculations performed to develop the new type of thermal insulated fasteners and to determine their load-bearing capacity. The aim of this article is to demonstrate that analytical calculations based on commonly utilized principles of reinforced concrete and steel structure operation along enable the development of the effective design algorithm of insulated fasteners and allow for a quick analysis of various geometric variants of these fasteners. The article presents the adaptation of typical algorithms for calculation of steel and reinforced concrete structures for the analysis of non-typical load-bearing capacity states that occur during the calculation of insulated fasteners. The load-bearing capacities of individual fasteners are shown in M-V interaction diagrams (bending moment – shearing force).
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Janiak
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Bydgoszcz University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, Al. prof. S. Kaliskiego 7, 85-796 Bydgoszcz, Poland
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Abstract

Damage occurring on a reinforced concrete beam (e.g. spalling) can reduce beam’s capacity to withstand external loads. The damage becomes more critical if it is occurred in the shear span since it may lead to shear failure. Patching to the damage zone by suitable patch repair material could be the best option in restoring the shear capacity of the beam. This research investigates the shear recovery of patched reinforced concrete beams with web reinforcement. The patching material used is unsaturated polyester resin mortar. The shear recovery is assessed on the basis of the patched beam’s behavior under flexure-shear load in comparison with those of normal beams. The behavior observed include cracking failure mode, strains of the reinforcements, and load-deflection behavior. The results indicate that the UPR mortar is capable to restore the strength of the damage reinforced concrete beam. The characteristic of UPR mortar (low elastic modulus and high strength) can be the origin of the overall behavior of the patched reinforced concrete beams.
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Authors and Affiliations

Stefanus Adi Kristiawan
1
ORCID: ORCID
Agus Supriyadi
1
ORCID: ORCID
Halwan Alfisa Saifullah
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Sebelas Maret, Civil Engineering Department, SMART Crete Research Group, Jl. Ir.Sutami No. 36A Surakarta 57126, Indonesia
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Abstract

Water distribution systems at KGHM S.A. are of great importance for the efficient production of copper and environmental protection. For failures leading to perforation and leakage, the corrosion processes are responsible. This paper aims to assess corrosion on the basis of the analysis of the exposure of the Hydrotechnical Plant pipelines. To this end, the system of transfer and deposition of post-flotation waste as well as the circulation of industrial water in the process of copper ore enrichment are described. Water sources as well as inflows and outflows in the water system are indicated; corrosion hazards are determined. Water is obtained from mines; it is often contaminated during the copper ore mining process. The chemical analysis of industrial (technological) water and sludge water resulting from the sedimentation of post-flotation waste showed a high concentration of inorganic salts which are responsible for the corrosive processes. Furthermore, tests were carried out to determine the corrosion rate.Additionally, possible methods to reduce corrosion have been proposed, i.e., a corrosion monitoring system has been described as a tool for reducing production interruptions and environmental pollution.
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Authors and Affiliations

Robert Mazur
1
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Stefanek
2
ORCID: ORCID
Juliusz Orlikowski
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Implementation PhD student, KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. Hydrotechnical Division, 52 Polkowicka Str. 59-305 Rudna, Poland
  2. KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. Hydrotechnical Division, 52 Polkowicka Str. 59-305 Rudna, Poland
  3. Gdansk University of Technology, Department of Electrochemistry Corrosion and Materials Engineering, 11/12 Gabriela Narutowicza Str. 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
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Abstract

In this work, the instability damage modes of yield state of a steel tube at the tension side of a rectangular steel tube-confined concrete (RCFST) column under eccentric compression were classified into two types based on the coupling effect of slenderness ratio (λ) and eccentricity ratio (γ). The two types include the unilateral compression yield failure mode with a smaller value of γ and tensile and compressive yield failure modes on both column sides with a larger value of γ. Further, the parametric analyses were performed by employing the finite element (FE) method and the analytical analysis to test 16 groups of RCFST columns by varying the γ value with different λ values. It was observed that the results of the analysis for the mechanical properties like the responses of load-strain ( P-ε) and RCFST column instability modes correlated well with the results obtained in the experiments. Furthermore, the proposed theoretical method could be used to investigate the roles of γ as a controller against the instability in RCFST columns when compared with λ.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zhengran Lu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Chao Guo
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. School of Civil Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang 110168, China
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Abstract

The hydraulic fill method of erecting dams was characterized. The main assumptions and practical aspects of sand spigot were discussed on the example of the spigot of the dam body of the Zelazny Most Tailings Storage Facility (TSF). The advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed, and the directions of attempts to implement pipelines rising along with sedimenting waste are presented, which are to reduce earthworks.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zbigniew Skrzypczak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Adrian Różański
2
ORCID: ORCID
Irena Bagińska
2
ORCID: ORCID
Robert Pratkowiecki
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. Oddział Zakład Hydrotechniczny, Polkowicka 52, 59-305 Rudna
  2. Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
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Abstract

The problem of the arch barrel deformation in railway backfilled arch bridges caused by their typical service loads is analysed. The main attention is paid to vertical or radial displacements of characteristic points of the arch barrel. In the study results of deflection measurements carried out on single and multi-span backfilled arch bridges made of bricks or plain concrete during passages of various typical railway vehicles are used. On the basis of such results empirical influence functions of displacements are being created. In the next step, the results are utilised to estimate bending effects within the arch. The paper includes different procedures based on measurements of displacements in various points and directions. Using empirical influence functions arbitrary virtual load cases may be also considered. In this manner the proposed methodology shows a potential to be an effective tool of comprehensive calibration of numerical models of backfilled arch bridges on the basic of field tests carried out under any live loads.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Kamiński
1
ORCID: ORCID
Czesław Machelski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
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Abstract

This research paper presents the results of the analyses of the course of technical wear over time carried out for residential masonry buildings located in the mining area of the Lublin Coal Basin (LCB). As a result of the conducted analyses, models of the course of technical wear over time were obtained for the entire building development and for groups of buildings, taking into account the conducted renovation works and preventive structural protection. By comparing the parameters of the developed models, statistically significant differences in the course of technical wear resulting from the quality of maintenance and the use of preventive measures were identified. In addition, the durability of individual groups of structures was estimated and compared. Based on a comparison of the course of technical wear of 22-year-old building structures, unrenovated and with similar structural and material solutions, it was found that the rate of increase in technical wear after 50 years of use is on average 3.5% lower than in the case of unprotected buildings. In addition, the use of preventive structural protection extends the durability of the analysed building structures by an average of over 13 years. The obtained results may e.g. help owners or managers optimise the Maintenance Management of building structures.
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Authors and Affiliations

Adrian Jędrzejczyk
1
Karol Firek
1
Wojciech Kocot
1
Dagmara Rataj
1

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków
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Abstract

The transport system is considered the “backbone” of the urban development. Along with the rapid economic development, the urban road transport system is being paid attention and invested by Hanoi city. By the year 2050, The Hanoi municipal government is expected to complete and hand over for use about 317 urban road transport projects. Due to the high demands of social and economic efficiency, the urban road transport projects in Hanoi face many risks. In which, there are 13 high dangerous risks for the urban road transport project in Hanoi. These risks have the high probability and severity impacted on the outcome of the projects. The project participant’s risk management standpoint will determine the solutions to respond the respective risks, thereby affecting the results of the project. In this paper, the authors compare the risk management standpoint of three main project participants, including owner/project management board, consultant and main contractor/subcontractor. The difference of the risk management standpoint is shown clearly by the project participants’ assessments of 13 high dangerous risks.
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Authors and Affiliations

Nguyen Quoc Toan
1
ORCID: ORCID
Nguyen Thi Thuy
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dinh Tuan Hai
2
ORCID: ORCID
Pham Xuan Anh
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Hanoi University of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Construction Economics and Management, No. 55 Giai Phong Street, Hai Ba Trung, Hanoi, Vietnam
  2. Hanoi Architectural University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Km 10, Nguyen Trai Street, Thanh Xuan District, Hanoi City, Vietnam
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Abstract

Approximately 30 million tons of tailings are being stored each year at the KGHMs Zelazny Most Tailings Storage Facility (TSF). Covering an area of almost 1.6 thousand hectares, and being surrounded by dams of a total length of 14 km and height of over 70 m in some areas, makes it the largest reservoir of post-flotation tailings in Europe and the second-largest in the world. With approximately 2900 monitoring instruments and measuring points surrounding the facility, Zelazny Most is a subject of round-the-clock monitoring, which for safety and economic reasons is crucial not only for the immediate surroundings of the facility but for the entire region. The monitoring network can be divided into four main groups: (a) geotechnical, consisting mostly of inclinometers and VW pore pressure transducers, (b) hydrological with piezometers and water level gauges, (c) geodetic survey with laser and GPS measurements, as well as surface and in-depth benchmarks, (d) seismic network, consisting primarily of accelerometer stations. Separately a variety of different chemical analyses are conducted, in parallel with spigotting processes and relief wells monitorin. This leads to a large amount of data that is difficult to analyze with conventional methods. In this article, we discuss a machine learning-driven approach which should improve the quality of the monitoring and maintenance of such facilities. Overview of the main algorithms developed to determine the stability parameters or classification of tailings are presented. The concepts described in this article will be further developed in the IlluMINEation project (H2020).
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Authors and Affiliations

Wioletta Koperska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Maria Stachowiak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Natalia Duda-Mróz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Stefaniak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bartosz Jachnik
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bartłomiej Bursa
2
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Stefanek
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. KGHM Cuprum Research and Development Centre, gen. W. Sikorskiego 2-8, 53-659 Wrocław, Poland
  2. GEOTEKO Serwis Ltd., ul. Wałbrzyska 14/16, 02-739 Warszawa, Poland
  3. KGHM Polska Miedz S.A., M. Skłodowskiej-Curie 48, 59-301 Lubin, Poland
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Abstract

Steel slag stone can be used as a substitute for coarse aggregate in concrete. In this study, the performance of steel slag concrete (SSC) in the wall brick structure was analyzed. The specimens with a steel slag replacement rate of 0%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50% were designed, and the slump, stability, and carbonation resistance were tested. The results showed that the slump decreased with the increase of the replacement rate of steel slag stone. At the 60th min, the slump of SSC50 was 74 mm, which was 25.25% smaller than SSC00. When the replacement rate was more than 30%, cracks or fractures appeared, and the stability was destroyed. Twenty-eight days after the carbonation experiment, with the increase of the replacement rate, the carbonation resistance of the specimen decreased, and the performance was best when the replacement rate was 25%. The experimental results show that the performance of SSC is the best when the replacement rate of steel slag stone is 25%, which can be further promoted and applied in practice.
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Authors and Affiliations

Qing Su
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Wuchang University of Technology, No. 16, Jiangxia Avenue, Jiangxia District, Wuhan, China
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Abstract

Rammed earth significantly reduces intrinsic energy compared to concrete construction and has an environmental benefit throughout the life cycle of the building: phases of construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. Several studies have recently been carried out to study this material. However, the seismic behavior of rammed earth constructions is still an important topic that needs to be studied in more detail. Through the analysis of non-linear behavior of the rammed earth construction for different wall thicknesses according to the Moroccan earthquake regulation RPS2011, we were able to assess the seismic performance under the corresponding conditions (loads, seismic zone). The results show that the walls studied can have good resistance in areas of seismicity ranging from “very low” to “moderate” and acceptable performance in areas of high seismicity. Furthermore, fragility analysis shows that rammed construction with a wall thickness equal to 50 centimeters exhibits better seismic performance and a low probability of damage, particularly in the case of moderate, severe, and complete damage states.
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Authors and Affiliations

Balil Jama
1
ORCID: ORCID
Driss Agliz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Atmani Abderrahman
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mina Derife
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Laboratory of Energy Engineering, Materials and Systems (LGEMS), National School of Applied Sciences, Ibn Zohr University, Agadir, Morocco
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Abstract

Both shrinkage reducing admixtures (SRA) and expansive admixture (EXP) can be used to reduce the risk of cracking in concrete. Synergistic effect of using both of those admixtures simultaneously was a was found, however little information can be found on the effects of using both EXP and SRA on the properties of mortars and concrete other than shrinkage. Therefore in this paper, effect of adding both EXP and SRA on properties of mortars outside of their effect on shrinkage is researched. Mortars with Portland cement CEM I were modified by adding EXP and SRA in amount of full dose recommended by the producer, and half of the recommended dose. Research consisted of tests of properties of fresh mortars (consistency, initial setting time, hydration heat) and hardened mortars (compressive strength and drying shrinkage). It has been found that using both SRA and EXP admixtures leads to maintaining the same setting time which can be prolonged if only SRA is used, decreased compressive strength, possibility of increased consistency. Synergistic effect on shrinkage was also confirmed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jacek Gołaszewski
1
ORCID: ORCID
Małgorzata Gołaszewska
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, ul. Akademicka 5, 44-100 Gliwice
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Abstract

This article discusses the use of prefabricated concrete components in the work of the Polish architect Władysław Pienkowski (1907–1991), which are particularly representative of the author’s signature approach to contemporary sacred architecture. The evolution of the prefabricated components used and their properties are presented through the example of 8 churches of his design. They have been analysed in terms of their individual character, the potential to use similar components in a variety of designs and in terms of their aesthetic value. Contemporary and archived photographs, as well as design drawings from the archives of the architect’s family have been used to illustrate the examples. The presented examples prove that the use of prefabricated elements offers a wide range of options in the creation of architecture. Their repetitive nature, when skilfully used, becomes an asset rather than a hindrance in the design of diverse buildings. Drawing attention to this aspect can not only inspire the creation of new buildings, but also contribute to the revitalisation of existing architectural structures.
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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Maria Wierzbicka
1
ORCID: ORCID
Anita Orchowska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Emilian Nagiel
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Archicture, ul. Koszykowa 55, 00-659 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The article analyzes factors that may have an impact on Occupational Safety in a construction company and the issues of work safety in construction were discussed. An attempt was made to analyze the management of work safety in construction companies in order to identify important factors and determine the significance of their participation in the occurrence of accidents at work. The research was carried out on the basis of data obtained from the register kept at the District Labor Inspectorate in Krakow. Cases which were discussed included accident protocols prepared pursuant to the law, as well as cases found in protocols of ad hoc inspections carried out on construction sites. There were quantitative and qualitative features in the analyzed data set. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data to build the model. Such action made it possible to model and determine the significance of the influence of individual variables characterizing the way of managing work safety in construction companies, in the case of an accident. The results obtained, and in particular the significance of factors shown in the model, even not directly related to the construction site, may be an indication for creating a functional strategy in the enterprise. The strategy assuming: smaller number of accidents or adverse events, shorter downtime will build a reputation of an institution that cares for the employee. This will allow the construction company to become more competitive and shall attract the best professionals available on the labor market. The end result is the identification of key factors that have a direct impact on work safety and the competitiveness of a construction company.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marcin Kowalik
1
Wojciech Drozd
1

  1. Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Division of Management in Civil Engineering, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155 Kraków, Poland
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Abstract

This study investigates the effects of Nano SiO 2 (NS) and Silica fume (SF) on the mechanical properties and durability of Portland cement concrete. On specimens with varying NS and SF concentrations, compressive strength, flexural strength, abrasion resistance, elastic modulus, and chloride ion penetration were all tested. All specimens were subjected to the proposed method/technique cured at the ages of 3, 7, 28, and 60 days. NS particles were added to cement concrete at various replacements of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% by the mass of the binder. The water/binder ratio has remained at 0.37 for all mixes. Then, for cement-concrete were prepared 45 MPa (C45) with NS and SF. The specimens confirm the new method effectiveness evaluation were prepared under two different categories: (1) Portland cement replacement with NS of 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0%, by weight for adhesives; (2) Portland cement replacement with NS of 0.5%, 1.0% and each NS content in combination with SF of 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively, by weight for adhesives. The results indicated that the abrasion resistance and Chloride ion penetration of concrete containing NS and SF are improved. Finally, an analytical model for forecasting the Elastic modulus, flexural strength, and compressive strength of cement concrete was established from obtained data.
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Authors and Affiliations

Huu-Bang Tran
1
Vu To-Anh Phan
2

  1. Faculty of Architecture, Thu Dau Mot University, Binh Duong Province, Vietnam
  2. Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
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Abstract

The developments in materials science and engineering, especially in the field of composites and polymers, have extended the scope of application of such materials in modern industrial construction. This article presents polyamide/ aluminium helping hand brackets, designed for use in rainscreens (a.k.a. ventilated façades ) and metal and glass systems. The main purpose of this study was to assess the loadbearing capacity, safety and durability of these elements through laboratory tests and numerical analyses. The laboratory tests were carried out on a three-dimensional test stand. Boundary conditions and the applied loading represented real conditions on the façade (e.g. a typical wind pressure load acting on the façade was used). Next, the experimental results were used to build a representative numerical model. Finite Element analysis was utilised to obtain a true representation of the actual behaviour of the analysed brackets subjected to various loads, taking into account the aluminium/ polyamide interaction. Constitutive behaviour of both materials, polyamide and aluminium alloy, was represented by a linear elastic model. The proposed modelling methodology was validated through full-scale load tests up to failure. The numerical model can be further used to predict the stress and strain fields in newly designed brackets subjected to any type of loading.
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Authors and Affiliations

Maciej Cwyl
1
ORCID: ORCID
Izabela Dmowska-Michalak
1
Anna Kaczmarczyk
1
Rafał Michalczyk
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

Electric shock accident is one of the main causes of fatal construction accidents. In this study, 101 electric shock accidents are analyzed to mine the potential associations of human errors. The modified Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) is used to classify human factors of accident causes. Characteristics and potential causes of the accidents are identified by employing frequency analysis. Chi-square test and Apriori algorithm are utilized to explore the associations among the causes. Some significant association between any of two factors are shared. According to association rules using three criteria: support ( S), confidence ( C) and lift ( L), the two key paths are extracted based on the hierarchy of the HFACS. One is: organizational process loopholes → failed to correct problem → perceptual and decision errors ( S = 0•11, C = 0•423, L = 1•02), and the other is: organizational process loopholes!poor skill level ofworkers!routine violation ( S = 0•149, C = 0•789, L = 1•945). Managerial implications are proposed to prevent or reduce accidents based on interconnections of factors and key paths.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jue Li
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yuan Yu Wen
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. School of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, Changsha University of Science & Technology, Changsha, Hunan, P.R.China
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Abstract

The aim of the research was implementation of fibre Bragg grating sensors and the Aramis system to monitor strain, displacement and stress values in new materials used in the building industry. Selected elements of a residential building made of the Polytech material with a 60% content of the EPS granulate from recycling were tested: a prefabricated wall with a lintel, a reinforced concrete floor slab, a lintel, a reinforced concrete column and a wall. Long-term testing was also carried out taking account of changes in environmental conditions. The methodology of the research was based on the development of purpose-made dedicated FBG strain sensors, laboratory calibration and the embedding of the sensors in the tested element structure. The proposed system of continuous measurements made it possible to determine real strain, displacement and stress values in selected elements of the Polytech structure for a facility founded in a difficult geotechnical terrain (subsoil).
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Authors and Affiliations

Janusz Juraszek
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Bielsko-Biała, Departament of Civil Engineering, Willowa 2 Street, 43-300 Bielsko-Biała, Poland
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Abstract

The article presents a results of study on the impact of replacing CEM I SR3/NA by CEMIII/A LH/HSR/NAon the mechanical properties and durability of pavement concrete with exposed aggregate. Was used granite aggregate and washed sand. Water/cement (w / c) ratio in the tested concretes constituted 0.35 and 0.4 and part of the cement was replaced with a 5% addition of natural pozzolana – zeolite. Compressive strength tests were performed after 3, 7, 28 and 56 days, tests of tensile strength test by splitting method and flexural strength two-point loading tests. The characteristics of the air pores and the rate of water absorption by concrete surface of the samples cut out from the slabs with exposed aggregate were presented. The resistance of the surface to exfoliation after 56 cycles of freezing-thawing in NaCl solution was tested. Based on the results obtained, it was found that when designing the composition of the concrete intended for the upper layer of the pavement, it is necessary to ensure high tensile strength, appropriate in the XF4 environment and with the decrease in the w / c < 0.4, a reduction in capillary porosity of the cement paste is obtained, and the same the durability of concrete is increased due to the improved strength parameters in the contact zone between coarse aggregate grains and cement paste. The research also showed a significant influence of proper cure on the mechanical properties and durability of pavement concrete.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marzena Kurpińska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Aldona Wcisło
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, ul.Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
  2. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al. Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

The stress superposition effect in the midline area of the multi-wheeled vehicles produced by moving vehicles load is generally ignored, which leads to smaller results in research of subgrade service depth. Based on the elastic mechanics theory, the analytical solution of subgrade dynamic response under moving vehicles load is derived with compound elastic layers. The characteristics of subgrade dynamic stress distribution under the action of moving vehicles are analyzed by using Midas Gts Nx numerical simulation software, and the influence of static and dynamic axle load on the subgrade service depth is compared. The results demonstrate that the subgrade dynamic stress in the under-wheel area attenuates rapidly along the depth direction, while the subgrade dynamic stress in the midline area increases at first and subsequently decreases along the same direction. With the increase of subgrade dynamic stress, the shape of dynamic stress isosurface changes from bimodal to unimodal. Whether in the form of static or dynamic axle load, the subgrade service depth in the middle line area is larger than that in under-wheel area, and the influence of dynamic axle load on the subgrade service depth is greater than that of static axle load. The wheel distance and vehicle velocity have a significant influence on the subgrade service depth.With the increase of vehicle velocity, the subgrade service depth decreases. With the increase of wheel distance, the subgrade service depth decreases.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yanmin Zhou
1
ORCID: ORCID
Haiyang Wang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Lingyun Kong
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jialiang Liu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jie Wang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Zhimei Wang
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. School of Civil Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074, China
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Abstract

The Randomized Earned Value Method enable to control the time and cost of works during the implementation of a construction project. The method allows to assess the compliance of the current advancement in time and actually incurred costs with the adopted plan. It also allows to predict the date and amount of the project completion costs. Individual assessment indicators (BCWS, BCWP, ACWP) are calculated after the ongoing control of the progression of works. In the case of randomly changing of implementation conditions, the calculated in this way values of the indicators may be unacceptable because of overlarge differences in comparison to actual values. Therefore, it is proposed an EVM enhancement and additional risk conditions analysis. In this approach data from the quantity survey of works are randomized based on analysis of variations between actually measured and planned values of duration and cost of implemented works. It is estimated the randomized values of individual indicators after successive controls of the progress of works. After each project advancement control the duration and cost of the works that remain to be performed are estimated. Moreover, new verified overall time and total cost of the project implementation are also estimated. After the last inspection, randomized values of the final date and total cost of completion of the project are calculated, as well as randomized values of time extension and total cost overrun. Of course, for randomized values, standard deviations of individual quantities are calculated. Therefore, the risk of time and the risk of cost of the project implementation are presented in the risk charts. The proposed approach provides a better assessment of the progress of works under risk conditions. It is worth to add that the method does not require significant changes to the typical construction management process, however, it ensures realistic consideration of the influence of random factors on the course and results of individual works and the entire project.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tadeusz Kasprowicz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Anna Starczyk-Kołbyk
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Military University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy, ul. gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2, 00–908 Warsaw, Poland
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Abstract

KienGiang province of Vietnam is the west coast of Mekong Delta, Vietnam where RachGia city is the provincial capital. In recent years due to impacts of climate change and extreme weather, the city’s urban infrastructure has been affected by saline intrusion, flooding, collapsed house, etc. Modeling remote sensing is useful to determine rainfall. Climatic factors are affected by temperature, wind, rain, drought that people feel comfortable or not comfortable in the area because the planning and management are not well. The application of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology has supported the method such as analysis, overlap the urban infrastructure and climate change impacts layers to produce the assessment that will support urban management. The objectives of this study is to assess the impact of climate change on some of RachGia’s infrastructures through the analysis of a number of thematic maps created from GIS Database. The database will be used by local agencies in urban management and development which take into account the climate change.
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Authors and Affiliations

Dinh Tuan Hai
1
ORCID: ORCID
Trinh Thi Phin
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Hanoi Architectural University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Km 10 Nguyen Trai Road, Thanh Xuan District, Hanoi City, Vietnam
  2. Vietnam Institute for Urban and Rural Planning, Division of Data Management and GIS Applications, Vietnam
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Abstract

In this paper, the stiffness and internal force of the finite element model of a cable-stayed bridge, arch bridge and cooperative system bridge with the same span are analyzed, and the stress characteristics of cooperative system bridge compared with arch bridge and cable-stayed bridge are studied. In the stiffness analysis, the live load deflections of the arch bridge (maximum deflection – 6.07 mm) and the cooperative system bridge (maximum deflection –6.00 mm) are similar, while the cable-stayed bridge (maximum deflection –16.27 mm) has a larger deflection. In the internal force analysis, compared with the internal force of the main girder, it can be seen that the girder of the cooperative system bridge reduces the girder-column effect compared with the cable-stayed bridge. The main girder of the cooperative system bridge reserves more stress than the arch bridge. In the stress analysis of arch rib, the axial force and bending moment of arch rib under dead load of cooperative system bridges are greater than the cooperative system bridge. The maximum difference of axial force and bending moment between arch bridge and cooperative system bridge is 16.2% and 58.8%, but there is no obvious difference under live load. In the stress analysis of the cable tower, the advantages of the cooperative system bridge are more obvious under dead load and live load. In the comparative analysis between the cable and the derrick, the dead load and live load are mainly carried by the derrick, and the derrick bears 84% dead load and 97% live load. The research results can provide reference for the stress analysis of similar bridge structures.
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Authors and Affiliations

Xilong Zheng
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yujun Cui
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. School of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Harbin University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China
  2. School of Traffic Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China
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Abstract

Cash is one of the most critical resources of a construction company that determines survival. Cash-flow management is essential for contractors, as lack of cash resources is one of the leading causes of bankruptcy in the construction industry, compared to most other sectors. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting time and cost trade-off in multiple construction projects in Iraq. After reviewing a wide range of literature to determine the most common elements, a questionnaire is distributed to owners, consultants, supervising engineers, and contractors engaged in construction projects. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed using the relative importance index, arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The respondents namely assured Seventeen most essential factors; payments delay from client, progress payment due period, payment conditions, advanced payment, project delay, inaccurate project scheduling, variation orders, project duration, inaccurate project duration, profit, risk margin, project cost, cash flow forecasts, retentions percentage, estimating errors, materials cost, equipment cost, and labour cost.
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Authors and Affiliations

Musaab Falih Hasan
1
ORCID: ORCID
Sawsan Rasheed Mohammed
2

  1. Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
  2. University of Baghdad, College of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Baghdad, Iraq
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Abstract

Prediction of propagation time of corrosion is a key element in evaluating the service life of corroded reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Corroded steel products often expand in volume and thus generate tensile stress in the concrete cover. When this tensile stress exceeds the tensile strength of the concrete, cracking occurs. The tensile stresses in concrete due to corrosion are usually perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reinforcement. In the reinforced concrete beams, tensile stresses in concrete due to bending is perpendicular to the longitudinal direction of stirrups. In the reinforced concrete slabs, the tensile stresses in concrete due to bending is also perpendicular to the axis of longitudinal reinforcement subjected to bending in the other direction. In such cases, the tensile stresses in concrete due to corrosion of reinforcement has the same direction as the tensile stress caused by bending. When the load-induced stress in the concrete has the same direction as that of the corrosion-induced stress, cracks will likely appear more quickly and vice versa. The main objective of this paper is to build a predictive model of corrosion propagation time taking into account: (1) the effect of stresses due to load; (2) the change of corrosion current density. The model was implemented on Matlab software. The results show the influence of the load, and other parameters on the corrosion propagation stage, when considering the end of this corrosion propagation stage is cracking of concrete cover.
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Authors and Affiliations

Dao Van Dinh
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tran Viet Hung
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Structural Engineering Section – University of Transport and Communications Add: No.3 Cau Giay Street, Lang Thuong ward, Dong Da District, Hanoi, Vietnam
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Abstract

In recent years, the application of pervious concrete (PC) in urban areas has expanded mainly due to its high potential for controlling and guiding surface waters and floods. However, its poor mechanical properties compared to conventional concrete hinder its widespread application and limit it to parking lots, sidewalks, and local streets. Therefore, identifying the parameters effective on PC’s physical and mechanical properties and durability could help resolve its weaknesses and enhance its performance. This review article investigated and discussed the PC’s performance properties and weaknesses and explore the solutions available for improving these properties. Based on a review of the literature, the solutions included the PC’s mix design basic property variations and the incorporation of various additives. The common mixture utilized in most studies contained a water-to-cement ratio of 0.25:0.35, resulting in compressive strength of 7–27 MPa, porosity of 15–35%, and permeability of 0.2–1.22 mm/s.
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Authors and Affiliations

Makan Pedram
1
ORCID: ORCID
Rahmat Madandoust
2
ORCID: ORCID
Mahyar Arabani
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Dept. of Civil Eng., Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, I.R.Iran
  2. Dept. of Civil Eng., University of Guilan, Rasht, I.R.Iran
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Abstract

Inclinedweb box girders are widely used in urban areas because of their attractive appearance. However, there are few studies on the vehicle shear force distribution of this type of bridge. In this study, we established 62 three-dimensional finite element models in which the shear force of each web of the box girder can be extracted; furthermore, we investigated the shear force distribution law in webs of the box girder under live loads, including single-chamber and multichamber inclined web box girders. The main parameters studied include the number of vehicle lanes and chambers, slope of the inclined webs, and support conditions. The results reveal that an uneven distribution of web shear force exists in both the single-chamber box girder and multichamber girder under live loads, and the maximum value of the vehicle shear force distribution factor is greater than the average shear value shared by all webs. Therefore, the uneven distribution of shear force in the webs of the box girder cannot be ignored under eccentric vehicle loads. These values greatly exceed the safety factor of 1.15 that is used in conventional calculations.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yujun Cui
1
ORCID: ORCID
Longqing Wu
1
ORCID: ORCID
Weiqi Wang
1
ORCID: ORCID
Wei Cao
1
ORCID: ORCID
Xingwei Xue
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. School of Traffic Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China
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Abstract

Glass-aluminum building facades, as well as glazed walls intended to construct internal partitions of various types with glass doors, the purpose of which is to create fire zones, must satisfy certain fire resistance requirements stated in the codes. The offer of domestic and foreign manufacturers consists of system fire resistant partitions manufactured in the EI 30 to EI 180 fire resistance classes. Fire retardant properties of such partitions are verified experimentally, and the technical approvals are issued based on the results of such tests. In this paper the results of fire tests performed on selected partitions made by the leading domestic maker of glass-aluminum systems and representative for the whole commercial offer of Aluprof S.A. are presented. Fire resistance of doors and partitions made of aluminum sections with fire protecting insulation in one or several chambers and Polflam glazing panes differing in thickness of swelling gel have been tested. In this paper a comparative analysis of the temperature increase curves obtained on the external surface of glass panes and aluminum sections forming the tested partitions has been performed. The relationships between the internal structure of aluminum sections and glazing panes and the shape of empirical curves have been indicated. A mixed tangent-secant linearization of these curves has been proposed as well as presentation of the experimental results in the non-dimensional coordinates. Such presentation form of final experimental results allows for a clear interpretation of laboratory tests with reliable documenting of nominal fire resistance requirements.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marian Gwóźdź
1
ORCID: ORCID
Michał Marcinowski
2
ORCID: ORCID
Patrycja Antonik-Popiołek
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Bielsko-Biala (ATH), Department of Civil Engineering, ul. Willowa 2, 43-309 Bielsko-Biała, Poland
  2. Aluprof S.A.„ ul. Warszawska 153, 43-300 Bielsko-Biała, Poland
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Abstract

Foamed concrete incorporating processed spent bleaching earth (PSBE) produces environmentally friendly foamed concrete. Compressive strength, porosity, and rapid chloride penetration tests were performed to investigate the potential application for building material due to its low density and porous concrete. Laboratory results show that 30% PSBE as cement replacement in foamed concrete produced higher compressive strength. Meanwhile, the porosity of the specimen produced by 30% PSBE was 45% lower than control foamed concrete. The porosity of foamed concrete incorporating PSBE decreases due to the fineness of PSBE that reduces the volume of void space between cement and fine aggregate. It was effectively blocking the pore and enhances the durability. Consistently, the positive effect of incorporating of PSBE has decreased the rapid chloride ion permeability compared to that control foamed concrete. According to ASTM C1202-19 the foamed concrete containing 30% PSBE was considered low moderate permeability based on its charge coulombs value of less than 4000. Besides, the high chloride ion permeability in foamed concrete is because the current quickly passes through the specimen due to its larger air volume. In conclusion, incorporating PSBE in foamed concrete generates an excellent pozzolanic effect, producing more calcium silicate hydrate and denser foamed concrete, making it greater, fewer voids, and higher resistance to chloride penetration.
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Authors and Affiliations

Rokiach Othman
1
Khairunisa Muthusamy
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Arif Sulaiman
1
ORCID: ORCID
Youventharan Duraisamy
2
ORCID: ORCID
Ramadhansyah Putra Jaya
2
ORCID: ORCID
Chong Beng Wei
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
3
ORCID: ORCID
Sajjad Ali Mangi
4
ORCID: ORCID
Marcin Nabiałek
5
ORCID: ORCID
Agata Śliwa
6
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Faculty of Civil Engineering Technology, University Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Pahang, Malaysia
  2. Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang,Pahang, Malaysia
  3. Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, University Malayia Perlis (UniMAP), 01000 Kangar Perlis, Malaysia
  4. Department of Civil Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, SZAB Campus, Khairpur Mirs, Sindh 66020, Pakistan
  5. Department of Physics, Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology, Czestochowa University of Technology, Czestochowa
  6. Division of Materials Processing Technology and Computer Techniques in Materials Science, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Abstract

The goal of paper is the development and demonstration of efficiency of algorithm for form finding of a slack cable notwithstanding of the initial position chosen. This algorithm is based on product of two sets of coefficients, which restrict the rate of looking for cable geometry changes at each iteration. The first set restricts the maximum allowable change of absolute values of positions, angles and axial forces. The second set takes into account whether the process is the converging one (the signs of maximal change of parameters remain the same), so that it increases the allowable changes; or it is a diverging one, so that these changes are discarded. The proposed procedure is applied to two different methods of simple slack cable calculation under a number of concentrated forces. The first one is a typical finite element method, with the cable considered as consisting of number of straight elements, with unknown positions of their ends, and it is essentially an absolute coordinate method. The second method is a typical Irvine’s like analytical solution, which presents only two unknowns at the initial point of the cable; due to the peculiarity of implementation it is named here a shooting method. Convergence process is investigated for both solutions for arbitrary chosen, even very illogical initial positions for the ACM, and for angle and force at the left end for SM as well. Even if both methods provide the same correct convergent results, it is found that the ACM requires a much lower number of iterations.
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Authors and Affiliations

Igor Orynyak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Federico Guarracino
2
ORCID: ORCID
Mariano Modano
2
ORCID: ORCID
Roman Mazuryk
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Department of Applied Mathematics at National Technical University Kiev Polytechnic Institute, Peremohystr, 37, Kyiv 03056, Ukraine
  2. Department of Structural Engineering at University of Naples “Federico II”, via Claudio, 21-80125 Napoli, Italy
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Abstract

This paper deals with the numerical analysis aimed at study the bearing capacity of pinended steel built-up columns under axial compression. Finite element (FE) models were performed for the columns presented in the literature. The main problem discussed in the article is the shape and magnitude of geometric imperfections introduced into the numerical FE model, necessary to obtain the load capacity consistent with the experimental strength tests. Three types of numerical analysis that can be used inAbaqus program to calculate the load bearing capacity have been described. The imperfections possible to introduce for built-up columns were presented and an equivalent imperfection corresponding to both imperfections recommended by Eurocode 3 (global of the entire column and local of the chord) for built-up members was proposed. The results of the geometrically and materially nonlinear static analysis were compared with the calculations according to the code procedures (Eurocode 3 and PN-B- 03200:1990) and the results of experimental tests.
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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Pieczka
1
Piotr Iwicki
1

  1. Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, St. Gabriela Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
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Abstract

One of the main causes of road pavement distress are low temperatures, and hence the need to thoroughly study the low temperature performance of all bituminous materials used in road construction. The purpose of this studywas to determine the performance of alternative and conventional bituminous mixtures in the temperature range between –25˚C and –10˚C using for this purpose the Tensile Creep Test (TCT). The low-temperature performance data were evaluated using the Burgers model, a tool that is widely used for evaluation of bituminous mixtures. This research focuses on bridge paving mixtures. These included both conventional (mastic asphalt) and alternative (SMAMA) materials. It was established, based on the test results and their analysis, that low temperature performance of a bituminous mixture is influenced, in the first place, by the characteristics of the asphalt binder it contains. Furthermore, SMA-MA mixtures showed better low temperature performance than conventional, mastic asphalt type mixtures.
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Authors and Affiliations

Bartosz Budziński
1
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Mieczkowski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. West Pomeranian University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Al. Piastów17, 70-310 Szczecin, Poland

Publication Ethics Policy

ETHICS POLICY

”Archives of Civil Engineering” respects and promotes the principles of publishing ethics. Being guided by COPE’s Guidelines ( https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines) we ensure that all participants of the publishing process comply with these rules, the journal pays special attention to:

Editor Responsibilities
1. Qualifying individual manuscripts for publication only on the basis of: (a) compliance with the guidelines provided to the authors, (b) substantive value, (c) originality, (d) transparency of presentation
2. Deciding whether the paper fulfills all requirements i.e. formal and scientific and which articles submitted to the journal should be published. In making these decisions, the editor may be guided by the policies of the journal’s editorial board as well as by legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism.
3. Evaluating manuscripts for intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s).
4. Ensuring scientific accuracy and complying with the principle of authorship; making sure that individual authors who contribute to the publication accept its form after the scientific editing
5. Providing a fair and appropriate peer review process.
6. Withdrawing manuscripts from publication, if any information about its unreliability appeared, also as a result of unintentional errors, features of plagiarism or violation of the rules of publishing ethics were identified.
7. Requiring all contributors to disclose relevant competing interests and publish corrections if competing interests are revealed after publication. If needed, other appropriate action should be taken, such as the publication of a retraction or expression of concern.
8. Maintaining the integrity of the academic record, precludes business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards, and is always willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed.
9. Not disclosing any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the editorial board members, as appropriate.

Reviewer Responsibilities
1. Cooperating with the scientific editor and / or editorial office and the authors in the field of improving the reviewed material;
2. Being objective and expressing the views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments.
3. Assessing of the entrusted works in a careful and objective manner, if possible with an assessment of their scientific reliability and with appropriate justification of the comments submitted;
4. identifying relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors
5. calling to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published data of which they have personal knowledge
6. Maintaining the principle of fair play, excluding personal criticism of the author (s)
7. Maintaining confidentiality, which is not showing or discussing with others except those authorized by the editor. Any manuscripts received for review are treated as confidential documents.
8. Performing a review within the set time limit or accepting another solution jointly with ACE in the event of failure to meet this deadline.
9. Notifying the editor if the invited reviewer feels unqualified to review the manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible.
10. identifying relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors
11. Not considering evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the submission.

Author Responsibilities
1. Results of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the manuscript. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behaviour and are unacceptable.
2. The authors should follow the principle of originality, which is submitting only their own original works, and in the case of using the works of other authors, marking them in accordance with the rules of quotation, or obtaining consent for the publication of previously published materials from their owners or administrators;
3. An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Parallel submission of the same manuscript to more than one journal constitutes unethical publishing behaviour and is unacceptable.
4. Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study and phenomena such as ghostwriting or guest authorship in the event of their detection must be actively counteracted.
5. All authors should report in a Reliable manner the sources they used to create their own study and their inclusion in the attachment bibliography;
6. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be named in an Acknowledgement section.
7. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors (according to the above definition) and no inappropriate co-authors are included in the author list of the manuscript, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.
8. All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or their interpretation in the manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.
9. When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal’s editor or publisher and cooperate with them to either retract the paper or to publish an appropriate erratum.

Publisher’s Confirmation
In cases of alleged or proven scientific misconduct, fraudulent publication or plagiarism the publisher, in close collaboration with the editors, will take all appropriate measures to clarify the situation and to amend the article in question. This includes the prompt publication of an erratum or, in the most severe cases, the complete retraction of the affected work.

Peer-review Procedure

Manuscript Peer-Review Procedure

”Archives of Civil Engineering” makes sure to provide transparent policies for peer-review, and reviewers have an obligation to conduct reviews in an ethical and accountable manner. There is clear communication between the journal and the reviewers which facilitates consistent, fair, and timely review.

-The model of peer-review is double-blind: the reviewers do not know the names of the authors, and the authors do not know who reviewed their manuscript (but if the research is published reviewers can eventually know the names of the authors). A complete list of reviewers is published in a traditional version of the journal: in-print.
-It is the editor who appoints two reviewers; however, if there are discrepancies in the assessment the third reviewer can be appointed.
-After having accepted to review the manuscript (one-week deadline), the reviewers have approximately 6 weeks to finish the process.
-The paper is published in ACE provided that the reviews are positive. All manuscripts receive grades from 1-5, 5 being positive, 1 negative, the authors receive reviews to read and consider the comments.
-Manuscript evaluations are assigned one of five outcomes: accept without changes, accept after changes suggested by the reviewer, rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review, reject, withdraw.
-Manuscripts requiring minor revision (accept after changes suggested by the reviewer) does not require a second review. All manuscripts receiving a "Rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review " evaluation must be subjected to a second review. Rejected manuscripts are given no further consideration. There are cases when the article can be withdrawn, often upon the request of an author, technical reason (e.g. names of authors are placed in the text, lack of references, or inappropriate structure of the text), or plagiarism.
-The revised version of the manuscript should be uploaded to the Editorial System within six weeks. If the author(s) failed to make satisfactory changes, the manuscript is rejected.
-On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to suit house style.
-Paper publication requires the author's final approval.
- As soon as the publication appears in print and in electronic forms on the Internet there is no possibility to change the content of the article.

Editor’s responsibilities
-The editor decides whether the paper fulfills all requirements i.e. formal and scientific and which articles submitted to the journal should be published.
-In making these decisions, the editor may be guided by the policies of the journal’s editorial board as well as by legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism.
-The editor maintains the integrity of the academic record, precludes business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards, and is always willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed.
-The editor evaluates manuscripts for intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s).
-The editor does not disclose any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the editorial board members, as appropriate.

Reviewers' responsibilities
Any manuscripts received for review are treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except if authorized by the editor. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review is kept confidential and not used for personal advantage Any invited reviewer who feels unqualified to review the manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible should immediately notify the editor so that alternative reviewers can be contacted. Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published data of which they have personal knowledge. Reviewers should not consider evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the submission. Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is unacceptable. Referees should express their views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments. All reviews must be carried out on a special form available in the Editorial System.

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