Applied sciences

Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers


Chemical and Process Engineering | 2019 | vol. 40 | No 4

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The paper presents the impact of carrageenan addition on rheological characterisation of some hydrocolloid aqueous solutions during stirring with rotational speed changes. Carboxymethyl cellulose, guar gum and xanthan gum were used. Measurements were conducted in a vessel equipped with an anchor stirrer under rotational speed increase and decrease conditions, equivalent to a hysteresis loop rheological test. Rheological parameters were calculated using the power-law equation. It was found that a carrageenan addition generally causes a reduction of liquid apparent viscosity and time-dependent rheological behaviour intensification, with some exceptions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Neupauer
Maciej Kabziński
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The aim of the presented research was to test different carbon supports, such as graphene oxide (GO), graphene oxide modified with ammonia (N-GO), and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for catalysts used in a low-temperature fuel cell, specifically a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Modification of the carbon supports should lead to different catalytic activity in the fuel cell. Reduction of GO leads to partial removal of oxygen groups from GO, forming rGO. Modification of GO with ammonia results in an enrichment of GO structure with nitrogen. A thorough analysis of the used supports was carried out, using various analytical techniques, such as FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis. Palladium and platinum catalysts deposited on these supports were produced and used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Catalytic activity tests of the prepared catalysts were carried out in a home-made direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC). The tests showed that the enrichment of the GO structure with nitrogen caused an increase in the catalytic activity, especially for the palladium catalyst. However, reduction of GO resulted in catalysts with higher activity and the highest catalytic activity was demonstrated by Pt/rGO, because platinum is the most catalytically active metal for ORR. The obtained results may be significant for low-temperature fuel cell technology, because they show that a simple modification of a carbon support may lead to a significant increase of the catalyst activity. This could be useful especially in lowering the cost of fuel cells, which is an important factor, because thousands of fuel cells running on hydrogen are already in use in commercial vehicles, forklifts, and backup power units worldwide. Another method used for lowering the price of current fuel cells can involve developing new clean and cheap production methods of the fuel, i.e. hydrogen. One of them employs catalytic processes, where carbon materials can be also used as a support and it is necessary to know how they can influence catalytic activity.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zuzanna Bojarska
Marta Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka
Łukasz Makowski
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Aflexible fractal-like aggregate modelwas used to study deformation and fragmentation of the structure of fractal-like aggregates via their impaction with rigid rough surface.Aggregateswere conveyed one at the time towards a surface under vacuum conditions. The number of primary particles remaining in each fragment, ratio of average fragment radius of gyration after impaction to the average fragment initial radius of gyration and ratio of average coordination number to the initial coordination number were monitored for each individual aggregate. Results demonstrate that depending on the impact velocity, the fractal dimension of the aggregate, the strength of bonds between primary particles, the stiffness of the aggregate structure and the diameter of primary particle composing an aggregate, restructuring or breakage of the aggregate occur. Moreover, in the analysis of the ratio of coordination number of aggregates after impaction to the initial coordination number, three regimes were distinguished: first no deformation at low impact velocities, second restructurisation regime and finally fragmentation regime where partial or total fragmentation of aggregates was observed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Łukasz Żywczyk
Arkadiusz Moskal
Rafał Przekop
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The effect of emulsifier volume on emulsion system stability of plant origin being the basis of diet supplements for animals in winter season was analyzed. For this purpose, measurements of the backscattered light intensity as the function of the measuring cell height were conducted with a Turbiscan LAB optical analyzer. System stability was analyzed on the basis of Turbiscan Stability Index values. A Helos laser analyzer and a Nikon Eclipse E400 POL optical microscope were used to investigate drop size distribution and analyze microscopic pictures. It was shown that emulsion with 10% (w/w) of the emulsifier was the most stable one.

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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Zalewska
Joanna Kowalik
Ireneusz Grubecki
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Composite scaffolds with increased hydrophilicity were prepared for cancellous bone regeneration by the freeze-extraction method. As a construction material, a poly–L–lactide (PLLA) was applied. As a hydrophilic, modifying agent a methacrylic acid copolymer, trade name Eudragit®, was used. Apreliminary investigation and optimization of the processwere performed. For the obtained scaffolds, regression equations determining the effect of: Eudragit®E100/PLLA weight ratio; volume ratio of methanol (porophore)/PLLA solution in dioxane on interconnected porosity and mass absorbability of obtained implants were calculated.

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Authors and Affiliations

Monika Budnicka
Agnieszka Gadomska-Gajadhur
Paweł Ruśkowski

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All manuscripts submitted for publication in Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers must comprise a description of original research that has neither been published nor submitted for publication elsewhere.

The content, aim and scope of the proposals have to comply with the main topics of the journal, i.e. discuss at least one of the four main areas, namely:
• New Advanced (Nano) Materials
• Environment & Water Processing (including circular economy)
• Biochemical & Biomedical Engineering (including pharmaceuticals)
• Climate & Energy (including energy conversion & storage, electrification, decarbonization)

Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers publishes: i) experimental and theoretical research papers, ii) short communications, iii) critical reviews, and iv) perspective articles. Each publication form is peer-reviewed by at least two independent referees.

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• Use Simple Past to talk about your experiment and your results as they were finished before you wrote the paper. Use Simple Past to describe what you did.
Example: Two samples were taken. Temperature increased to 200K at the end of the process.
• Use Simple Present to refer to figures and tables.
Example: Table 2 shows nitrogen concentration changes in the process.
• Use Simple Present to talk about your conclusions. You move here from describing your results to stating what is generally true.
Example: The process is caused by changes of nitrogen concentration.
• Capitalise words like ‘Table 2’, ‘Equation 11’.
• If a sentence is longer than three lines, break down your writing into logically divided parts (paragraphs). Start a new paragraph to discuss a new concept.
• Check noun/verb agreement (singular/plural).
• It is fine to choose either British or American English but you should avoid mixing the two.
• Avoid empty language (it is worth pointing out that, etc.).

Revised Submission

After the first revision, authors will be requested to put their paper in the correct format, using the below guidelines and template for articles.

Manuscript outline

1. Header details
a. Title,
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c. Institution(s) (affiliation),
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e. ORCID number of all authors.
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2. Abstract – should contain a short summary of the proposed paper. In the maximum of 200 words the authors should present the main assumptions, results and conclusions drawn from the presented study.

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The method of quoting literature source in the manuscript depends on the number of its authors:
single author – their surname and year of publication should be given, e.g. Marquardt (1996) or (Marquardt, 1996),
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In the case of citing more sources in one bracket, they should be listed in alphabetical order using semicolon for separation, e.g. (Bird et al., 1960; Charpentier and McKenna, 2004; Marquardt, 1996). Should more citations of the same author(s) and year appear in the manuscript then letters “a, b, c, ...” should be successively applied after the publication year.

Bibliographic data of the quoted literature should be arranged at the end of the manuscript in alphabetical order of surnames of the first author. It is obligatory to indicate the DOI number of those literature items, whose numbers have already been assigned. Journal titles should be specified by typing their right abbreviations or, when in doubts, according to the Science and Engineering Journal Abbreviations.

Examples of citation for:

Charpentier J. C., McKenna T. F., 2004. Managing complex systems: some trends for the future of chemical and process engineering. Chem. Eng. Sci., 59, 1617-1640. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.01.044.
Information from books (we suggest adding the page numbers where the quoted information can be found)
Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421.
Chapters in books
Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.
ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.

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Authorship should be limited to persons, who markedly contributed to the idea, project, realization and interpretation of results. All of them have to be listed as co-authors. Other persons, who affected some important parts of the study should be listed or mentioned as co-workers. Author should be certain that all co-authors were enlisted, saw and accepted final version of the paper and agreed upon its publication.

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Author should cite papers that affected the creation of submitted manuscript and every time he/she should confirm the use of other authors’ work.

Important errors in published papers
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Editors know the rules of journal editing including the procedures applied in case of uncovering non-ethical practices.

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Editorial Office provides appropriate selection of referees and takes care about appropriate course of peer –reviewing (the review has to be substantive).

Every member of editorial team is not allowed to disclose information about submitted paper to any person except its author, referees, other advisors and editors.

To counteract discrimination the Editorial Office obeys the legally binding rules.

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Not published papers or their fragments cannot be used in the studies of editorial team or ref-erees without written consent of the author.

Referees' duties

Editorial decisions

Referee supports Editor-in-Chief in taking editorial decisions and may also support author in improving the paper.

Back information
In case a selected referee is not able to review the paper or cannot do it in due time period, he/she should inform secretary of the Editorial Office about this fact.

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All reviews should be made anonymously and the Editorial Office does not disclose names of the authors to referees.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Confidential information or ideas resulting from reviewing procedure should be kept secret and should not be used to gain personal benefits. Referees should not review papers, which might generate conflict of interests resulting from relationships with the author, firm or institution involved in the study.

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Referees should indicate publications which are not referred to in the paper. Any statement that the observation, source or argument was described previously should be supported by appropriate citation. Referee should also inform the secretary of the Editorial Office about significant similarity to or partial overlapping of the reviewed paper with any other published paper and about suspected plagiarism.

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