Charnockites – i.e., orthopyroxene-bearing felsic rocks – were formed in a deep-seated dry environment, either under plutonic or high-grade metamorphic conditions. Most charnockites known from the crystalline basement of Poland appear to be of Mesoproterozoic age (1.50–1.54 Ga), cogenetic with the Suwałki Anorthosite Massif, and associated with mangerite and granite members forming the AMCG suite of the Mazury Complex. Genetically distinct rocks, characterised by the presence of anhydrous minerals, e.g., orthopyroxene and garnet, were also recognised along 592 m of the Łanowicze PIG-1 borehole section, within the AMCG suite. U-Pb geochronology by sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) was used to date the complexly zoned zircons. The ages of crystallisation of the charnockite protoliths from various depths at 1837±7, 1850±9, 1842±6, and 1881±16 Ma makes these rocks the oldest dated crust within this part of the Polish basement. The Łanowicze PIG-1 borehole section bears components from neighbouring tectonic domains known from Lithuania: the West and Middle Lithuanian (WL/MLD) domains considered as a continental margin at 1.84–1.86 Ga and the fragmented Latvia-East Lithuania (LEL) domain, where the oldest continental crust was generated at c. 1.89– 1.87 Ga. The metamorphic zircon overgrowths document a high-grade event at 1.79 Ga and then constrained at 1.5 Ga. Dating of pre-Mesoproterozoic crust cryptic within the AMCG Mazury Complex provides valuable information on the nature of the pre-existing blocks formed during the long lasting Svecofennian orogeny.
Jotunites (hypersthene monzodiorites/ferromonzodiorites) are rocks coeval with plutonic AMCG (anorthosite– mangerite–charnockite–rapakivi granite) suites, which are characteristic of the Proterozoic Eon. It has been experimentally shown that jotunite magma can be recognised as parental to anorthosites and related rocks: since then, research on these rocks has taken on a particular importance. Jotunites were recently described within the deeply buried c. 1.5 Ga Suwałki and Sejny anorthosite massifs in the crystalline basement of NE Poland. The major and trace element compositions of Polish jotunites show them to have a calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic and ferroan character, with a relatively wide range of SiO2 content (40.56 wt. % up to 47.46 wt. %) and high concentrations of Fe (up to 22.63 wt. % Fe2O3), Ti (up to 4.34 wt. % TiO2) and P (up to 1.46 wt. % P2O5). Slight differences in textural features, mineralogical compositions, and geochemistry of whole-rock jotunite samples from distinct massifs allow us to distinguish two kinds: a primitive one, present in the Sejny Intrusion, and a more evolved one, related to the Suwałki Massif.
This paper attempts to allocate a segment of the Paleozoic Ocean situated in what is now Southeastern Europe (SEE) into a regional geological and paleotectonic synthesis connecting the sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous records associated with the ocean’s cycle. The Supragetic basement (external section of the Carpatho-Balkan arch) represents a tectonically reworked basement vestige of the Neoproterozoic–Lower Paleozoic oceanic floor system recrystallized under regional low temperature greenschist-facies conditions. The regional geological constraints associated with this low-grade basement are integrated with information from the overlying Silurian, Devonian and Lower Carboniferous cap-rocks of the “Kučaj Unit” to demonstrate the presence of a major Paleozoic ocean crossing this segment of SEE. In connection with the Lower Paleozoic north Gondwanan Pan- African processes, the low-grade Supragetic basement (including its Devonian cover) is in a complex relationship with the occasionally anchimetamorphic Silurian, Devonian, and Lower Carboniferous deep-water record of the polymetamorphic “Kučaj Unit”. The Upper Devonian–Lower Carboniferous flysch and molasse of the “Kučaj Unit” are interposed with the Neoproterozic–Lower Paleozoic oceanic vestige or with the Supragetic basement with the corresponding Devonian Balkan-Carpathian back-arc ophiolite-bearing lithosphere and its carrier (Danubian Unit). This regional-scale synthesis demonstrates that a segment of the Rheic Ocean referred to as the Saxo-Thuringian seaway and its suture lay to the east, underneath the Permian red-bed overstepping sequence and to the west of the Danubian aggregation. Unlike many of the high-pressure rocks characterizing the segment of the Rheic suture in the Central European Variscides, the SEE zone described here has only a mild overprint.
In this study the formation of the polygenetic High Tatra granitoid magma is discussed. Felsic and mafic magma mixing and mingling processes occurred in all magma batches composing the pluton and are documented by the typical textural assemblages, which include: mafic microgranular enclaves (MME), mafic clots, felsic clots, quartz-plagioclase-titanite ocelli, biotite-quartz ocelli, poikilitic plagioclase crystals, chemically zoned K-feldspar phenocrysts with inclusion zones and calcic spikes in zoned plagioclase. Geochemical modelling indicates the predominance of the felsic component in subsequent magma batches, however, the mantle origin of the admixed magma input is suggested on the basis of geochemical and Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and Pb isotopic data. Magma mixing is considered to be a first-order magmatic process, causing the magma diversification. The cumulate formation and the squeezing of remnant melt by filter pressing points to fractional crystallization acting as a second-order magmatic process.
A sample of late Viséan limestone from the Włodawa IG-4 borehole, east of Lublin, Poland, yielded a piece of a tooth and a few hundred well-preserved scales comparable to those of “Ctenacanthus” costellatus Traquair, 1884 from Glencartholm, Scotland, UK. Most of the scales are typical compound body scales of the ctenacanthid type. Their crowns are composed of several separate odontodes whose distal ends are turned backwards and bases are characterised by concave undersides. In the material, there are also sparse scales with similar crowns but with flat or convex bulbous bases, as well as ornamented plates and single, star-like denticles, probably from the head region. The taxonomic status of “Ctenacanthus” costellatus was analysed and a new generic name for that species, viz. Glencartius gen. nov., is proposed.
A new Subfamily Dirimiinae of the Family Kumpanophyllidae Fomichev, 1953 is introduced on the basis of Dirimia gen. nov., which is represented by six new named species and three species left in open nomenclature. The new species are Dirimia multiplexa, D. similis, D. recessia, D. composita, D. extrema, D. nana, Dirimia sp. 1, Dirimia sp. 2 and Dirimia sp. 3. The progressing atrophy of the columnotheca, leading to its total reduction in extreme species, and the occurrence of an axial structure instead of a compact pseudocolumella established in these species are accepted as differences exceeding the genus level. All specimens assigned to this subfamily were derived from the same Limestone F1 of the Donets Basin, and mostly from the same locality. The reasons for their split into a relatively large number of species are: 1) an increased radiation typical for faunal turnover times; 2) a delay in the appearance of differentiated skeletal characters relative to the appearance of genetic differences large enough to characterise different species; 3) a bias in preservation of fossil remnants by comparison to living populations, amplified by biases in the collections available for study by comparison to the total number of specimens fossilised.
Palynological investigation of the Vrabchov dol locality (Western Bulgaria) which recently yielded fragmentary dinosaur bones attributed to the clade Titanosauria, reveals well-preserved sporomorph assemblages dominated by angiosperm pollen from the Normapolles group, spores and rare gymnosperms. The age assessment of the studied sequence is based on the diagnostic Normapolles species, such as Oculopollis orbicularis Góczán, 1964, Oculopollis zaklinskaiae Góczán, 1964, Krutzschipollis spatiosus Góczán in Góczán et al., 1967 and Krutzschipollis crassus (Góczán, 1964) Góczán in Góczán et al., 1967. The concurrent presence of these pollen species suggests a late Santonian–early Campanian age for the succession. The sporomorph association is encountered in a palynofacies dominated by continental elements, including translucent phytoclasts (tissues, wood remains and plant cuticles). The sedimentary succession shows no evidence of marine elements and a very low proportion of AOM that attests to deposition within a lagoonal to foreshore marine environment, with high continental input and short transportation. The vegetation in the studied area was primarily composed of a range of Normapolles-producing angiosperms and secondarily of pteridophyte spore-producing plants. Gymnosperms were rare. Such a vegetation pattern reflects a warm, seasonally dry climate during the late Santonian–earliest Campanian in the studied area. The dinosaurs inhabited a wet lowland area, probably rich in herbaceous plants.
Diatomaceous ooze sampled from near the Mariana Trench sediment surface by gravity corer (Core JL7KGC05) revealed a high sedimentary abundance of Ethmodiscus rex (Rattray, 1890) Wiseman and Hendey, 1953 fragments and tropical open ocean planktonic diatom taxa including Azpeitia nodulifera (Schmidt, 1878) Fryxell and Watkins in Fryxell, Sims and Watkins, 1986 and Alveus marinus (Grunow, 1880) Kaczmarska and Fryxell, 1996. Subsurficial sediments from the ooze are assigned a Marine Isotope Stage 2 age, approximately at the Last Glacial Maximum. The occurrence of Ethmodiscus ooze suggests massive late Pleistocene blooms in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and provides a plausible link to paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes related to Antarctic Intermediate Water mass, which carried a high dissolved silica content as silicon leakage that reduced dissolution rate of diatom frustules. Northward flow of Antarctic Intermediate Water was probably related to surface current migration and southward shift of the Northwest Pacific Gyre to form oligotrophic conditions that triggered Ethmodiscus rex blooms under unusual nutrient recycling conditions within the ocean system. This bloom hypothesis may help explain differential silica dissolution during the last glacial stage.
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