Nauki Techniczne

Archives of Foundry Engineering

Zawartość

Archives of Foundry Engineering | 2021 | vo. 21 | No 2 |

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Abstrakt

Sodium silicate is one of the most successful inorganic binder. Along with the broad application of sodium silicate for domestic and industrial purposes, the composition analysis, include modulus (m), ratio of SiO2:Na2O, Na2O%, SiO2%, and solid-containing content, is important for the products strength and service life. However, it is perplexing to operate, inefficient and low precision for traditional standard testing method of these parameters. In this study, an automatic measurement system of sodium silicate composition analysis, with the potential electrode for potentiometer titration, micro-controller, PCB, heater, stirrer, printer and micro peristaltic pump, was developed according to the determine method principle. The end-points of pH value in the two titrating steps, first was 4.3 and second was 6.0, were set in the micro-controller to control the reaction in the processing of the sodium silicate composition analysis. And all the potential signals of the pH electrode were transited in the special PCB for the micro-controller.
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Bibliografia

[1] Rabbii, A. (2001). Sodium silicate glass as an inorganic binder in foundry industry. Iranian Polymer Journal. 10(4), 229-235.
[2] Stachowicz, M., Pałyga, Ł.& Kȩpowicz, D. (2020). Influence of automatic core shooting parameters in hot-box technology on the strength of sodium silicate olivine moulding sands. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 20(1), 67-72.
[3] Huafang, W., Wenbang, G. & Jijun, L. (2014). Improve the humidity resistance of sodium silicate sands by estermicrowave composite hardening. Metalurgija. 53(4), 455-458.
[4] Nowak, D. (2017). The impact of microwave penetration depth on the process of heating the moulding sand with sodium silicate. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 17(4), 115-118.
[5] M. Stachowicz, K. Granat, & D. Nowak. (2011). Application of microwaves for innovative hardening of environment-friendly water-glass moulding sands used in manufacture of cast-steel castings. Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering. XI(1), 209-219.
[6] Zhu, CX. (2007). Recent advances in waterglass sand technologies. China Foundry. 4(1), 13-17.
[7] Masuda Yuki, Tsubota Keiji, Ishii Kenichi, Imakoma Hironobu, Ohmura Naoto. (2009) Drying rate and surface temperature in solidification of glass particle layer with inorganic binder by microwave drying. Kagaku Kogaku Ronbunshu. 35(2). 229-231.
[8] Standardization Administration of the P.R.C. (2008). GB/T4209-2008, Sodium silicate for industry use[S]. Beijing, China Standard Press.
[9] Bourikas K., Kordulis C. & Lycourghiotis A. (2005). Differential potentiometric titration: Development of a methodology for determining the point of zero charge of metal (Hydr)oxides by one titration curve. Environmental Science & Technology. 39(11), 4100-4108.
[10] Fan ZT, Liu M, Wang HF, Long W, Hu XT. (2010). Chinese Patent No. 201010558029.3. Beijing, China National Intellectual Property Administration.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Huafang Wang
1
Quanrun Wang
1
Wu Zhang
1
Xiang Gao
1
Jijun Lu
1

  1. School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430073, China
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Abstrakt

Selective laser melting is one of the additive manufacturing technologies that is used to produce complex-shaped components for applications in the automotive industry. The purpose of the changes in the design, technology, and material tests was to make a steering gear housing using the SLM method. The steering gear housing was produced by the pressure casting method using an AlSi9Cu3(Fe) alloy. The construction of this housing is adapted to the specifics of left-hand traffic. The change in technology was related to the change of the position of the steering system from right-hand to left-hand and the demand for a limited number of gear housings. It was necessary to make a virtual model of the housing on the basis of the part that was removed from the vehicle. In SLM technology, the AlSi10Mg aluminum alloy was used as a raw material in the form of CL 32Al gas-atomized powder. After the SLM process was completed, the housings were subjected to heat treatment. The AlSi10Mg alloy fabricated by the SLM method after heat treatment is characterized by good plasticity and an average value of tensile strength. The last stage was to check the geometry of the SLM housing with a 3D scanner. As a result, a map of the dimensional deviations from the nominal values was obtained. This data was used to modify the CAD model before the next fabrication process.
The use of 3D printing technology allowed for the quick production of elements. The time to develop the technology and the production of the first two gear housings based on a 3D model was seven days.
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Bibliografia

[1] Additive Manufacturing  General Principes  Terminology (2015). ISO/ASTM 2900:2015. BSI: London, UK.
[2] Frazier, W.E. (2014). Metal additive manufacturing: A review. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. 23, 1917-1928. DOI: 10.1007/s11665-014-0958-z.
[3] Sercombe, T.B. & Li, X. (2016). Selective laser melting of aluminum and aluminum metal matrix composites. Review. Materials Technology. 31(2), 77-85. DOI: 10.1179/1753555715Y.0000000078.
[4] Yadroitsev, I., Yadroitsava, I., Bertrand, P. & Smurov, I. (2012). Factor analysis of selective laser melting process parameters and geometrical characteristics of synthesized single tracks. Rapid Prototyping Journal. 18(3), 201-208. DOI: 10.1108/13552541211218117.
[5] Olakanmi, E.O. (2013). Selective laser sintering/melting (SLS/SLM) of pure Al, Al-Mg, and Al-Si powders: Effect of processing conditions and powder properties. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 213(8), 1387-1405. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2013.03.009.
[6] Gibson, I., Rosen, D.W. & Stucker, B. (2010). Additive Manufacturing Technologies, Rapid Prototyping to Direct Digital Manufacturing. Springer New York Heidelberg Dordrecht London. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-1120-9.
[7] Kempen, K., Thijs, L., Van Humbeeck, J. & Kruth, J.P. (2015). Processing AlSi10Mg by selective laser melting: parameter optimisation and material characterization. Materials Science and Technology. 31(8), 917-923, DOI: 10.1179/1743284714Y.0000000702.
[8] Aboulkhair, N.T., Everitt, N.M., Ashcroft, I. & Tuck, C.N. (2014). Reducing porosity in AlSi10Mg parts processed by selective laser melting. Additive Manufacturing. 1-4, 77-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2014.08.001.9.
[9] Read, N., Wang, W. & Essa, K. & Attallah, M. (2015). Selective laser melting of AlSi10Mg alloy: Process optimisation and mechanical properties development. Materials & Design. 65, 417-424. DOI: 10.1016/J.MATDES.2014.09.044.
[10] Lam, L.P., Zhang, D.Q., Liu, Z.H. & Chua, C.K. (2015). Phase analysis and microstructure characterisation of AlSi10Mg parts produced by Selective Laser Melting. Virtual and Physical Prototyping. 10 (4), 207-215. DOI: 10.1080/17452759.2015.1110868.
[11] EOS Material data sheet, EOS Aluminium AlSi10Mg. www.eos.info/03_system-related-assets/material-related-contents/metal-materials-and-examples/metal-material- datasheet/aluminium/alsi10mg-9011-0024-m400_flexline_material_data_sheet_03-18_en.pdf.
[12] Concept Laser a GE Additive Company, CL 32 Al. Aluminium alloy. www.ge.com/additive/sites/default/files/ 2018-12/CL 32AL_DS_DE_US_v1.pdf.
[13] Li, W., Li, S., Liu, J., Zhang, Y., Wei, Q., Yan, C. & Shi, Y. (2016). Effect of heat treatment on AlSi10Mg alloy fabricated by selective laser melting: Microstructure evolution, mechanical properties and fracture mechanism. Materials Science and Engineering A. 663, 116-125. DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2016.03.088.
[14] Thijs, L., Kempen, K., Kurth, J.P. & Van Humbeeck, J. (2013). Fine-structured aluminium products with controllable texture by selective laser melting of pre-alloyed AlSi10Mg powder. Acta Materialia. 61(5), 1809-1819. DOI: 10.1016/j.actamat.2012.11.052.
[15] Brandl, E., Heckenberger, U., Holzinger, V. & Buchbinder, D. (2012). Additive manufactured AlSi10Mg samples using Selective Laser Melting (SLM): Microstructure, high cycle fatigue, and fracture behavior. Materials & Design. 34, 159-169. DOI: 10.1016/j.matdes.2011.07.067.
[16] Piekło, J., Garbacz-Klempka, A., Żuczek, R. & Małysza, M. (2019). Computational modeling of fracture toughness of Al-Si, and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys with detected porosity. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. 28, 1373-1381. DOI: 10.1007/s11665-019-03899-2.
[17] Zych, J., Piekło, J., Maj, M., Garbacz-Klempka, A. & Piękoś, M. (2019). Influence of structural discontinuities on fatigue life of 4XXX0-series aluminum alloys. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials. 64(2), 765-771. DOI: 10.24425/amm.2019.127611.
[18] Leary, M., Maconachie, T., Sarker, A. & Faruque, O. (2019). Mechanical and thermal characterisation of AlSi10Mg SLM block suport structures. Materials and Design. 183(5), 108-138. DOI: 10.1016/j.matdes.2019.108138.
[19] EOS Material data sheet, EOS MaragingSteel MS1. www.eos.info/03_system-related-assets/material-related-contents/metal-materials-and-examples/metal-material-datasheet/werkzeugstahl_ms1_cx/ms1/ms-ms1-m280_m290_400w_material_data_sheet_05-14_en.pdf
[20] Waszkiewicz, S., Fic, M., Perzyk, M. & Szczepanik, J. (1986). Die and pressure molds. Warszawa: WNT. (in Polish).
[21] Piekło, J. (2019). Application of SLM additive manufacturing method in production of selected cooling system elements in die casting molds. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akapit. (in Polish).
[22] Piekło, J. & Maj, M. (2014). Methods of additive manufacturing used in the technology of skeleton castings. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, 2014 ,59, 699-702. DOI: 10.2478/amm-2014-0114.
[23] Bonderek, Z. & Chromik, S. (2006). Metal pressure die-casting and plastic injection molding. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Akapit. (in Polish).
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

J. Piekło
1
A. Garbacz-Klempka
1

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, Reymonta 23 Str., 30-059 Kraków, Poland
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Abstrakt

The paper reports the results of work leading to the construction of a spatial thermo-mechanical model based on the finite element method allowing the computer simulation of physical phenomena accompanying the steel sample testing at temperatures that are characteristic for the soft-reduction process. The proposed numerical model is based upon a rigid-plastic solution for the prediction of stress and strain fields, and the Fourier-Kirchhoff equation for the prediction of temperature fields. The mushy zone that forms within the sample volume is characterized by a variable density during solidification with simultaneous deformation. In this case, the incompressibilitycondition applied in the classic rigid-plastic solution becomes inadequate. Therefore, in the presented solution, a modified operator equation in the optimized power functional was applied, which takes into account local density changes at the mechanical model level (the incompressibility condition was replaced with the condition of mass conservation). The study was supplemented withexamples of numerical and experimental simulation results, indicating that the proposed model conditions, assumptions, and numerical models are correct.
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Bibliografia

[1] Haga, T. & Suzuki, S.(2003). Study on high-speed twin-roll caster for aluminum alloys. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 144(1), 895-900. DOI: 10.1016/S0924-0136(03)00400-X.
[2] Haga, T., Tkahashi, K., Ikawa, M., et al. (2004). Twin roll casting of aluminum alloy strips. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 154(2), 42-47. DOI: 10.1016/j. jmatprotec.2004.04.018.
[3] Hojny, M. (2018). Modeling steel deformation in the semi-solid state. Switzerland: Springer.
[4] Zhang, L., Shen, H., Rong, Y., et al. (2007). Numerical simulation on solidification and thermal stress of continuous casting billet in mold based on meshless methods. Materials Science and Engineering. 466(1-2), 71-78. DOI: 10.1016/ j.msea.2007.02.103.
[5] Kalaki, A. & Ketabchi, M. (2013). Predicting the rheological behavior of AISI D2 semi-solid steel by plastic instability approach. American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology. 1(3), 41-45. DOI: 10.12691/materials-1-3-3.
[6] Hassas-Irani, S.B., Zarei-Hanzaki, A., Bazaz, B., Roostaei, A. (2013). Microstructure evolution and semi-solid deformation behavior of an A356 aluminum alloy processed by strain induced melt activated method. Materials and Design. 46, 579-587. DOI: 10.1016/j.matdes.2012.10.041.
[7] Zhang, C., Zhao, S., Yan, G., Wang, Y. (2018). Deformation behaviour and microstructures of semi-solid A356.2 alloy prepared by radial forging process during high solid fraction compression. Journal of Engineering Manufacture. 232(3), 487, 498.
[8] Wang, J. (2016). Deformation Behavior of Semi-Solid ZCuSn10P1 Copper Alloy during Isothermal Compression. Solid State Phenomena. 256, 31-38.
[9] Shashikanth, C.H. & Davidson, M.J. (2015). Experimental and simulation studies on thixoforming of AA 2017 alloy. Mat. at High Temperatures. 32(6), 541-550. DOI: 10.1179/1878641314Y.0000000043.
[10] Bharath, K., Khanra, A.K., Davidson, M.J. (2019). Microstructural Analysis and Simulation Studies of Semi-solid Extruded Al–Cu–Mg Powder Metallurgy Alloys (pp.101-114). Advances in Materials and Metallurgy: Springer.
[11] Kang, C.G. & Yoon, J.H. (1997). A finite-element analysis on the upsetting process of semi-solid aluminum material. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 66 (1-3), 76-84. DOI: 10.1016 / S0924-0136 (96) 02498-3.
[12] Hostos, J.C.A., et al. (2018). Modeling the viscoplastic flow behavior of a 20MnCr5 steel grade deformed under hot-working conditions, employing a meshless technique. International Journal of Plasticity. 103, 119-142. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijplas.2018.01.005.
[13] Kopp, R., Choi, J. & Neudenberger, D. (2003). Simple compression test and simulation of an Sn–15% Pb alloy in the semi-solid state. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 135(2), 317-323. DOI: 10.1016/S0924-0136(02)00863-4.
[14] Modigell, M., Pape, L. & Hufschmidt, M. (2004). The Rheological Behaviour of Metallic Suspensions. Steel Research International. 75(3), 506-512. DOI: 10.1002/ srin.200405803.
[15] Hufschmidt, M., Modigell, M. & Petera, J. (2004). Two-Phase Simulations as a Development Tool for Thixoforming Processes. Steel Research International. 75(3), 513-518. DOI: 10.1002/srin.200405804.
[16] Jing, Y.L., Sumio, S. & Jun, Y. (2005). Microstructural evolution and flow stress of semi-solid type 304 stainless steel. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 161(3), 396-406. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2004.07.063.
[17] Jin, S.D. & Hwan, O.K. (2002). Phase-field modelling of the thermo-mechanical properties of carbon steels. Acta Materialia. 50, 2259-2268. DOI: 10.1016/S1359-6454(02)00012-5.
[18] Xiao, C., et al. (2013). Optimization Investigation on the Soft Reduction Parameters of Medium Carbon Microalloy. Materials Processing Fundamentals. Springer. 109-116. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-48197-5_12.
[19] Han, Z., et al. (2010). Development and Application of Dynamic Soft-reduction Control Model to Slab Continuous Casting Process. ISIJ International. 50(11), 1637-1643. DOI: 10.2355/isijinternational.50.1637.
[20] Li, Y., Li, L. & Zhang, J. (2017). Study and application of a simplified soft reduction amount model for improved internal quality of continuous casting. Steel Research International. 88(12), 1700176-1700219. DOI: 10.1002/srin.201700176.
[21] Bereczki, P., et al. (2015). Different applications of the gleeble thermal–mechanical simulator in material testing, technology optimization, and process modeling. Materials Performance and Characterization 4. No. 3, 399-420. DOI: 10.1520/ MPC20150006.
[22] Hojny, M., et al. (2019). Multiscale model of heating-remelting-cooling in the Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical simulator system. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials. 64(1), 401-412. DOI: 10.24425/amm.2019.126266.
[23] Pieja, T., et al. (2017). Numerical analysis of cooling system in warm metal forming process (pp. 261-266). Brno, Czech: Proceedings of the Metal.
[24] Hojny, M. (2013). Thermo-mechanical model of a TIG welding process for the aircraft industry. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials. 58(4), 1125-1130. DOI: 10.2478/amm-2013-0136.
[25] Hu, D. & Kovacevic, R. (2003). Sensing, modeling and control for laser-based additive manufacturing. Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture. 43, 51-60. DOI: 10.1016/S0890-6955(02)00163-3.
[26] Ba Lan, T., et al. (2017). A new route for semi-solid steel forging. Manufacturing Technology. 66(1), 297-300. DOI: 10.1016/j.cirp.2017.04.111.
[27] Głowacki, M. (2005). The mathematical modelling of thermo-mechanical processing of steel during multi-pass shape rolling. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 168, 336-343. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2004.12.007.
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[30] Głowacki, M. (2012). Mathematical modeling and computer simulations of metal deformation - theory and practice (pp. 229-238). Kraków: AGH. (in Polish).
[31] Jonsta. P., et al. (2015). Contribution to the thermal properties of selected steels. Metalurgija. 54(1), 187-190.
[32] Szyczgioł, N. (1997). Równania krzepnięcia w ujęciu metody elementów skończonych. Solidification of Metals and Alloys. 30, 221-232.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

M. Hojny
1
T. Dębiński
1
M. Głowacki
1
Trang Thi Thu Nguyen
1

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland
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Abstrakt

In this paper a plastic deformation and a damage evolution in low-carbon cast steel containing non-metallic inclusions are analysed experimentally and numerically. Two microstructures of the cast steel have been obtained after appropriate heat treatment. Tensile tests of smooth specimens and axisymmetric notched specimens have been performed. The notched specimens have the notch radii: 1 mm, 3 mm and 7 mm. Fractography of the specimens was carried out to observe fracture mechanisms. The mechanism depended on the stress state in the notched specimens. The fractography showed the existence of two fracture mechanisms: ductile failure and by shear.
The process of the voids growth formed on the non-metallic inclusions was the process which included in the explanation of the damage mechanism. Modelling of deformation of the specimens has been used with the model suggested by Gurson, Tvergaard and Needleman. The model is implemented in the Abaqus finite element program. The computer simulation was performed using ABAQUS system. The computed output was compared with the experimental results obtained for specimens of the same shape.
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Bibliografia

[1] Lachowski, J. & Biel-Gołaska M. (2000). Modelling of Damage Evolution in Cast Steel, Conference Advances in Mechanical Behaviour, Plasticity and Damage EUROMAT 2000, 7-9 November, pp. 1457-1462, Tours, France.
[2] Gurson, A.L. (1977). Continuum theory of ductile rupture by void nucleation and growth. J ournal of Engineering Materials Technology. 99, 2-15.
[3] Tvergaard, V. & Needleman, A. (1984). Analysis of the cup-cone fracture in a round tensile bar. Acta Metallurgica. 32(1), 157-169.
[4] Needleman, A. & Tvergaard, V. (1984). An analysis of ductile rupture in notched bars. J ournal of Mechanics and Physics of Solids. 32(6), 461-490.
[5] Bridgman, P.W. (1952). Studies in Large Plastic Flow and Fracture. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Chapter 1.
[6] Biel-Gołaska, M. & Gołaski, L. (1994). The analysis of the ductile failure process of cast steel subjected to triaxial stress states, Foundry Reaserch Institute, Cracow, XLIV, No 1-2, pp. 37-57.
[7] Borowiecka-Jamrozek, J., Lachowski, J. (2014). An analysis of stresses in an Al-5%Si alloy under load, Conference "Recent Trends in Structural Materials", COMAT 2014, Nov. 19-21, pp. 6. Pilzen, Czech Republic.
[8] Koplik, J. & Needleman, A. (1988). Void coalescence in porous plastic solids. International Journal of Solids Structures. 24(8), 835-853.
[9] Richelsen, A.B. & Tvergaard, V. (1994). Dilatant plasticity or upper bound estimates for porous ductile solids. Acta metall materialia. 42(8), 2561-2577.
[10] Tvergaard V. (2001). Crack growth predictions by cohesive zone model for ductile fracture. Journal of Mechanics and Physics of Solids. 49, 2191-2207.
[11] SIMULIA Dassault System, Abaqus analysis user’s manual, Version 6.12 , 2017.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

J. Lachowski
1
J. Borowiecka-Jamrozek
1

  1. Kielce University of Technology, Al. Tysiąclecia PP. 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland
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Abstrakt

The paper deals with the possibility of the renovation of permanent steel molds for casting using electric arc welding technology. When casting liquid metal into permanent steel molds, there is chemical-thermo-mechanical wear of the surface of the mold cavity and the inlet system, which causes a deterioration of the surface quality and dimensional accuracy of the casting. For this reason, it is necessary to renovate the steel mold after a certain casting interval - mold life. In this case, the technology of manual electric arc welding with a coated electrode was used for the renovation. The welding renovation aims to increase the service life of the mold using carbide hardfacing welds, which after welding achieve high mechanical properties of the renovated mold parts. Two types of hardfacing coated electrodes were used for welding, namely the OK Weartrode 55HD electrode and the OK Weartrode 50T electrode. Macroscopic analysis, tribological tests as well as the measurement of the hardness of the welded layers were performed to evaluate the quality and the friction coefficients of the additional materials used. The properties of hardfacing welds were compared with the properties of the basic material of the high-alloy steel mold. The main advantage is in addition to increasing the durability and longevity of the mold, also reducing the cost of mold renovation compared to other renovation technologies.
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Bibliografia

[1] Jankura, D., (2013). Wear evaluation of renovation layers based on hardfacing (Hodnotenie opotrebenia renovačných vrstiev na báze tvrdonávarov). Transfer Inovácií. 26, 126-129.
[2] Moravec, J. et.al. (2018). Experimental casting of forging ingots from model maeriál. In 22nd Slovak_Polish Scientific Conference on Machine Modelling and Simulations, 5-8 September 2017 (article No. 05017). Sklene Teplice, Slovakia: Univerzity of Zilina.
[3] Moravec, J. et.al. (2001). F orming machines (Tvárniace stroje). Žilina: Edis, 2011, ISBN: 978-80-554-0446-2. (in Slovak).
[4] Ptáček, Luďek et. al. (2002). Materials science (Nauka o material II). Brno: Akademické nakaldatelství CERM, s.r.o, ISBN: 80-7204-248-3.
[5] Jhvar, S.; Paul, C.P.; Jain, N.K. (2013). Causes of failure and repairing optinos for diels and molds. A review. Engineering Failure Analysis 34, 519-535.
[6] Mician, M. et al. (2018). The Repair of Foundry Defects in Steel Castings Using Welding Technology. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 18(2), 177-180. DOI: 10.24425/122524.
[7] Chander, S., Chawla, V. (2017). Failure of forging dies an update prespective. Materials Today: Proceedings 4, 1147-1157
[8] Chan, C.; Wang, Y.; Ou, H.; He, Y.; Tang, X. (2014). A review on remanufacture of dies and moulds. Journal of Cleaner Production. 64, 13-23.
[9] Pliszka, I. et al. (2018). Surface improvement by wc-cu electro-spark coatings with laser modification. In: 10th conference on terotechnology, 18-19 October 2017 (pp. 237-242). Kielce, Poland: Kielce University of Technology.
[10] Pastircak, R., Scury, J. (2017). Effect of Pressure on Crystalization of AlSiMg Alloy. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials. 62 (4), 2193-2198. DOI: 10.1515/amm-2017-0323.
[11] Gucwa, M., Beczkowski, R. & Winczek, J. (2017). The effect of type of welding sequence during hardfacing chromium cast iron for erosion resistance. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 17(3), 51-54. DOI: 10.1515/afe-2017-0089.
[12] Bronček, J., Vicen, M., Fabian, P., Radek, N., 2020, Investigation of the tribological properties of the nitride layer on heat-treated steel 100Cr6, Lecture notes in mechanical engineering, 59th International Conference of Machine Design, 11-14 September 2018, (pp. 463-471). Žilina, Slovakia: University of Žilina.
[13] Mician, M. et al. (2020) Effect of the t(8/5) cooling time on the properties of S960MC steel in the HAZ of welded joints evaluated by thermal physical simulation. Metals. 10(2), 229. DOI: 10.3390/met10020229
[14] Winczek, J. et al. (2019). The Evaluation of the Wear mechanism of High-Carbon Hardfacing Layers. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials. 64 (3), 1111-1115. DOI: 10.24425/amm.2019.129502.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

J. Šutka
1
R. Koňar
1
J. Moravec
1
L. Petričko
1

  1. Department of Technological Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina, Slovakia
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Abstrakt

At present, Al-Si-Cu based alloys (with a typical representative AlSi9Cu3 alloy) represent more than half of the castings used in various industries (automotive, aerospace and electrical engineering). These are most often sub-eutectic (exceptionally eutectic) alloys with a content of 6 to 13 wt. % Si and 1 to 5 wt. % Cu. The aim of the paper is to point out the importance of the evaluation of input raw materials that determines the overall properties of the casting and the costs invested in its production. A negative impact on performance can be expected when using an alloy made up of a high proportion of recycled material, despite its economic benefits. Experimental alloys were evaluated based on the results of crystallization process and a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and deep etching. The effect of remelting and increasing the remelted returnable material in the batch was manifested especially in the crystallization of iron-rich phases. The negative effect of remelting on the structural components was manifested after the fourth remelting. Gradual increase of remelted returnable material in the batch causes harmful changes in the crystallization process.
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Bibliografia

[1] Ciu, J. & Roven, H.J. (2010). Recycling of automotive aluminum. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China. 20, 2057-2063.
[2] Gaustad, G., Olivetti, E.A. & Kirchain, R. (2012). Improving aluminum recycling: A survey of sorting and impurity removal technologies. Resources Conservation and Recycling. 58, 79-87.
[3] Kasińska, J., Bolibruchová, D. & Matejka, M. (2020). The influence of remelting on the properties of AlSi9Cu3 alloy with higher iron content. Materials. 13, 575.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

M. Matejka
1
D. Bolibruchová
1
M. Kuriš
1

  1. University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Technological Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina, Slovak Republic
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Abstrakt

In foundry, metal casting can be done with various methods. One of the most important methods preferred around the world is sand casting. Ester curable alkaline phenolic resins have produced to make sand molds by No-bake systems. They must have specific properties to make sand casting efficient and reliable. Production of these resins depends on some fossil raw-materials like phenol. To investigate more sustainable and green resin synthesis method, lots experiment have been done by substitution of phenol with renewable alternative phenolic materials like resorcinol, lignosulphonates and tannic acid and its derivatives. Different properties of resins were produced with competitive performance with the market product, ÇKE Alfanol A 72 No-Bake Resin. Without loss of performance, calcium lignosulfonate was used in polymer synthesis at the rate of 15% instead of phenol. On the other hand, the reaction in which lignin and resorcinol were combined instead of phenol by reducing it by 25% gave better results in terms of mechanical and thermal properties. Thermal properties were investigated for resorcinol and lignin modified resins by using TGA-DSC and mechanical performance of cured sand core sample were tested by Simpson Sand Strength Testing Machine as compression strength as N/cm2.. After laboratory testing casting performance of new resins are compared with two different companies’ resins in steal casting demo. Experimental results were matched with casting trail and no defect was detected.
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Bibliografia

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

A.E. Güvendik
1
K. Ay
2

  1. Çukurova Kimya Endüstrisi A.Ş., Turkey
  2. Manisa Celal Bayar University, Turkey
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Abstrakt

The phenomenon of “soft zone” is occurring in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels. Therefore, the process of weld metal solidification and phase transformation in HAZ is essential to understand the behaviour of the material, especially in the case where welded joints are debilitating part of the construction. The simulation program SYSWELD is powerful tool to predict solidification and phase transformation of welding joint, what correspond to the mechanical properties of the joints. To achieve relevant results of the simulation, it is necessary to use right mathematic-material model of the investigated material. Dilatometric test is the important methods to gather necessary input values for material database. In this paper is investigated physical and metallurgical properties of S960MC steel. The dilatometric curves were carried out on the laboratory machine dilatometer DIL 805L. In addition to determination of the phase transformation temperatures at eight levels of the cooling rate, the microstructure and hardness of the material are further analysed. The hardness of the samples reflects the achieved microstructure. Depending on the cooling rate, several austenitic transformation products were observed such as pearlite, bainite, martensite and many different ferritic microstructures. The differences between the transformation temperature results using the first derivation method and the three tangent method are up to 2%. The limit cooling rate was set at value 30°C/s. The microstructure consists only of bainite and martensite and the hardness reaches a value of 348HV and higher.
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Bibliografia

[1] Jambor, M., Nový, F., Mičian, M., Trsko, L., Bokůvka, O., Pastorek, F., & Harmaniak, D. (2018). Gas metal arc wleding of thermo-mechanically controlled processed S960MC steel thin sheets with different welding parameters. Communications - Scientific Letters of the University of Žilina. 20, 29-35. DOI: 10.26552.C.2018.4.29-35.
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[3] Schneider, C., Ernst, W., Schnitzer, R., Staufer, H., Vallant, R., & Enzinger, N. (2018). Welding of S960MC with undermatching filler material. Weld World. 62, 801-809. DOI: 10.1007/s40194-018-0570-1.
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[5] Kik, T., Górka, J., Kotarska, A. & Poloczek, T. (2020). Numerical verification of tests on the influence of the imposed thermal cycles on the structure and properties of the S700MC heat-affected zone. Metals. 10, 974. DOI: 10.3390/met10070974.
[6] Mičian, M., Harmaniak, D., Nový, F., Winczek, J., Moravec, J. & Trško, L. (2020). Effect of the t8/5 cooling time on the properties of S960MC steel in the HAZ of welded joints evaluated by thermal physical simulation. Metals. 10(2), 229. DOI: 10.3390/met10020229.
[7] Górka, J., Janicki, D., Fidali, M., & Jamrozik, W. (2017). Thermographic assessment of the HAZ properties and structure of thermomechanically treated steel. International Journal of Thermophysics. 38, 183-203. DOI: 10.1007/s10765-017-2320-9.
[8] Gomez, M., Vales, P., & Medina S.F. (2011). Evolution of microstructure and precipitation state during thermomechanical processing of a X80 microalloyed steel. Materials Science and Engineering: A. 528, 4761-4773. DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2011.02.087.
[9] Qiang, X., Bijlaard, F.S.K., & Kolstein, H., (2013) Post-fire performance of very high strength steel S960. Journal of Constructional Steel Research. 80, 235-242. DOI: 10.1016/.jcsr.2012.09.002.
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[25] Ghafouri, M., Ahn, J., Mourujärvi, J., Björk, T., Larkiola, J. (2020) Finite element simulation of welding distortions in ultra-high strength steel S960 MC including comprehensive thermal and solid-state phase transformation models, Engineering Structures. 219, DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2020.110804.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

M. Málek
1
M. Mičian
1
J. Moravec
1

  1. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Liberec, Studentská 1402/2, 461 17 Liberec I, Czech Republic
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Abstrakt

High strength tire cord steel is extensively used in radial ply tyres as the framework material, but the presence of brittle single titanium inclusions or complex titanium inclusions can cause failure of the wires and jeopardize their performance in production. In order to provide a key guidance on the control of titanium inclusions, it is necessary to clarify their formation mechanism during solidification. In the present work, the thermodynamic calculations were employed for an elaboration on their formation mechanism, combined with the industrial test. The TiN–MnS complex inclusions observed by SEM–EDS shows that the internal corresponds to TiN and the external is MnS. Thermodynamic calculations based on the microsegregation model indicate that MnS forms first, which can act as a nucleation site for the co–deposit of TiN in the mushy zone. As the MnS inclusions have a better deformation than that of TiN inclusions, then the TiN inclusions are wrapped by the MnS inclusions, generating TiN–MnS complex inclusions after rolling.
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Bibliografia

[1] Abushosha, R., Vipond, R. & Mintz, B. (1991). Influence of titanium on hot ductility of as cast steels. Materials Science & Technology. 7(7), 613-621.
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[5] Chen, C.Y., Jiang, Z.H., Li, Y., Zheng, L.C., Huang, X.F. & Yang, G. (2019). State of the art in the control of inclusions in tire cord steels and saw wire steels–A Review. Steel Research International. 6, 1-13.
[6] Lei, J.L., Zhao, D.N., Fu, Y.J., & Xu, X.F. (2019). Research on the characterization of Ti inclusions and their precipitation behavior in tire cord steel. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 19(3), 33-37.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Jialiu Lei
1
Xiumin Wang
1
Dongnan Zhao
1
Yongjun Fu
1

  1. Hubei Polytechnic University, China
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Abstrakt

The purpose of the study is to analyze the current state of the cast iron production and to predict production volume and cost in the near future based on the analysis results. Cast iron is one of the most common materials used in various industrial sectors. Cast iron scrap processing is the least expensive and saves both money and time. It is produced both in Russia and abroad and is one of the export types. Cast iron production significantly influences other industrial sectors. All this confirms the relevance of the study. The novelty of the study consists in the identification of the leaders among the cast-iron producers in the world and Russian metallurgical companies, as well as the determination of trends in its production at the present stage of economic development. The increasing consolidation level of cast iron producers has been revealed: China, India, Japan, and Russia represented 85% of the cast iron global production in 2019. In Russia, nine metallurgical companies account for 80% of cast iron production. In general, cast iron production in the world is stable and the import share of cast iron is about 4%. Cast iron prices tend to decline. The work identifies the lower and upper limits of the possible range of the cast iron prices. The authors conclude that the declining prices of cast iron in Russia may make its production unprofitable.
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Bibliografia

[1] Arab, N. (2017). Competitive nucleation in grey cast irons. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 17(4), 185-189.
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[10] Metallosnabzhenie i sbyt: internet-zhurnal. (2018). Kitai prodolzhit sokrashchenie izbytochnykh moshchnostei. [China will continue to reduce excess capacity. Metal supply and sales]. Retrieved from: http://www.metalinfo.ru/ru/ news/100765.
[11] Shatokha, V. (2016). Post-Soviet issues and sustainability of ferrous metallurgy in Eastern Europe. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 3, 1-8.
[12] Businesstat (2017). Analiz mirovogo rynka chuguna v 2012-2016 gg, prognoz na 2017-2021 gg [Analysis of the global cast iron market between 2012 and 2016; the outlook for the period from 2017 to 2021]. Retrieved from: https://marketing.rbc.ru/research/39673//
[13] Profile 2018/2019. World Steel Association [electronic resource] Retrieved from: https://www.worldsteel.org/ publications/bookshop/product-details.~Profile-2017-2018~PRODUCT~Profile2017~.html.
[14] Steel Statistical Yearbook 2019. World Steel Association [electronic resource] Retrieved from: http:// https://www.worldsteel.org/publications/bookshop/product-details.~Steel-Statistical-Yearbook-2017~PRODUCT~SSY2017~.html.
[15] ACG (2020). Rynok chuguna v Rossii. Tekushchaya situatsiya i prognoz 2020-2024 gg. [Cast iron market in Russia. The current situation and the outlook for the period from 2020 to 2024]. Retrieved from: https://alto-group.ru/otchot/rossija/380-rynok-chuguna-tekushhaya-situaciya-i-prognoz-2014-2018-gg.html/.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

S.S. Golubev
1
V.D. Sekerin
1
A.E. Gorokhova
1
G.V. Komlatskiy
2
Y.I. Arutyunyan
2

  1. Moscow Polytechnic University, Bolshaya Semenovskaya Street, 38, Moscow, 107023, Russia
  2. Kuban State Agrarian University, Kalinina Street, 13, Krasnodar, 350044, Russia
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Abstrakt

High pressure die casting technology (HPDC) is a method enabling the production of shape-complex casts with good mechanical properties, with high repeatability of production within narrow tolerance limits. However, the casts show, to some extent, basic porosity, which may reduce their mechanical and qualitative properties. One of the main areas to focus on in order to reduce the porosity of casts is the correct design and structure of the gating and overflow system. Submitted article is devoted to the assessment of the connecting channel cross-section design for connecting the overflows to the cast on selected parameters of the casting process. Five different cross-section designs of connecting channels are considered, enabling the removal of gases and vapors from the volume during the molding. The connecting channels are designed with a constant width g = 10mm and variable height h1 = 1.50 mm, h2 = 1.25 mm, h3 = 1.00 mm, h4 = 0.75 mm and h5 = 0.6 mm. The primary monitored parameter is the gas entrapment in selected points of the cast. The following is an evaluation of the pressure conditions change in the mold cavity at the end of the filling mode and local overheating of the mold material just below the surface of the mold face. With regard to the monitored parameters, based on the performed analyzes, the most suitable design solution of the connecting channel is assessed and recommendations for the design and structure of the overflows and their connection to the cast are derived.
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Bibliografia

[1] Gaspar, S., Pasko, J., Majernik, J. (2017). Influence of structure adjustment of gating system of casting mould upon the quality of die cast. Lüdenscheid: RAM-Verlag.
[2] Pasko, J., Gaspar, S. (2014). T echnological factors of die casting. Lüdenscheid: RAM-Verlag.
[3] Ruzbarský, J., Pasko, J., Gaspar, S. (2014). Techniques of Die casting. Lüdenscheid: RAM-Verlag.
[4] Majernik, J. (2019) The issue of the gating system design for permanent dies (Problematika návrhu vtokových soustav permanentních forem pro lití kovů pod tlakem). Stalowa Wola: Wydawnictwo Sztafeta Sp. z.o.o.
[5] ČSN 22 8601. C onstruction of compression casting moulds: Instructions (Formy tlakové licí: Zásady pro navrhování). Praha: Český normalizační institute, 1984. 32.
[6] El-Fotouh, M.R.A., Shash, A.Y. & Gadallah, M.H. (2018). Semi-automated gating system design with optimum gate and overflow positions for aluminum HPDC. In A. Öchsner & H. Altenbach (Eds.) Improved Performance of Materials (37-51). Cham, Switzerland:Springer Verlag. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-59590-0_4.
[7] Pinto, H.A., et al. (2019). Improvement and validation of Zamak die casting moulds. In 29th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing, 24-38 June 2019 (pp. 1547-1557). Limerick; Ireland: Elsevier B.V.. DOI: 10.1016/j.promfg.2020.01.131.
[8] Chavan, R. & Kulkarni, P.S. (2020). Die design and optimization of cooling channel position for cold chamber high pressure die casting machine. In 2nd International Conference on Emerging trends in Manufacturing, Engines and Modelling, 23-24 December 2019 (Article number 012017). Mumbai, India: Institute of Physics Publishing. DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/810/1/012017.
[9] Dabhole, S.S., Kurundwad, C.A. & Prajapati, S.R. (2017). Design and development of die casting die for rejection reduction. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology. 8(5), 1061-1070.
[10] Altuncu, E., Doğan, A. & Ekmen, N. (2019). Performance evaluation of different air venting methods on high pressure aluminum die casting process. Acta Physica Polonica A. 135(4), 664-667. DOI: 10.12693/APhysPolA.135.664.
[11] Zhao, X. et al. (2018). Gating system optimization of high pressure die casting thin-wall AlSi10MnMg longitudinal loadbearing beam based on numerical simulation. China Foundry. 15(6), 436-442. DOI: 10.1007/s41230-018-8052-z.
[12] Qin, X.-Y., Su, Y., Chen, J. & Liu, L.-J. (2019). Finite element analysis for die casting parameters in high-pressure die casting process. China Foundry. 16(4), 272-276. DOI: 10.1007/s41230-019-8088-8.
[13] Cleary, P.W., Savage, G., Ha, J. & Prakash, M. (2014). Flow analysis and validation of numerical modelling for a thin walled high pressure die casting using SPH. C omputational Particle Mechanics. 1(3), 229-243. DOI: 10.1007/s40571-014-0025-4.
[14] Majernik, J. & Podaril, M. (2019). Influence of runner geometry on the gas entrapment in volume of pressure die cast. A rchives of Foundry Engineering. 19(4), 33-38. DOI: 10.24425/afe.2019.129626.
[15] Dańko, R., Dańko, J. & Stojek, J. (2015). Experiments on the Model Testing of the 2nd Phase of Die Casting Process Compared with the Results of Numerical Simulation. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 15(4), 21-24. DOI: 10.1515/afe-2015-0072.
[16] Gaspar, S. & Pasko, J. (2016). Pressing Speed, Specific Pressure and Mechanical Properties of Aluminium Cast. A rchives of Foundry Engineering. 16(2), 45-50. DOI: 10.1515/afe-2016-0024
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

J. Majerník
1
M. Podařil
1
D. Gojdan
2

  1. Institute of Technology and Business in České Budějovice, Czech Republic
  2. Technical University of Košice, Faculty of Manufacturing Technologies with the Seat in Prešov, Slovak Republic
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Abstrakt

The results of microstructure examinations and UTS, YS, El, RA carried out on low-carbon cast steel containing 0.15% C. The tests were carried out on specimens cut out from samples cast on a large-size casting and from samples cast in separate foundry moulds. It has been shown that significant differences in grain size observed in the material of the separately cast samples and cast-on samples occur only in the as-cast. In the as-cast state, in materials from different tests, both pearlite percent content in the structure and mean true interlamellar spacing remain unchanged. On the other hand, these parameters undergo significant changes in the materials after heat treatment. The mechanical properties (after normalization) of the cast-on sample of the tested cast steel were slightly inferior to the values obtained for the sample cast in a separate foundry mould. The microscopic examinations of the fracture micro-relief carried out by SEM showed the presence of numerous, small non-metallic inclusions, composed mainly of oxide-sulphides containing Mn, S, Al, Ca and O, occurring individually and in clusters.
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Bibliografia

[1] Kniaginin, G. (1977). Metallurgy and casting of steel. Katowice: Śląsk. (in Polish).
[2] Standard PN-ISO 3755-1994. Cast carbon steels for general engineering purposes.
[3] Głownia, J. (2017). Metallurgy and technology of steel castings. Sharjah: Bentham Books. ISBN: 978-1-68108-571-5.
[4] Kasińska, J. (2017). Effects of rare earth metal addition on wear resistance of chromium-molybdenum cast steel. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 17(3), 63-68. ISSN: 1897-3310.
[5] Lis, T. (2009). High purity steel metallurgy. Gliwice: Wyd. Politechniki Śląskiej. (in Polish).
[6] Torkamani, H., Raygan, S., Mateo, C. G., Rassizadehghani, J. & Palizdar, Y. et al. (2018). Contributions of rare earth element (La, Ce) addition to the impact toughness of low carbon cast niobium microalloyed steels. Metals and Materials International. 24(4), 773-788. DOI: 10.1007/ s12540-018-.0084-9.
[7] Bartocha, D., Suchoń, J., Baron, Cz. & Szajnar, J. (2015). Influence of low alloy cast steel modification on primary structure refinement type and shape of nonmetallic inclusions. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials. 60(1). 77-83. DOI: 10.1515/2015-0013.
[8] Żak, A., Zdonek, B., Adamczyk, M., Szypuła, I., Kutera, W. & Kostrzewa, K. (2015) Technology for manufacturing large – size steel castings for applications under extreme operating conditions. Prace IMŻ. 2: 21-28.
[9] Najafi, H., Rassizadehghani, J. & Halvaaee, A. (2007) Mechanical properties of as-cast microalloyed steels containing V, Nb and Ti. Materials Science and Technology. 23, 699-705. https ://doi.org/10.1179/17432 8407X17975 5.
[10] Miernik, K., Bogucki, R. & Pytel, S. (2010) Effect of quenching techniques on the mechanical properties of low carbon structural steel. Archives Foundry Engineering. 10 (SI 3), 91-96.
[11] Brooks, Ch. R. (1999). Principles of the heat treatment of plain carbon and low alloy steels. Materials Park: ASM International.
[12] Bolouri, A., Tae-Won, Kim & Chung, Gil Kang. (2013). Processing of low-carbon cast steels for offshore structural applications. Materials and Manufacturing Processes. 28: 1260-1267. DOI: 10.1080/10426914.2013.792424.
[13] Standard PN-EN ISO 3755-1994. 6892-1:2009. Metallic materials. Tensile testing. Part 1: Method of test at room temperature.
[14] Ryś, J. (1983). Quantitative metallography. AGH. (in Polish).
[15] Vander Voort, G. F. (1984). Measurement of the interlamellar spacing of pearlite. Metallography. 17: 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/0026-0800(84)90002-8.
[16] Wyrzykowski, J., W., Pleszakow, E., Sieniawski, J. (1999). M etal deformation and fracture. Warszawa: WNT. ISBN 83-204-2341-4. (in Polish).
[17] Maciejny, A. (1973). The fragility of metals. Katowice: Śląsk. (in Polish).
[18] Pacyna, J. (1986). Effects of nonmetallic inclusions on fracture toughness of tool steels. Steel Research. 57(11), 586-592. https://doi.org/10.1002/srin.198600830.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

B.E. Kalandyk
1
R.E. Zapała
1

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Cast Alloys and Composites Engineering, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, ul. Reymonta 23, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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Abstrakt

The paper compares changes in the structure and mechanical properties due to the synergistic effect of alloying elements Zr and Ti. It is assumed that by increasing the content of Zr and Ti in the aluminium alloy, better mechanical properties will be achieved. Paper focuses on description of the differences between the samples casted into the shell mold and the metal mold. Main difference between mentioned molds is a different heat transfer coefficient during pouring, solidification and cooling of the metal in the mold. The main goal was to analyse the influence of Zr and Ti elements and compare the mechanical properties after the heat treatment. Curing and precipitation aging were used during the experiment. The effect of the elements on AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy created differences between the excluded Zr phases after heat treatment. Evaluation of the microstructure pointed to the decomposition of large predominantly needle Zr phases into smaller, more stable formations.
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Bibliografia

[1] Bolibruchová, D., Tillová, E. (2005). Al-Si foundry alloys. Žilina.
[2] Michna, Š., Lukáč, I. (2005). et al. Encyclopedia of aluminum.
[3] Bechný, L. (1990). Foundry metallurgy and technology. ALFA Bratislava.
[4] Bolibruchová, D., Kuriš, M. & Matejka, M. (2019). Effect of Zr on selected properties and porosity of AlSi9Cu1Mg alloy for the purpose of production of high-precision castings. Manufacturing Technology. 19(4), 1213-2489.
[5] Bolibruchova, D., Macko, J. & Bruna, M. (2014). Elimination of negative effect of Fe in secondary alloys AlSi6Cu4 (EN AC 45 000, A 319) by nickel. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, 59, 717-721
[6] Mahmudi, R., Sepehrband, P. & Ghasemi, H.M. (2006). Improved properties of A319 aluminum casting alloy modified with Zr. Materials Letters. 2606-2610. DOI 10.1016/j.matlet. 2006.01.046
[7] Peng, G., Chen, K., Fang, H. & Chen, S. (2012). A study of nanoscale Al3(Zr,Yb) dispersoids structure and thermal stability in Al–Zr–Yb alloy. Materials Science and Engineering. Volume 535, 311-315.
[8] Sha, G. & Cerezo, A. (2004). Early-stage precipitation in Al−Zn−Mg−Cu alloy (7050). Acta Materialia. 52(15), 4503-4516.
[9] Lü, X., Guo, E., Rometsch, P. & Wang, L. (2012). Effect of one-step and two-step homogenization treatments on distribution of Al3Zr dispersoids in commercial AA7150 aluminium alloy. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China. 22, 2645-2651. Science Direct.
[10] STN EN 1706. AC–42100. Aluminium alloy for general purpose castings.
[11] Liu, S., Zhang, X.M. & Chen, M.A. & You, J. H. (2008). Influence of aging on quench sensitivity effect of 7055 aluminium alloy. Materials Characterization, 59(1), 53-60.
[12] Pourkia, N., Emamy, M., Farhangi, H. & Seyed, E. (2010). The effect of Ti and Zr elements and cooling rate on the microstructure and tensile properties of a new developed super high-strength aluminium alloy. Materials Science and Engineering A. 527, 5318-5325.
[13] Tillova, E., Chalupova, M. (2009). Structural analysis of Al-Si alloys. Žilina: EDIS ŽU UNIZA.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

E. Kantoríková
1
M. Kuriš
1
R. Pastirčák
1

  1. Department of Technological Engineering, University of Žilina in Žilina, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina, Slovakia
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Abstrakt

The article presents the new technology of the refractory materials used for the ladles and pouring devices. The aim for solving the majority of the problems that originated from the refractory lining was to develop the group of cement-free TRIAD products by Vesuvius company. The cement-free setting system in the TRIAD products eliminates calcium oxide (CaO) that occurs in low and extra low cement concretes resulting in its higher strength at higher temperatures. The features of the new cement-free castables were described. One of the most unique features of this technology is the porous material structure. Small venting microchannels are formed during the concrete setting process. These micro-channels allow for removing water vapor from the lining without affecting its refractory properties. On the other hand, the diameter of pores is so low that it disallows the penetration of slag and metal into the lining, extends its operating life at the same time facilitates cleaning and removing build-ups. The procedure of the preparation of these materials, as well as the method of building of the lining, were presented. An example of the practical use of these materials in the ductile cast iron foundry was presented, showing the advantages of the new refractory materials over the traditional ones.
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Bibliografia

[1] Drevin, J. (2014). Triad – a new range of user-friendly, high-strength refractory concretes. Przegląd Odlewnictwa. 9-10, 390-393. (in Polish).
[2] Rybak, M. (2011). Influence of alumina cement hydration conditions on concrete properties. Piece Przemysłowe & Kotły. 1, 21-25. (in Polish).
[3] Drevin J. (2011). Triad – Triad high-performance castable linings. Foundry Practice. 253(6) 16-20.
[4] Cygan B., Dorula J., Jezierski J. (2018). TRIAD - modern technology of non-cement concrete in cast iron foundry. In Congress Proceedings of the 73rd World Foundry Congress "Creative Foundry", 23rd–27th September 2018 (pp. 561-562). Krakow, Poland: Polish Foundrymen's Association.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

B. Cygan
1 2
J. Dorula
3
J. Jezierski
1

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Department of Foundry Engineering, 7 Towarowa, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
  2. Teksid Iron Poland Sp. z o.o., 49 Ciężarowa, 43-430 Skoczów, Poland
  3. Vesuvius Poland Sp. z o.o. , Foundry Division - Biuro Handlowe, Portowa Business Center, 8 Portowa, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Abstrakt

Foundry sand is the main element of sand mixtures from which molds or sand cores are made. Due to the continuous development of coremaking technologies, the selection of the right type of base sand becomes more and more important. The major features of foundry sand are determined by the following factors: chemical and mineralogical composition, sand grain size, grain size distribution, sand grain shape, and surface quality. The main goal of our research was to develop a qualification method that can be used to predict the characteristics of sand cores made from different sand types. Samples made from different types of foundry sand were used during the research whose properties were examined with a new qualification system, and then its connection with the gas permeability of sand cores was analyzed. Based on the research results, a strong correlation could be established between the suggested quality indicators: CQi (Core Quality Index), CG (Coefficient of Granulometry), and permeability.
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Bibliografia

[1] Stauder, B.J. (2018). Investigation on the removal of internal sand cores from aluminium castings. Dissertation, Montanuniversitäte, University of Leoben, Leoben, Austria.
[2] Schindelbacher, G. & Kerber H. (2013). Umfassende Charakterisierung von Formstoffen mit einer neuen Prüfmethode. Giesserei Rundschau. 60 Heft 3/4, 58-66.
[3] Geraseva, O. (2016). P otential alternativer Formstoffe zur Kernherstellung. Masterarbeit, Montanuniversitäte, University of Leoben, Leoben, Austria.
[4] Conev, M., Vasková, I., Hrubovčáková, M. & Hajdúch, P. (2016). Impact of Silica Sand Granulometry on Bending Strength of Cores Produced by ASK Inotec Process. Manufacturing Technology. 16(2), 327-334. DOI: 10.21062/ujep/x.2016/a/1213-2489/MT/16/2/327.
[5] Vasková, I., Varga, L., Prass, I., Dargai, V., Coney, M., Hrubovčáková, M., Bartošová, M., Buľko, B. & Demeter P. (2020). Examination of Behavior from Selected Foundry Sands with Alkali Silicate-Based Inorganic Binders. Metals. 10(2), 235. DOI: 10.3390/met10020235.
[6] Flemming, E., Tilch, W. (1993). Formstoffe und Formverfahren. Deutscher Verlag fur Grundstoffindustrie, Leipzig – Stuttgart.
[7] Dańko, R. (2017). Influence of the Matrix Grain Size on the Apparent Density and Bending Strength of Sand Cores. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 17(1), 27-30. DOI: 10.1515/afe-2017-0005.
[8] Beňo, J. & Adamusová K. & Merta V. & Bajer T. (2019) Influence of Silica Sand on Surface Casting Quality. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 19(2), 5-8. DOI: 10.24425/afe.2019.127107.
[9] Marinšek, M., Zupan, K. (2011). Influence of the granulation and grain shape of quartz sands on the quality of foundry cores, Materials and Technology. 45 (5), 451-455.
[10] Löchte, K. (1998.) Working with the Cold Box Process in the Coremaking Department of a Foundry. Retrieved January 29, 2021, from: http://metkoha.com/documents/Working% 20with%20the%20Coldbox%20Process1.pdf.
[11] Bechný, V. (2012). Zukünftige Herausforderungen an Gießereisande. Giesserei-Rundschau. 59. Heft 3/4, 81-83.
[12] Kotzmann, J. & Bechný V. (2013). Die Zukunft der Form- und Kernherstellung. Retrieved January 29, 2021, from: http://www.giba.at/pdf/giba-de.pdf.
[13] Iden, F., Pohlmann, U., Tilch, W. & Wojtas, H.J. (2011). Strukturen von Cold-Box-Bindersystemen und die Möglichkeitihrer Veränderung. Giesserei Rundschau. 58, 1/2, 3-8.
[14] Iden, F., Tilch, W. & Wojtas, H.J. (2011). Die Haftungsmechanismen von Cold-Box-Bindemitteln auf der Formstoffoberfläche. Giesserei. 5/2011, 24-36.
[15] Dargai, V., Polzin, H., Varga, L., Dúl, J. (2015). Determination of granulometric properties of foundry sands with image analysis. (Öntödei homokok granulometriai tulajdonságainak meghatározása képelemzéssel). MultiScience - XXIX. microCAD International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference, 9-10 April 2015. University of Miskolc – Miskolc, Hungary.
[16] Dargai, V., Polzin, H. & Varga, L. (2018). Die Bestimmung der granulometrischen Eigenschaften von Gießereisanden mittels dynamischer Bildanalyse. Giesserei Praxis. 4/2018, 19-22.
[17] Bodycomb, J. (2018). Size and shape of Particles from Dynamic Image Analysis. Retrieved January 29, 2021, from: https://www.slideshare.net/HORIBA/size-and-shape-of-particles-from-dynamic-image-analysis.
[18] Microtrac MRB (2017). Comparison Between Dynamic Image Analysis, Laser Diffraction and Sieve Analysis. Retrieved January 29, 2021, from: https://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=14331.
[19] Raatz, G. (2014). Trends in der Partikelgrößenanalyse. Powtech / Technopharm – Messtechnik. 9/2014, 25-28. [20] Ridsdale and Ridsdale DieterT. Foundry sand testing equipment operating instructions (AFS). Catalogue No. 800, Retrieved January 29, 2021, from: https://www.basrid.co.uk/ridsdale/images/pdf/AFS_OIM.pdf

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

H. Hudák
1
G. Gyarmati
1
L. Varga
1

  1. Institute of Foundry, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Miskolc, Hungary

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