Nauki Techniczne

Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers


Chemical and Process Engineering | 2021 | vol. 42 | No 3

Autorzy i Afiliacje

Joël Bertrand

  1. Directeur de Recherche CNRS, Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, INP – ENSIACET,4, allée Emile Monsoi, CS 84234, 31432 TOULOUSE CEDEX 4, France
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The aim of the investigation was liquid mixing time measurement in a laboratory scale stirred tank equipped with a metal Maxblend impeller and comparison with the corresponding mixing time obtained with other conventional impellers. The data are collected by Electrical Resistance Tomography, whose applicability in this case is non-trivial, because of the electrical interferences between the large paddles of the impeller and the measuring system. The raw data treatment methodology purposely developed for obtaining the homogenization dynamics curve is presented.Arobust approach for a fine and lowcost investigation of the mixing performances of close-clearance impellers in opaque systems is suggested. The analysis of the local and averaged conductivity time traces reveals the effect of important variables, such as the fluid viscosity and the vessel configuration, on the mixing time under various agitation conditions. The data collection and post processing procedures open the way to the application of the technique to multiphase and non-Newtonian fluids stirred with close-clearance impellers.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Suzuka Iwasawa
Honami Kubo
Katsuhide Takenaka
Sandro Pintus
Francesco Maluta
Giuseppina Montante
Alessandro Paglianti

  1. Sumitomo Heavy Industries Process Equipment Co., Ltd. 1501, Imazaike, Saijo City, Ehime, Japan
  2. Retired from University of Pisa, Via Giunta Pisano 28, 56126 Pisa, Italy
  3. Department of Industrial Chemistry, University of Bologna, viale Risorgimento 4,40136 Bologna, Italy
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The homogeneity of an immiscible liquid–liquid system was investigated in a baffled vessel agitated by a Rushton turbine. The dispersion homogeneity was analyzed by comparing Sauter mean diameters and drop size distribution (DSD) determined in different measured regions for various impeller speeds. The sizes of droplets were obtained by the in-situ measurement technique and by the Image Analysis (IA) method. Dispersion kinetics was successfully fitted with Hong and Lee (1983) model. The effect of intermittency turbulence on drop size reported by Bałdyga and Podgórska (1998) was analyzed and the multifractal exponent ������ was evaluated.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Roman Formánek
Radek Šulc

  1. Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Process Engineering, Technická 4, 160 00 Prague, Czech Republic
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The study addresses two groups of issues occurring in modeling and experimental studies of multicomponent nonisobaric diffusion in macroporous materials. The dynamics of such processes is described in terms of systems of nonlinear partial differential equations. A method of orthogonal collocation for resolving the equations is proposed and compared with the method of lines. The second group of problems presented involves numerical simulations of diffusion in aWicke–Kallenbach diffusion cell. Such an apparatus is used in experimental studies. Particular attention is paid to diffusion in a cell closed from both sides. This is an analogue of the Duncan–Toor experiment. The effect of the number of diffusing components and their initial concentrations on the dynamics of diffusion in binary and ternary solution was studied. Hitherto unknown dynamic properties of such processes were detected and discussed.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Katarzyna Bizon
Bolesław Tabiś

  1. Cracow University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, ul. Warszawska 24, 31-155 Kraków, Poland
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This paper presents the results of investigations into dry methane reforming (DMR). The process was aimed at obtaining synthesis gas required for the production of dimethyl ether (DME). The effect of temperature, pressure and inlet gas composition on the process was determined in the experimental part of this work. The tests were carried out in a laboratory tubular reactor over a Ni/CaO–Al2O3 catalyst. The obtained experimental results were used to verify literature kinetic data and to develop a mathematical model of the DMR process.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Robert Cherbański
Ewelina Franczyk
Michał Lewak
Piotr Machniewski
Eugeniusz Molga

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, ul. Warynskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Łukasiewicz Research Network – New Chemical Syntheses Institute, Al. Tysiaclecia Panstwa Polskiego 13a, 24-110 Puławy, Poland
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The works presents the application of mass/volume balances of liquid drug converted into the aerosol during atomization in medical nebulizers. The amount of liquid that can be delivered to the respiratory system during inhalation is reduced compared to the nominal dose not only because of drug losses both in the device (the residual volume, RV) and outside the nebulizer (in the mouthpiece, mask, or tubings), but also to the limitations of the patient (periodic flow with limited capacity). The paper should help to understand the complexity of aerosol therapy widely used in asthma, COPD and other pulmonary diseases.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Tomasz R. Sosnowski
Kamil Janeczek
Karolina Grzywna
3 4
Andrzej Emeryk

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warynskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Medical University of Lublin, Clinics of Lung Diseases and Pediatric Reumathology, Gebali 6, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
  3. Silesian Medical University in Katowice, Student Scientific Club at the Chair and Division of Pathomorphology and Molecular Diagnostics, Medyków 18, 40-752 Katowice, Poland
  4. Silesian Medical University in Katowice, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Zabrze, Traugutta sq. 2, 41-800 Zabrze, Poland
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Most antiseptic agents are intended for use on intact skin, e.g. for hand hygiene or skin preparation before any medical procedure. This paper presents multiple emulsion-based antiseptic agents as formulations for application to body surfaces with modified release rates.
Multiple emulsions with a co-encapsulated antiseptic (phenyl salicylate – salol) and an agent preventing microorganism growth (benzoic acid) were formed in a Couette–Taylor flow apparatus. Results confirmed the possibility of the release kinetics modification while two compounds were encapsulated in the internal droplets of emulsions to control the release rates and time of the dose release. The addition of benzoic acid as a second active compound of the encapsulation process in the internal phase of double O1/W/O2 emulsion reduced the time necessary for the total release of salol triggering a two-step release.
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Chan R.J., Keller J., Cheuk R., Blades R., Tripcony L., Keogh S., 2012. A double-blind randomised controlled trial of a natural oil-based emulsion (Moogoo Udder Cream®) containing allantoin versus aqueous cream for managing radiation-induced skin reactions in patients with cancer. Radiat. Oncol., 7, 121. DOI: 10.1186/1748-717X-7-121.
Chan R.J., Mann J., Tripcony L., Keller J., Cheuk R., Blades R., Keogh S., Poole C., Walsh C., 2014. Natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin versus aqueous cream for managing radiation-induced skin reactions in patients with cancer: A phase 3, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys., 90, 756–764. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.06.034.
Cohen J.L., Jorizzo J.L., Kircik L.H., 2007. Use of a topical emulsion for wound healing. J. Support Oncol., 5(10 Suppl 5): 1–9.
Dluska E., Cui Z., Markowska-Radomska A., Metera A., Kosicki K., 2017a. Cryoprotection and banking of living cells in a 3D multiple emulsion-based carrier. Biotechnol. J., 12, 1600692. DOI: 10.1002/biot.201600692.
Dluska E., Hubacz R., Wronski S., Kamienski J., Dylag M., Wojtowicz R., 2007. The influence of helical flow on water fuel emulsion preparation. Chem. Eng. Commun., 194, 1271–1286. DOI: 10.1080/00986440701293959.
Dłuska E., Hubacz, R., 2000. Mass transfer in the two-phase helicoidal contactor. Chem. Process Eng., 21, 103–113. Dluska E., Markowska-Radomska A., 2010. Regimes of multiple emulsions ofW1/O/W2 and O1/W/O2 type in the continuous Couette–Taylor flow contactor. Chem. Eng. Technol., 33, 113–120. DOI: 10.1002/ceat.200900278.
Dluska E., Markowska-Radomska A., Metera A., Tudek B., Kosicki K., 2017b. Multiple emulsions as effective platforms for controlled anti-cancer drug delivery. Nanomed., 12, 2183–2197. DOI: 10.2217/nnm-2017-0112.
Durand L., Habran N., Henschel V., Amighi K., 2009. In vitro evaluation of the cutaneous penetration of sprayable sunscreen emulsions with high concentrations ofUVfilters. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci., 31, 279–292. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2494.2009.00498.x.
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Goldstein D., Gofrit O., Nyska A., Benita, S., 2007. Anti-HER2 cationic immunoemulsion as a potential targeted drug delivery system for the treatment of prostate cancer. Cancer Res., 67, 269–275. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-2731.
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Lam P.L., Gambari R., 2014. Advanced progress of microencapsulation technologies: In vivo and in vitro models for studying oral and transdermal drug deliveries. J. Controlled Release, 178, 25–45. DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2013.12.028.
Ma Y., Liu D., Wang D., Wang Y., Fu Q., Fallon J. K., Liu, F., 2014. Combinational delivery of hydrophobic and hydrophilic anticancer drugs in single nanoemulsions to treat MDR in cancer. Mol. Pharmaceutics, 11, 2623–2630. DOI: 10.1021/mp400778r.
Markowska-Radomska A., Dluska E., 2012. The multiple emulsion entrapping active agent produced via one-step preparation method in the liquid-liquid helical flow for drug release study and modelling, In: Starov V., Griffiths P. (Eds.), UK Colloids 2011. Progress in Colloid and Polymer Science, Vol 139. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 29–34. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-28974-3_6.
Markowska-Radomska A., Dluska E., 2016. An evaluation of a mass transfer rate at the boundary of different release mechanisms in complex liquid dispersion. Chem. Eng. Process. Process Intensif., 101, 56–71. DOI: 10.1016/j.cep.2015.12.006.
Montenegro L., Carbone C., Paolino D., Drago R., Stancampiano A.H., Puglisi G., 2008. In vitro skin permeation of sunscreen agents from O/W emulsions. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci., 30, 57–65. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2494.2008.00417.x.
Otto A., du Plessis J., Wiechers J.W., 2009. Formulation effects of topical emulsions on transdermal and dermal delivery. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci., 31, 1–19. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2494.2008.00467.x.
Özer Ö., Özyazici M., Tedajo M., Taner M. S., Köseoglu K., 2007. W/O/W multiple emulsions containing nitroimidazole derivates for vaginal delivery. Drug Delivery, 14, 139–145. DOI: 10.1080/10717540601067463.
Perrie Y., Rades T., 2012. Pharmaceutics – Drug delivery and targeting. 2nd Ed. Pharmaceutical Press, London.
Priyadarshini C., Mohapatra J., Kumar Sahoo T., Sekhar Pattnaik S., 2016. Chemotherapy induced skin toxicities and review of literature. J. Cancer Tumor Int., 3, 1–16. DOI: 10.9734/JCTI/2016/22651.
PubChem CID 243, Benzoic acid. National Institutes of Health. Available at:
PubChem CID 8361, Phenyl salicylate.National Institutes of Health.Available at:
Purnamawati S., Indrastuti N., Danarti R., Saefudin T., 2017. The role of moisturizers in addressing various kinds of dermatitis: A review. Clin. Med. Res., 15, 75–87. DOI: 10.3121/cmr.2017.1363.
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Spałek M., 2016. Chronic radiation-induced dermatitis: challenges and solutions. Clin. Cosmet. Invest. Dermatol., 9, 473–482. DOI: 10.2147/CCID.S94320.
Wilson C.G., 2012. The need for drugs and drug delivery systems. In: Siepmann J., Siegel R.A., Rathbone M.J. (Eds.). Fundamentals and applications of controlled release drug delivery. Advances in Delivery Science and Technology. Springer, Boston, MA, 3–18. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-0881-9_1.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Agnieszka Markowska-Radomska
Ewa Dluska
Agata Metera
Maria Wojcieszak

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warynskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
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Every bone implant to work correctly after implantation needs to integrate with the surrounding bone. To enhance such a process, called osseointegration, various techniques of implant surface modification emerged. One of the approaches is based on the deposition of nano- and submicron materials on the implant surface. This paper presents a solution blow spinning process for producing poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA)/ceramic fibrous composites designed to be deposited directly onto orthopaedic implants prior to implantation to increase osseointegration. We produced plain PLLA fibrous materials for comparison, and fibrous composite materials with ��-tricalcium phosphate (��TCP), hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAp) and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles modified with lecithin (nHAp-LE). We performed the structural analysis of produced materials with scanning electron microscopy, gravimetric determination of porosity, and water contact angle measurement. We also used infrared spectroscopy, Alizarin Red S staining, and cytotoxicity evaluation to conclude that PLLA/nHAp-LE composite material shows the most promising properties to be applied as surface modification of bone implants. To visualise fibrous composite deposition on implants, we used two models: titanium plate and stainlesssteel bolt. Thus, we showed that the solution blow spun materials can be used for surface modification of orthopaedic implants.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Michał Wojasiński
Tomasz Ciach
1 2

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warynskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Warsaw University of Technology, Centre for Advanced Materials and Technologies CEZAMAT, Poleczki 19, 02-822 Warsaw, Poland

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Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.
ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.

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Referees' duties

Editorial decisions

Referee supports Editor-in-Chief in taking editorial decisions and may also support author in improving the paper.

Back information
In case a selected referee is not able to review the paper or cannot do it in due time period, he/she should inform secretary of the Editorial Office about this fact.

Objectivity standards
Reviews should be objective. Personal criticism is inappropriate. Referees should clearly ex-press their opinions and support them with proper arguments.

All reviewed papers should be dealt with as confidential. They should not be discussed or revealed to persons other than the secretary of the Editorial Office.

All reviews should be made anonymously and the Editorial Office does not disclose names of the authors to referees.

Disclosure and conflict of interests
Confidential information or ideas resulting from reviewing procedure should be kept secret and should not be used to gain personal benefits. Referees should not review papers, which might generate conflict of interests resulting from relationships with the author, firm or institution involved in the study.

Confirmation of sources
Referees should indicate publications which are not referred to in the paper. Any statement that the observation, source or argument was described previously should be supported by appropriate citation. Referee should also inform the secretary of the Editorial Office about significant similarity to or partial overlapping of the reviewed paper with any other published paper and about suspected plagiarism.

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