Applied sciences

Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers


Chemical and Process Engineering | 2018 | vol. 39 | No 2

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The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a Computational Fluid Dynamics tool for the design of a novel Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell and to investigate the performance of serpentine micro-channel flow fields. A three-dimensional steady state model consisting of momentum, heat, species and charge conservation equations in combination with electrochemical equations has been developed. The design of the PEMFC involved electrolyte membrane, anode and cathode catalyst layers, anode and cathode gas diffusion layers, two collectors and serpentine micro-channels of air and fuel. The distributions of mass fraction, temperature, pressure drop and gas flows through the PEMFC were studied. The current density was predicted in a wide scope of voltage. The current density – voltage curve and power characteristic of the analysed PEMFC design were obtained. A validation study showed that the developed model was able to assess the PEMFC performance.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Zinko
Paulina Pianko-Oprych
Zdzisław Jaworski
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In order to assess the influence of hydrodynamic effects on the recovery of n-butanol by means of pervaporation, a commercial PERVAP 4060 membrane was investigated. Laboratory pervaporation experiments were carried out providing a comparison of the permeation fluxes and enrichment factors. While the enrichment factors achieved in both modules under the same process conditions were comparable, the permeation fluxes differed from each other. In order to explain the observed differences, hydrodynamic conditions in the membrane module were examined by means of CFD simulation performed with ANSYS Fluent 14.5 software. Two different modules having membrane diameters of 80 mm and 150 mm were analyzed. As a result, different velocity profiles were obtained, which served to estimate the mass transfer coefficients of butanol, ethanol and acetone.
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Authors and Affiliations

Joanna Marszałek
Michał Tylman
Paulina Rdzanek
Władysław Kamiński
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The paper is aimed at presenting a study of the main limitations and problems influencing the robustness of diagnostic algorithms used in diagnostics of complex chemical processes and to present the selected exemplary solutions of how to increase it. The five major problems were identified in the study. They are associated with: uncertainties of fault detection and reasoning, changes of the diagnosed process structure, delays of fault symptoms formation and multiple faults. A brief description and exemplary solutions allowing increase of the robustness of diagnostic algorithms were given. Proposed methods were selected keeping in mind applicability for the on-line monitoring and diagnostics of complex chemical processes.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jan Maciej Kościelny
Michał Syfert
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This paper presents ultrafiltration results of model BSA (bovine serum albumin) and MB (myoglobin) solutions prepared with or without NaCl addition. The protein concentrations in the solutions were equal to 0.05 gdm􀀀3 for MB and 0.5 gdm􀀀3 for BSA. The ultrafiltration tests were performed using a laboratory scale unit equipped with 90 mm ceramic disc membranes with a filtration area of 5:610􀀀3 m2 and cut-off of 50 or 150 kDa. The tests were run under constant process conditions, i.e. a cross flow volume (CFV) of 5 ms􀀀1, transmembrane pressure (TMP) of 0.2 MPa, temperature of 20 ◦C and NaCl concentration of 0 or 10 wt%. The installation worked in a semi-open mode with a continuous permeate discharge and retentate recycle. The performance of the membranes was measured with the permeate volumetric flow rate, JV (m3m􀀀2s􀀀1) while their selectivity was determined by the protein rejection, R. The paper evaluates and discusses the protein rejection mechanisms as well as the influence of the membrane cut-off and sodium chloride concentration in the feed on the flux decline during the ultrafiltration of BSA and MB. Moreover, it provides an analysis of the first fouling phase by applying usual filtration laws.
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Authors and Affiliations

Konrad Ćwirko
Elwira Tomczak
Daniela Szaniawska
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Results of the study examining carbon monoxide and nitric oxide concentrations while burning different types of agricultural biomass: coffee husk pellets alone or in combination with wheat straw pellets and cherry stones, sewage sludge pellets, corn stover briquettes and a mixture of rye straw briquettes and miscanthus briquettes were presented. The combustion was performed in a 50 kW boiler type Biowarmer with a cast-iron moving step grate. The temperature in the combustion chamber did not exceed 800 ◦C. For all biomass types, only brittle slag was generated in the furnace, which was easily broken by a reciprocating movement of the grate. Carbon monoxide concentration in the flue gas except for the case of sewage sludge pellet firing did not exceed the permitted value of 3000 mg/m3 and nitric oxide concentration 515 mg/m3, both presented for 10% O2 concentration in the flue gas based in dry gas. Hydrocarbon concentrations for all test runs were close to zero.
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Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Pałaszyńska
Marek Juszczak
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Comparative calculations with a mathematical model designed by the authors, which takes into consideration energy transfer from gas flowing through a given channel to gas which penetrates this channel from an adjacent channel, as well as a model which omits this phenomenon, respectively, were made for the process of separating gas mixtures carried out with an inert sweep gas in the fourend capillary membrane module. Calculations were made for the process of biogas separation using a PMSP polymer membrane, relative to helium as the sweep gas. It was demonstrated that omitting the energy transfer in the mathematical model might lead to obtaining results which indicate that the capacity of the process expressed by the value of feed flux subjected to separation is by several percent higher than in reality.
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Authors and Affiliations

Maciej Szwast
Zbigniew Szwast
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In this paper, a new simple method for determination of flow parameters, axial dispersion coefficients DL and Péclet numbers Pe was presented. This method is based on an accurate measurement model considering pulse tracer response. Our method makes it possible to test the character of gas flow motion and precisely measure flow parameters for different pressures and temperatures. The idea of combining the transfer function, numerical inversion of the Laplace transform and optimisation method gives many benefits like a simple and effective way of finding solution of inverse problem and model coefficients. The calculated values of flow parameters (DL and/or Pe) suggest that in the considered case the gas flow is neither plug flow nor perfect mixing under operation condition. The obtained outcomes agree with the gas flow theory. Calculations were performed using the CAS program type, Maple®.
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Authors and Affiliations

Małgorzata Wójcik
Mirosław Szukiewicz
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Activation of tyre pyrolysis char (TPC) can significantly increase its market value. To date, it has been frequently carried out in different reactors. In this work, thermogravimetric analysis was used instead. The performance of activated pyrolysis chars was tested by adsorption of acetone vapour and comparison of the equilibrium adsorption capacities for all samples. The highest equilibrium adsorption capacity was observed for the carbon burn-off of  60%. In addition, the equilibrium adsorption capacity of activated TPC decreases by about 10% after eleven adsorption/desorption cycles. Moreover, activation changed the porous structure of pyrolysis chars from mesoporous to micro-mesoporous.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Kotkowski
Robert Cherbański
Eugeniusz Molga

Instructions for authors

All manuscripts submitted for publication in Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers must comprise a description of original research that has neither been published nor submitted for publication elsewhere.

The content, aim and scope of the proposals have to comply with the main topics of the journal, i.e. discuss at least one of the four main areas, namely:
• New Advanced (Nano) Materials
• Environment & Water Processing (including circular economy)
• Biochemical & Biomedical Engineering (including pharmaceuticals)
• Climate & Energy (including energy conversion & storage, electrification, decarbonization)

Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers publishes: i) experimental and theoretical research papers, ii) short communications, iii) critical reviews, and iv) perspective articles. Each publication form is peer-reviewed by at least two independent referees.

New Submissions

Manuscripts are submitted for publication via Editorial System. When writing a manuscript, you may choose to submit it as a single Word file to be used in the refereeing process. The manuscript needs to be written in a clear way. The minimum requirements are:
• Please use clear fonts, at least 12 points large, with at least 1.5-line spacing.
• Figures should be placed in relevant places within the manuscript. All figures and tables should be numbered and provided with appropriate caption and legend, if necessary.

Language requirements

• Use Simple Past to talk about your experiment and your results as they were finished before you wrote the paper. Use Simple Past to describe what you did.
Example: Two samples were taken. Temperature increased to 200K at the end of the process.
• Use Simple Present to refer to figures and tables.
Example: Table 2 shows nitrogen concentration changes in the process.
• Use Simple Present to talk about your conclusions. You move here from describing your results to stating what is generally true.
Example: The process is caused by changes of nitrogen concentration.
• Capitalise words like ‘Table 2’, ‘Equation 11’.
• If a sentence is longer than three lines, break down your writing into logically divided parts (paragraphs). Start a new paragraph to discuss a new concept.
• Check noun/verb agreement (singular/plural).
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• Avoid empty language (it is worth pointing out that, etc.).

Revised Submission

After the first revision, authors will be requested to put their paper in the correct format, using the below guidelines and template for articles.

Manuscript outline

1. Header details
a. Title,
b. Names (first name and further initials) and surnames of authors,
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The method of quoting literature source in the manuscript depends on the number of its authors:
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In the case of citing more sources in one bracket, they should be listed in alphabetical order using semicolon for separation, e.g. (Bird et al., 1960; Charpentier and McKenna, 2004; Marquardt, 1996). Should more citations of the same author(s) and year appear in the manuscript then letters “a, b, c, ...” should be successively applied after the publication year.

Bibliographic data of the quoted literature should be arranged at the end of the manuscript in alphabetical order of surnames of the first author. It is obligatory to indicate the DOI number of those literature items, whose numbers have already been assigned. Journal titles should be specified by typing their right abbreviations or, when in doubts, according to the Science and Engineering Journal Abbreviations.

Examples of citation for:

Charpentier J. C., McKenna T. F., 2004. Managing complex systems: some trends for the future of chemical and process engineering. Chem. Eng. Sci., 59, 1617-1640. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.01.044.
Information from books (we suggest adding the page numbers where the quoted information can be found)
Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421.
Chapters in books
Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.
ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.

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Authorship should be limited to persons, who markedly contributed to the idea, project, realization and interpretation of results. All of them have to be listed as co-authors. Other persons, who affected some important parts of the study should be listed or mentioned as co-workers. Author should be certain that all co-authors were enlisted, saw and accepted final version of the paper and agreed upon its publication.

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Author should cite papers that affected the creation of submitted manuscript and every time he/she should confirm the use of other authors’ work.

Important errors in published papers
When author finds an important error or inaccuracy in his/her paper, he/she is obliged to inform Editorial Office about this as soon as possible.

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Editors know the rules of journal editing including the procedures applied in case of uncovering non-ethical practices.

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Editorial Office provides appropriate selection of referees and takes care about appropriate course of peer –reviewing (the review has to be substantive).

Every member of editorial team is not allowed to disclose information about submitted paper to any person except its author, referees, other advisors and editors.

To counteract discrimination the Editorial Office obeys the legally binding rules.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Not published papers or their fragments cannot be used in the studies of editorial team or ref-erees without written consent of the author.

Referees' duties

Editorial decisions

Referee supports Editor-in-Chief in taking editorial decisions and may also support author in improving the paper.

Back information
In case a selected referee is not able to review the paper or cannot do it in due time period, he/she should inform secretary of the Editorial Office about this fact.

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All reviews should be made anonymously and the Editorial Office does not disclose names of the authors to referees.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Confidential information or ideas resulting from reviewing procedure should be kept secret and should not be used to gain personal benefits. Referees should not review papers, which might generate conflict of interests resulting from relationships with the author, firm or institution involved in the study.

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Referees should indicate publications which are not referred to in the paper. Any statement that the observation, source or argument was described previously should be supported by appropriate citation. Referee should also inform the secretary of the Editorial Office about significant similarity to or partial overlapping of the reviewed paper with any other published paper and about suspected plagiarism.

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