Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2018 | No 1

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The aim of the paper is to compare nitrate concentrations in samples of supply water as well as

water from deep and dug wells located in the eastern region of Poland. Additionally, samples of bottled water

(spring and natural mineral), certifi ed by the Institute of Mother and Child and the Children’s Memorial Health

Institute, were subjected to analyses. On the basis of the obtained results, health risks related to the occurrence

of methemoglobinemia in neonates and infants were evaluated. The risk analysis was performed according to

the procedure recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Nitrate concentrations in

the examined samples ranged from: 0.153–161.1 mg/l. The lowest concentration of nitrates was determined in

the samples of bottled water, the highest being detected in the water from dug wells. It was found that nitrate

concentration in samples of bottled and supply water did not pose any risk to the health of neonates and infants.

The highest health risk related to methemoglobinemia occurs for neonates consuming water originating from

dug wells. The risk decreases along with the age of an infant.

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Authors and Affiliations

Elżbieta Królak
Jolanta Raczuk
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The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediments of the Blachownia

reservoir (South Poland) was investigated. Spatial variability of PAH concentrations in the longitudinal profi le of the

tank was determined. PAHs in samples were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric

detection (GC-MS QP-2010 Plus Shimadzu) using an internal standard. Concentrations ranged from 0.103 μg/L to

2.667 μg/L (Σ16 PAHs) in water samples and from 2.329 mg/kg d.w. to 9.078 mg/kg d.w. (Σ16 PAHs) in sediment

samples. A pollution balance was calculated and it was estimated that the infl ow load was 17.70 kg PAHs during

the year and the outfl ow load was 9.30 kg PAHs per year. Accumulation of about 50% of the annual PAH loads

(8.90 kg) is a threat to the ecological condition of the ecosystem. It was calculated that the PAH loads in bottom

sediment were about 80 kg, which limits their economic use. Improvement of the ecological status of this type of

reservoir can be achieved by removing the sediment. Analysis of the diagnostic ratios obtained for selected PAHs

showed that the potential sources of PAH emissions in small agricultural – forest catchments can be combustion

of a coal, wood, plant material (low emission, forest fi res, burning grass, etc.). Transportation is also signifi cant.

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Authors and Affiliations

Maciej Kostecki
Izabela Jureczko
Alina Pohl
Marianna Czaplicka
Bartosz Łozowski
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The aim of the study was to determine the impact of various methods of oil mixing with wastewater on

properties of synthetic municipal wastewater containing edible oil (SMW+0.02% m/v rapeseed oil). The study was

carried out in 3L glass, cylindrical reactors to which SMW+0.02% were introduced. Various methods of its mixing

with water were applied: mechanical mixing (SMW+0.02%+mixing) and sonication (SMW+0.02%+ultrasounds).

The wastewater was sonicated at 35 kHz for 30 min. The constant temperature conditions were maintained during

the experiment for each mixing method (15°C, 20°C and 30°C). The analysis of parameters (pH, COD, BOD5


long chain free fatty acids concentration) of raw wastewater and after 2, 4, 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours of inoculation

was performed to determine the effect of mixing method.

The most signifi cant changes in wastewater chemical parameters after the introduction of the oil were observed

in the case of COD. For SMW+0.02%+ mixing a slow increase in COD within 24 hours of the process was observed.

In the case of SMW+0.02%+ultrasounds the increase and the decrease of COD value were observed in reference

to the initial value. The changes in acids concentrations observed in reactors with SMW+0.02%+ultrasounds were

referred to the ones observed in reactors with SMW+0.02%+mixing but changes were more intense in the fi rst

reactor. The use of ultrasounds in pre-treatment of wastewater resulted in the intense appearance of palmitic acid

for 6 hours. Regardless of the emulsion formation method (mixing or ultrasounds), the concentration of oleic acid

and linoleic acid was reduced. The biggest changes in free fatty acids concentration were observed for palmitic,

oleic and linoleic acids after 24 hours.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ewa Łobos-Moysa
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The possibility of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Sn(II) removal from model solutions and real wastewater from

the production of PCBs using Na2


for precipitation was presented in this paper. The testing was carried out

on a laboratory scale using model and real industrial wastewater containing additives in the form of complexing

compounds used in the production of PCBs (Na2

EDTA, NH3(aq), thiourea) and recommended by the USEPA



GLDA). Application of Na2


in optimal conditions of conducting precipitation process was

connected with obtaining wastewater containing low concentrations of metals (Cu 0.02 mg/L, Sn <0.01 mg/L, Ni

<0.005 mg/L at pH 9.39 and Cu 0.07 mg/L, Sn <0.01 mg/L, Ni 0.006 mg/L at pH 7.79). Controlled application of



by the use of a platinum redox electrode was also connected with obtaining treated wastewater containing

low concentrations of metals (Cu 0.019 mg/L, Sn <0.05 mg/L, Ni <0.0098 mg/L at pH 9–9.5 and E= -142 mV in the

laboratory scale and Cu 0.058 mg/L, Sn <0.005 mg/L, Ni 0.011 mg/L at pH 9.14 and E= +10 mV in the industrial

scale). Changing the value of redox potential of treated wastewater by dosing Na2


made it possible to control

the precipitation process on laboratory and industrial scale by the use of a platinum redox electrode. Controlled

application of Na2


can be used to remove Cu(II), Ni(II) and Sn(II) from industrial effl uent containing chelating

compounds like Na2

EDTA, NH3(aq), thiourea, Na3

MGDA and Na4


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Authors and Affiliations

Barbara Białecka
Maciej Thomas
Dariusz Zdebik
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The removal of organic dyes from industrial wastewater remains a problem, both technically and

economically. In this study, Yarrowia lipolytica yeast cells were isolated from poultry meat and immobilized using

alginate. The immobilized Yarrowia lipolytica yeast was used as biosorbent to remove methylene blue (MB) dye

from synthetic effl uent water. The results show that maximum adsorption capacity under optimum conditions was

66.67 mg∙g-1. The equilibrium adsorption data fi tted well onto the Freundlich adsorption isotherms with R2


Adsorption kinetics was of pseudo-second order process suggesting that the adsorption was a chemisorption. FTIR

spectra identifi ed typical absorption bands of a biosorbent. Sorption of MB dye on Yarrowia lipolytica yeast cells

was exothermic with weak sorption interaction.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mathew Mupa
Robert Kubara
Jephris Gere
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Diclofenac (2-[(2,6-Dichlorophenyl)amino]benzeneacetic acid) is a non-steroidal anti-infl ammatory

drug. Due to excessive use of diclofenac, this drug has been detected in surface water, ground water and drinking

water. In our study, four fungal strain Trametes trogii, Aspergillus niger, Yarrowia lipolytica and Phanerochaete

chrysosporium were investigated in terms of diclofenac degradation potential. Trametes trogii was found to be

the most effi cient strain with 100% diclofenac degradation rate. Two hydroxylated diclofenac metabolites have

been identifi ed in culture medium. Crude laccase from T. trogii almost completely removed diclofenac with 97%

removal in 48 h. We suggest that the degradation of diclofenac depends on the cytochrome P450 enzyme system

and laccase activity. After 24 h incubation decrease in toxicity of diclofenac was confi rmed by Microtox test.

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Authors and Affiliations

Y. Doruk Aracagök
Hakan Göker
Nilüfer Cihangir
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Along with the increase in popularity of the sewage sludge thermal treatment methods in Poland

resulting from the implementation of European Union law, a management problem with ash, which is produced

as a result of this process, appeared. The paper analyses the chemical composition and physical properties of fl y

ash from thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge in terms of its use in concrete technologies in relation to

EN 450-1 Fly ash for concrete. Defi nition, specifi cations and conformity criteria (2012) and EN 197-1 Cement.

Composition, specifi cations and conformity criteria for common cements (2011) standards. The tested material did

not meet the requirements related to use of fl y ash for concrete production (chemical composition, low activity

index, high water demand and fi neness), and as main and minor components for cement production. On the basis

of the carried out research and analyses, it was found that the hardening slurry technology creates the greatest

possibilities related to the management of fl y ash from thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge.

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Authors and Affiliations

Łukasz Szarek
Małgorzata Wojtkowska
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FA discharged from the wastewater treatment plant were extracted from purifi ed effl uents for the quantitative

and qualitative analysis. The treated sewage from municipal treatment plants was acidifi ed to pH <2 and extracted

with ion exchange resins in a laboratory column. After desorption with NH4

OH, the fulvic acids were condensed

under vacuum and tested for mass performance, UV-VIS light spectra, IR absorption spectra, elementary composition

and other elements. Their structure was analysed and compared to FA present in surface waters and in sewage treated

in other sewage treatment plants based on the authors’ own research and the literature data. The concentration of

FA in the treated sewage was 5.2 mg/L. There is a high interdependence between the IR spectrum analysis in the

visible light and the elementary composition of FA extracted from different environments, confi rming the conclusions

pertaining to the structure and properties of the acids being tested. The longer sewage is subjected to a biological

treatment process, the greater the degree of aromatic condensation and humus maturity of the FA contained within it.

FA contained in the sewage treated in the three biological sewage treatment plants have the ratio A2


(the ratio of the

absorbance of light with the wavelength of 250 and 300 nm) equal to the value 1.7. There is a high interdependence

between the IR spectrum analysis in the visible light and the elementary composition of FA extracted from different

environments, confi rming the conclusions pertaining to the structure and properties of the acids being tested.

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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Maria Anielak
Małgorzata Kryłów
Dominika Łomińska-Płatek
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This study is aimed at measuring the effect of pig, cow, horse and poultry manures on the degradation of

selected Polycyclic Aromatics Hydrocarbons present in oil sludge. Four kilograms of soil amended with 1.2 kg of oil

sludge was mixed with wood chips in a ratio of 1:2 (w:v) soil mixture: wood chips. The mixture was divided into fi ve parts

and four parts were separately mixed with pig, cow, horse or poultry manures in a ratio of 2:1 (w:w) and the fi fth portion

was used as the control with no manure added. All experiments were incubated for 10 months at room temperature.

Compost piles were turned weekly for aeration and moisture level was maintained by adding deionised water enough

to prevent the compost from getting dry. Moisture level, pH, temperature, CO2

evolution and oxygen consumption

were measured monthly and the ash content of the compost at the end of experimentation. Highest temperature reached

was 27.5°C in all compost heaps, pH ranged from 5.5 to 7.8 and CO2

evolution was highest in poultry manure at

18.78 μg/dwt/day. Microbial growth and activities were enhanced as indicated by increase in temperature, moisture

level, pH value and respiration rate in all the compost piles. Bacteria capable of utilizing PAHs were isolated, purifi ed

and characterized by molecular techniques using polymerase chain reaction with specifi c universal primers and the

amplicons were sequenced. Bacteria identifi ed were Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Staphylococcus species. Percentage

reduction in PAHs was measured using automated soxhlet extractor with Dichloromethane and gas chromatography/mass

spectrometry. Results from PAH concentration measurements showed reduction of between 77% and 99%. Co-

-composting of contaminated soil with animal manures enhanced the reduction in PAHs.

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Authors and Affiliations

Onyedikachi Ubani
Harrison Ifeanyichukwu Atagana
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The adsorption of lead ions onto a zeolite bearing tuff (stilbite) from synthetic acid aqueous solution and

acid mine drainage taken from Sasa mine, Macedonia, is elaborated in this paper. The results present that adsorption

occurs effi ciently in both of cases.

The physical and chemical properties of the used natural material, zeolite bearing tuff, are characterized by X-ray

diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy. The concentration of metal ions in solution

before and after treatment is obtained by AES-ICP.

The effectivity of zeolite bearing tuff is determined through a series of experiments under batch conditions from

single ion solutions, whereby the main parameters are the effects of initial pH of solution, mass of adsorbent, initial

metal concentration in solution, contacting time and competing cations. The maximum capacity of zeolite bearing tuff

for removal of lead ions from solution is determined by equilibrium studies.

The experimental obtained data are fi tted with Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models. The experimental

data are better fi tted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

Zeolite bearing tuff is effective adsorbent for treating acid mine drainage. The results showed that 99% of lead ions

are removed from acid mine drainage, i.e. the concentration of lead ions from 0.329 mg/dm3

decrease to 0.002 mg/dm3


The pH value of acid mine drainage from 3.90 after treatment with zeolite bearing tuff increases to 5.36.

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Authors and Affiliations

Afrodita Zendelska
Mirjana Golomeova
Blagoj Golomeov
Boris Krstev
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Air quality is crucial for human health and welfare. A large number of studies have indicated strong

associations between ambient air pollution levels and adverse health effects. There is a considerable number

of literature reports concerning changes in atmospheric greenhouse emissions, while relatively little is known on

changes in atmospheric CO emissions. This paper presents the rate of changes in atmospheric CO emissions using the

logarithmic method in the assessment of this rate. Studies were conducted based on source data from 32 Organization

for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Analyses covered the period of 2005–2012. It was found that

the average rate of changes had a negative average rate for most, although not all analyzed countries. In three of the

32 countries atmospheric CO emissions increased in that period. While the intensity of these changes varied, a defi nite

majority of the countries reduced their CO emissions, whereas Turkey, Poland and Estonia increased their emissions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Adamowicz

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Archives of Environmental Protection
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