Applied sciences

Archives of Foundry Engineering

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Archives of Foundry Engineering | 2014 | No 1 |

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Abstract

The examined material comprised two grades of corrosion-resistant cast steel, namely GX2CrNiMoN25-6-3 and GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3- 3, used for example in elements of systems of wet flue gas desulphurisation in power industry. The operating conditions in media heated up to 70°C and containing Cl- and SO4 ions and solid particles produce high erosive and corrosive wear.The work proposes an application of the σ phase as a component of precipitation strengthening mechanism in order to increase the functional properties of the material. The paper presents the results of examination of the kinetics of σ phase precipitation at a temperature of 800°C and at times ranging from 30 to 180 minutes. Changes in the morphology of precipitates of the σ phase were determined using the value of shape factor R. Resistance to erosion-corrosion wear of duplex cast steel was correlated with the kinetics of sigma phase precipitating.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Brodziak-Hyska
Z. Stradomski
C. Kolan
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Abstract

This article contains information concerning of the analysis the possibility of defining refinery qualities of the slag based thermo-physical and thermo-dynamical data. It was showed the brass refining with the many-carbide reagents introduced in to the slag. The paper presents the results of the structure analysis of the brass after carbide slag refining in the industrial conditions. The results of the macrostructure analysis have confirmed the argument on high reducing effectiveness of manganese and aluminium carbide used during CuZn39Pb2 alloy melting. The X-Ray microanalysis of the ingot cross-section has shown considerable discrepancies in the disposition of the inclusions. This effects showed on the great influence of reduction melting condition in to the brass melting
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Authors and Affiliations

A.W. Bydałek
A. Bydałek
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Abstract

The effects of filling the core box cavity and sand compaction in processes of core production by blowing methods (blowing, shooting) depend on several main factors. The most important are: geometrical parameters of cavity and complexity of its shape, number, distribution and shape of blowing holes feeding sands as well as the venting of a technological cavity. Values of individual parameters are selected according to various criteria, but mostly they should be adjusted to properties of the applied core sand. Various methods developed by several researchers, including the authors own attempts, allow to assess core sands properties on the basis of special technological tests projecting the process into a laboratory scale. The developed criteria defining a degree or a filling ability factor provide a better possibility of assessing the core sand behavior during flowing and core box filling, which indicate the value and structure of the obtained compacting decisive – after hardening – for strength and permeability. The mentioned above aspects are analyzed – on the basis of authors’ own examinations - in the hereby paper.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Skrzyński
R. Dańko
J. Dańko
A. Burbelko
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Abstract

An initial assessment of the effectiveness of cast iron inoculation, performed by the method of impulse introducing the master alloy into cast iron, is presented. The experiment was concerned with the hypoeutectic gray cast iron inoculated with either the Alinoc or the Barinoc master alloy by means of an experimental device for pneumatic transportation. Examinations involved pneumatic injection of the powdered inoculant carried in a stream of gaseous medium (argon) into the metal bath held in the crucible of an induction furnace. It was found that the examined process is characterised by both high effectiveness and stability.
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Authors and Affiliations

M.S. Soiński
A. Derda-Ślęzak
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Abstract

A significant part of the knowledge used in the production processes is represented with natural language. Yet, the use of that knowledge in computer-assisted decision-making requires the application of appropriate formal and development tools. An interesting possibility is created by the use of an ontology that is understandable both for humans and for the computer. This paper presents a proposal for structuring the information about the foundry processes, based on the definition of ontology adapted to the physical structure of the ongoing technological operations that make up the process of producing castings.
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Authors and Affiliations

Z. Górny
D. Wilk-Kołodziejczyk
A. Smolarek-Grzyb
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Abstract

The results of investigations of moulding sands with an inorganic binder called GEOPOL, developed by the SAND TEAM Company are presented in the paper. Hardeners of various hardening rates are used for moulding sands with this binder. The main aim of investigations was determination of the influence of the hardening rate of moulding sands with the GEOPOL binder on technological properties of these sands (bending strength, tensile strength, permeability and grindability). In addition, the final strength of moulding sands of the selected compositions was determined by two methods: by splitting strength and shear strength measurements. No essential influence of the hardening rate on such parameters as: permeability, grindability and final strength was found. However, the sand in which the slowest hardener (SA 72) were used, after 1 hour of holding, had the tensile and bending strength practically zero. Thus, the time needed for taking to pieces the mould made of such moulding sand will be 1.5 - 2 hours.
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Authors and Affiliations

D. Drożyński
M. Holtzer
A. Bobrowski
W. Plaza
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Abstract

The presented in the paper investigations were aimed at the determination of the reclaimed material (obtained in the dry mechanical reclamation process) addition influence on properties of moulding sands with hydrated sodium silicate modified by colloidal suspension of zinc oxide nanoparticles in propanol. Nanoparticles originated from the thermal decomposition of alkaline zinc carbonate, were used. The results of the reclamation of the spent moulding sand with hydrated sodium silicate performed in the AT-2 testing reclaimer are presented in the paper. Both, spent sands from the Floster S technology and from the technology with the modified water-glass were subjected to the reclamation processes. The following determinations of the reclaimed material were performed: pH reaction, acid demand, ignition loss and Na2O content. The obtained reclaim was used as a matrix component of moulding sands with water-glass in the Floster S technology, in which it constituted 60% and 50% of the sand matrix. The strength properties of the prepared moulding sands were determined (bending strength Rg u , tensile strength Rm u ) after samples storing times: 1h, 2h, 4h and 24 hours.
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Authors and Affiliations

J. Kamińska
A. Kmita
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Abstract

The article presents an analysis of the applicability of the Replicast CS process as an alternative to the investment casting process, considered in terms of the dimensional accuracy of castings. Ceramic shell moulds were based on the Ekosil binder and a wide range of ceramic materials, such as crystalline quartz, fused silica, aluminosilicates and zirconium silicate. The linear dimensions were measured with a Zeiss UMC 550 machine that allowed reducing to minimum the measurement uncertainty.
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Authors and Affiliations

R. Haratym
A. Karwiński
R. Biernacki
A. Soroczyński
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Abstract

This paper presents the results of studies of high-alloyed white cast iron modified with lanthanum, titanium, and aluminium-strontium. The samples were taken from four melts of high-vanadium cast iron with constant carbon and vanadium content and near-eutectic microstructure into which the tested inoculants were introduced in an amount of 1 wt% respective of the charge weight. The study included a metallographic examinations, mechanical testing, as well as hardness and impact resistance measurements taken on the obtained alloys. Studies have shown that different additives affect both the microstructure and mechanical properties of high-vanadium cast iron.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Kawalec
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Abstract

Ductile iron casts with a higher silicone content were produced. The austempering process of high silicone ductile iron involving different austempering times was studied and the results presented. The results of metallographical observations and tensile strength tests were offered. The obtained results point to the fact that the silicone content which is considered as acceptable in the literature may in fact be exceeded. The issue is viewed as requiring further research.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Kochański
A. Krzyńska
T. Radziszewski
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Abstract

The paper presents the method of preparing a composite slurry composed of AlSi11 alloy matrix and 10 vol.% of SiC particles, as well as the method of its high-pressure die casting and the measurement results concerning the tensile strength, the yield point, the elongation and hardness of the obtained composite. Composite castings were produced at various values of the piston velocity in the second stage of injection, diverse intensification pressure values, and various injection gate width values. There were found the regression equations describing the change of mechanical properties of the examined composite as a function of pressure die casting process parameters. The conclusion gives the analysis and the interpretation of the obtained results.
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Authors and Affiliations

Z. Konopka
A. Pasieka
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Abstract

The resistance of cast iron to abrasive wear depends on the metal abrasive hardness ratio. For example, hardness of the structural constituents of the cast iron metal matrix is lower than the hardness of ordinary silica sand. Also cementite, the basic component of unalloyed white cast iron, has hardness lower than the hardness of silica. Some resistance to the abrasive effect of the aforementioned silica sand can provide the chromium white cast iron containing in its structure a large amount of (Cr, Fe)7C3 carbides characterised by hardness higher than the hardness of the silica sand in question. In the present study, it has been anticipated that the white cast iron structure will be changed by changing the type of metal matrix and the type of carbides present in this matrix, which will greatly expand the application area of castings under the harsh operating conditions of abrasive wear. Moreover, the study compares the results of abrasive wear resistance tests performed on the examined types of cast iron. Tests of abrasive wear resistance were carried out on a Miller machine. Samples of standard dimensions were exposed to abrasion in a double to-and-fro movement, sliding against the bottom of a trough filled with an aqueous abrasive mixture containing SiC + distilled water. The obtained results of changes in the sample weight were approximated with a power curve and shown further in the study.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Kawalec
D. Kopyciński
S. Piasny
A. Madizhanova
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Abstract

Studies were conducted on a zinc coating produced on the surface of ductile iron grade EN-GJS-500-7 to determine the eutectic grain effect. For this purpose, castings with a wall thickness of 5 to 30 mm were made and the resulting structure was examined. To obtain a homogeneous metal matrix, samples were subjected to a ferritising annealing treatment. To enlarge the reaction surface, the top layer was removed from casting by machining. Then hot dip galvanising treatment was performed at 450°C to capture the kinetics of growth of the zinc coating (in the period from 60 to 600 seconds). Analysing the test results it was found that within the same time of hot dip galvanising, the differences in the resulting zinc coating thickness on samples taken from castings with different wall cross-sections were small but could, particularly for shorter times of treatment, reduce the continuity of the alloyed layer of the zinc coating.
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Authors and Affiliations

D. Kopyciński
E. Guzik
A. Szczęsny
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Abstract

Directional solidification technique is an important research instrument to study solidification of metals and alloys. In the paper the model [6,7,8] of directional solidification in special Artemis-3 facility was presented. The current work aimed to propose the ease and efficient way in calibrating the facility. The introduced M coefficient allowed effective calibration and implementation of defined thermal conditions. The specimens of AlSi alloys with Fe-rich intermetallics and especially deleterious β-Al5FeSi were processed by controlled solidification velocity, temperature gradient and cooling rate.
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Authors and Affiliations

P. Mikołajczak
L. Ratke
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Abstract

Drops of molten cast iron were placed on moulding sand substrates. The composition of the forming gaseous atmosphere was examined. It was found that as a result of the cast iron contact with water vapour released from the sand, a significant amount of hydrogen was evolved. In all the examined moulding sands, including sands without carbon, a large amount of CO was formed. The source of carbon monoxide was carbon present in cast iron. In the case of bentonite moulding sand with seacoal and sand bonded with furan resin, in the composition of the gases, the trace amounts of hydrocarbons, i.e. benzene, toluene, styrene and naphthalene (BTX), appeared. As the formed studies indicate much higher content of BTX at lower temperature it was concluded that the hydrocarbons are unstable in contact with molten iron
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Authors and Affiliations

J. Mocek
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Abstract

Flake graphite cast iron was hot-dip coated with pure aluminium or aluminium alloys (AlSi11 and AlTi5). The study aimed at determining the influence of bath composition on the thickness, microstructure and phase composition of the coatings. The analysis was conducted by means of an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope with an EDS spectrometer. It was found that the overall thickness of a coating was greatly dependent on the chemical composition of a bath. The coatings consisted of an outer layer and an inner intermetallic layer, the latter with two zones and dispersed graphite. In all the cases considered, the zone in the inner intermetallic layer adjacent to the cast iron substrate contained the Al5Fe2 phase with small amount of silicon; the interface between this phase and the cast iron substrate differed substantially, depending on the bath composition. In the coatings produced by hot-dipping in pure aluminium the zone adjacent to the outer layer had a composition similar to that produced from an AlTi5 bath, the Al3Fe phase was identified in this zone. The Al3Fe also contained silicon but its amount was lower than that in the Al5Fe2. In the coatings produced by hot-dipping in AlSi11, the zone adjacent to the outer layer contained the Al3FeSi phase. The analysis results showed that when AlSi11 alloy was applied, the growth mode of the inner layer changed from inwards to outwards. The interface between the Al5Fe2 phase and the cast iron substrate was flat and the zone of this phase was very thin. Locally, there were deep penetrations of the Al5FeSi phase into the outer layer, and the interface between this phase and the outer layer was irregular. Immersion in an AlTi5 bath caused that the inner intermetallic layer was thicker than when pure aluminium or AlSi11 alloy baths were used; also, some porosity was observed in this layer; and finally, the interface between the inner layer and the cast iron substrate was the most irregular.
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Authors and Affiliations

T. Bucki
R. Mola
K. Wcisło
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Abstract

In this study, a preliminary evaluation was made of the applicability ofthe signalsof the cutting forces, vibration and acoustic emission in diagnosis of the hardness and microstructure of ausferritic ductile iron and tool edge wear rate during its machining. Tests were performed on pearlitic-ferritic ductile iron and on three types of ausferritic ductile iron obtained by austempering at 400, 370 and 320⁰C for 180 minutes. Signals of the cutting forces (F), vibration (V) and acoustic emission (AE) were registered while milling each type of the cast iron with a milling cutter at different degrees of wear. Based on individual signals from all the sensors, numerous measures were determined such as e.g. the average or maximum signal value. It was found that different measures from all the sensors tested depended on the microstructure and hardness of the examined material, and on the tool condition. Knowing hardness of the material and the cutting tool edge condition, it is possible to determine the structure of the material .Simultaneous diagnosis of microstructure, hardness, and the tool condition is probably feasible, but it would require the application of a diagnostic strategy based on the integration of numerous measures, e.g. using neural networks.
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Authors and Affiliations

D. Myszka
S. Bombiński
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Abstract

The work presents the test result of the influence of cooling rate on the microstructure of AZ91 alloy, Vickers micro-hardness and Brinell hardness. Studies cooling and crystallization of AZ91 alloy was cast into the ceramic shells pre-heated to 180 ° C and then air-cooled at ambient temperature or intensively super cooled in the liquid coolant. The TDA method was applied to record and characterize the thermal effect resulting from the phase transformations occurring during the crystallization of AZ91 alloy. The kinetics and dynamics of the thermal processes of crystallization of AZ91 alloy in the ceramic shells were determined. Metallographic tests were performed with the use of an optical microscope. A comparison of these test results with the thermal effect recorded by way of the TDA method was made. Influence of cooling rate of AZ91 on HV0, 01 micro-hardness and Brinell hardness alloy was examined.
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Authors and Affiliations

C. Rapiejko
E. Czekaj
T. Pacyniak
B. Pisarek
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Abstract

The mathematical and numerical simulation model of the liquid steel flow in a tundish is presented in this paper. The problem was treated as a complex and solved by the finite element method. The single-strand slab tundish is used to continuous casting slabs. The internal work space of the tundish was modified by the following flow control devices. The first device was a striker pad situated in the pouring tundish zone. The second device was a baffle with three holes and the third device was a baffle without hole. The main purpose of using these devices was to cause a quiet liquid mixing as well as give directional metal flow upwards which facilitated inclusion floatation. The interaction of flow control devices on hydrodynamic conditions was received from numerical simulation. As a result of the computations carried out, the liquid steel flow and steel temperature fields were obtained. The influence of the tundish modification on velocity fields in the liquid phase of steel was estimated, because these have an essential influence on high quality of a continuous steel cast slab.
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Authors and Affiliations

L. Sowa
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of simulation of alloy layer formation process on the model casting. The first aim of this study was to determine the influence of the location of the heat center on alloy layer’s thickness with the use of computer simulation. The second aim of this study was to predict the thickness of the layer. For changes of technological parameters, the distribution of temperature in the model casting and temperature changes in the characteristic points of the casting were found for established changes of technological parameters. Numerical calculations were performed using programs NovaFlow&Solid. The process of obtaining the alloy layer with good quality and proper thickness depends on: pouring temperature, time of premould hold at the temperature above 1300o C. The obtained results of simulation were loaded to authorial program Preforma 1.1 in order to determine the predicted thickness of the alloy casting
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Authors and Affiliations

J. Szajnar
C. Baron
A. Walasek
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Abstract

This paper presents the effect of the temperature and hold time in the holding furnace of 226 silumin on the characteristic quantities of TDA curves. The temperature of phase transformations and the cooling rate were tested.It has been shown that increasing both the hold time and the temperature in the holdingfurnace cause the decreasethe end ofα+Al9Fe3Si2+β and α+Al2Cu+βternary eutectics crystallizationtemperature in the tested silumin. This is due to the fact an increase in amounts of impurities as a result of reacting theliquid alloy with the gases contained in the air.It has been shown, however, that examined technological factors ofthe metal preparation do not cause systematic changes in the cooling rate.
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Authors and Affiliations

T. Szymczak
T. Pacyniak
G. Gumienny

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