Applied sciences

Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers


Chemical and Process Engineering | 2020 | vol. 41 | No 4

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The aim of the research presented in this paper was to determine the effect of vessel scale on gas hold- up in gas-liquid systems. The agitated vessel with internal diameters of T = 0:288 m and T = 0:634 m was filled with a liquid up to the height H = T. For the purpose of measurements, two high-speed impellers were used: Rushton turbine impeller (RT) or A 315 impeller.Within the study, the following parameters were altered: superficial gas velocity, impeller speed, impeller type and concentration of aqueous sucrose solution. In addition, influence of the vessel scale on gas hold-up value was analysed. Experimental results were mathematically described. Equations (5)–(7) do not have equivalents in the literature.
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Authors and Affiliations

Magdalena Cudak

  1. West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering, al. Piastów 42, 71-065 Szczecin, Poland
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In this study, we performed the qualitative analysis of exoproteins during granule formation in the pres- ence or in the absence of cations. The staining of thin granule cryosections showed that nucleic acids, proteins, polysaccharides and calcium cations were the dominant components of the granules. Proteins are the structural components associated with calcium ions. We determined changes in the proteomic profile and tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the slime. The exopolymeric matrix containing the proteins was extracted using the Dowex resin method. Proteomic profile was analysed by SDS-PAGE method (sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) using Coomassie blue staining in the samples of the aerobic granule matrix formed in the presence of multivalent cations and compared with that of the aerobic granules cultivated without cations. The results indicate that the granule matrix is predominantly composed of large and complex proteins that are tightly bound within the granular structure. The tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances (TB-EPS) may play a role in improved mechanical stability of aerobic granules. In the supernatant fraction of the sludge, only a small amount of free proteins in the medium molecular mass range was detected. The protein with high molecular mass ( 116 kDa) produced in the reactors with added Ca2+. Ca2+ had a considerable regulatory influence on production of extracellular proteins during aerobic granulation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Beata Kończak
Korneliusz Miksch

  1. Department ofWater Protection, Central Mining Institute, Pl. Gwarków 1, 40-166 Katowice, Poland
  2. Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental Biotechnology Department, ul. Akademicka 2, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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The study aimed to produce nano- and microfibrous materials from polyurethane (ChronoFlex®C75A/ C75D in 1,1,1,3,3,3–hexafluoro–2–propanol) by solution blow spinning. Experiments were carried out in order to determine the impact of solution blow spinning parameters on fibre diameter and quality of produced materials. The following properties of produced fibre scaffolds were investigated: fibre size, porosity and pore size, wettability, and mechanical properties. The results confirmed that produced nano- and microfibrous materials could be potentially used as scaffolds in three-dimensional cell and tissue cultures.
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Authors and Affiliations

Iwona Łopianiak
Michał Wojasiński
Beata Butruk-Raszeja

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Waryńskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
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Thermoelectric generators using the Seebeck effect to generate electricity are increasingly used in various areas of human activity, especially in cases where a cheap high-temperature heat source is available. Despite many advantages, TEG generators have one major disadvantage: very low efficiency of heat conversion into electrical power which strongly depends on the applied load resistance. There is a maximum of generated power between the short and the open circuit in which it is zero. That is why optimization of TEG modules is particularly important. In this paper a method of maximization of generated power in a single TEG module is presented for two cases. The first case concerns a problem with fixed heat flux flow into the hot side of the module whereas the second one concerns a problem with fixed heat transfer parameters in hot heat exchanger i.e. supply gas temperature and heat transfer coefficient. A number of optimization results performed for various values of these parameters are presented and discussed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Artur Poświata
Paweł Gierycz

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, ul. Waryńskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
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Kinetic studies of esterification reaction of maleic anhydride with butan-1-ol, 2-methylpropan-1-ol and butan-2-ol were carried out in a semibatch reactor, in the presence of four acidic catalysts: sulfuric acid, phosphotungstic acid, ion exchange resin Dowex 50WX8 and tetrabutyl zirconate. Phosphotungstic acid proved to be the most active catalyst. The temperature range was 383–413 K, the initial molar ratio of alcohol to acid ranged 2.2-5:1. The kinetic parameters were given. The kinetics appeared to be that of the second order with respect both to the acid and to the alcohol. The reaction carried out in the presence of tetrabutyl zirconate was very slow and depended only on acid concentration. The effect of temperature on the reaction rate follows the Arrhenius equation well.
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Authors and Affiliations

Maria Bartoszewicz
Maria Kulawska
Wiesław Organek

  1. Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Heavy Organic Synthesis “Blachownia”, Energetyków 9, 47-225 Kędzierzyn-Koźle, Poland
  2. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Bałtycka 5, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland

Instructions for authors

All manuscripts submitted for publication in Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers must comprise a description of original research that has neither been published nor submitted for publication elsewhere.

The content, aim and scope of the proposals have to comply with the main topics of the journal, i.e. discuss at least one of the four main areas, namely:
• New Advanced (Nano) Materials
• Environment & Water Processing (including circular economy)
• Biochemical & Biomedical Engineering (including pharmaceuticals)
• Climate & Energy (including energy conversion & storage, electrification, decarbonization)

Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers publishes: i) experimental and theoretical research papers, ii) short communications, iii) critical reviews, and iv) perspective articles. Each publication form is peer-reviewed by at least two independent referees.

New Submissions

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• Please use clear fonts, at least 12 points large, with at least 1.5-line spacing.
• Figures should be placed in relevant places within the manuscript. All figures and tables should be numbered and provided with appropriate caption and legend, if necessary.

Language requirements

• Use Simple Past to talk about your experiment and your results as they were finished before you wrote the paper. Use Simple Past to describe what you did.
Example: Two samples were taken. Temperature increased to 200K at the end of the process.
• Use Simple Present to refer to figures and tables.
Example: Table 2 shows nitrogen concentration changes in the process.
• Use Simple Present to talk about your conclusions. You move here from describing your results to stating what is generally true.
Example: The process is caused by changes of nitrogen concentration.
• Capitalise words like ‘Table 2’, ‘Equation 11’.
• If a sentence is longer than three lines, break down your writing into logically divided parts (paragraphs). Start a new paragraph to discuss a new concept.
• Check noun/verb agreement (singular/plural).
• It is fine to choose either British or American English but you should avoid mixing the two.
• Avoid empty language (it is worth pointing out that, etc.).

Revised Submission

After the first revision, authors will be requested to put their paper in the correct format, using the below guidelines and template for articles.

Manuscript outline

1. Header details
a. Title,
b. Names (first name and further initials) and surnames of authors,
c. Institution(s) (affiliation),
d. Address(es) of authors,
e. ORCID number of all authors.
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2. Abstract – should contain a short summary of the proposed paper. In the maximum of 200 words the authors should present the main assumptions, results and conclusions drawn from the presented study.

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4. Text
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The method of quoting literature source in the manuscript depends on the number of its authors:
single author – their surname and year of publication should be given, e.g. Marquardt (1996) or (Marquardt, 1996),
two authors – the two surnames separated by the conjunction “and” with the publication year should be given, e.g. Charpentier and McKenna (2004) or (Charpentier and McKenna, 2004),
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In the case of citing more sources in one bracket, they should be listed in alphabetical order using semicolon for separation, e.g. (Bird et al., 1960; Charpentier and McKenna, 2004; Marquardt, 1996). Should more citations of the same author(s) and year appear in the manuscript then letters “a, b, c, ...” should be successively applied after the publication year.

Bibliographic data of the quoted literature should be arranged at the end of the manuscript in alphabetical order of surnames of the first author. It is obligatory to indicate the DOI number of those literature items, whose numbers have already been assigned. Journal titles should be specified by typing their right abbreviations or, when in doubts, according to the Science and Engineering Journal Abbreviations.

Examples of citation for:

Charpentier J. C., McKenna T. F., 2004. Managing complex systems: some trends for the future of chemical and process engineering. Chem. Eng. Sci., 59, 1617-1640. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.01.044.
Information from books (we suggest adding the page numbers where the quoted information can be found)
Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421.
Chapters in books
Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.
ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.

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Suggested Reviewers

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Authors’ duties

Authorship should be limited to persons, who markedly contributed to the idea, project, realization and interpretation of results. All of them have to be listed as co-authors. Other persons, who affected some important parts of the study should be listed or mentioned as co-workers. Author should be certain that all co-authors were enlisted, saw and accepted final version of the paper and agreed upon its publication.

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Author should disclose all sources of financing of his/her study, the input of scientific institutions, associations and other subjects and all important conflicts of interests that might affect results and interpretation of the study.

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Multiple, unnecessary and competitive publications
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Confirmation of sources
Author should cite papers that affected the creation of submitted manuscript and every time he/she should confirm the use of other authors’ work.

Important errors in published papers
When author finds an important error or inaccuracy in his/her paper, he/she is obliged to inform Editorial Office about this as soon as possible.

Originality and plagiarism
Author may submit only original papers. He/she should be certain that the names of authors referred to in the paper and/or fragments of their texts are properly cited or mentioned.

Ghost writing/guest authorship are manifestation of scientific unreliability and all such cases will be revealed including notification of appropriate subjects. Signs of scientific unreliability, especially violation of ethical principles in science will be documented by the Editorial Office.

Duties of the Editorial Office

Editors’ duties
Editors know the rules of journal editing including the procedures applied in case of uncovering non-ethical practices.

Decisions on publication
Editor-in Chief is obliged to apply present legal status as to defamation, violation of author’s rights and plagiarism and bears the responsibility for decisions. He/she may consult thematic editors and/or referees in that matter.

Selection of referees
Editorial Office provides appropriate selection of referees and takes care about appropriate course of peer –reviewing (the review has to be substantive).

Every member of editorial team is not allowed to disclose information about submitted paper to any person except its author, referees, other advisors and editors.

To counteract discrimination the Editorial Office obeys the legally binding rules.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Not published papers or their fragments cannot be used in the studies of editorial team or ref-erees without written consent of the author.

Referees' duties

Editorial decisions

Referee supports Editor-in-Chief in taking editorial decisions and may also support author in improving the paper.

Back information
In case a selected referee is not able to review the paper or cannot do it in due time period, he/she should inform secretary of the Editorial Office about this fact.

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All reviewed papers should be dealt with as confidential. They should not be discussed or revealed to persons other than the secretary of the Editorial Office.

All reviews should be made anonymously and the Editorial Office does not disclose names of the authors to referees.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Confidential information or ideas resulting from reviewing procedure should be kept secret and should not be used to gain personal benefits. Referees should not review papers, which might generate conflict of interests resulting from relationships with the author, firm or institution involved in the study.

Confirmation of sources
Referees should indicate publications which are not referred to in the paper. Any statement that the observation, source or argument was described previously should be supported by appropriate citation. Referee should also inform the secretary of the Editorial Office about significant similarity to or partial overlapping of the reviewed paper with any other published paper and about suspected plagiarism.

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