Applied sciences

Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers

Content

Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers | 2023 | Accepted articles

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Abstract

Fresh water is essential for life. More and more countries around the world are facing scarcity of drinking water, which affects over 50% of the global population. Due to human activity such as industrial development and the increasing greenhouse effect, the amount of drinking water is drastically decreasing. To address this issue, various methods of sea and brackish water desalination are used. In this study, an energy analysis (specific energy consumption, SEC) of two laboratory membrane processes, reverse osmosis (RO) and pervaporation (PV), was conducted. A model feed system saline water at 0.8, and 3.5% wt. NaCl was used. The efficiency and selectivity of membranes used in PV and RO were examined, and power of the devices was measured. The desalination processes were found to have a high retention factor (over 99%) for both PV and RO. For PV, the permeate fluxes were small but they increased with increasing feed flow rate, process temperature and salt content in the feed. The calculated SEC values for both laboratory processes ranged from 2 to 70 MWh/m 3. Lowering the process temperature, which consumes 30 to 60% of the total energy used in the PV process, can be an important factor in reducing energy consumption.
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Authors and Affiliations

Izabela Gortat
1
ORCID: ORCID
Joanna Marszałek
1
ORCID: ORCID
Paweł Wawrzyniak
1

  1. Lodz University of Technology, Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Wólczańska 213, 93-005 Łódź, Poland
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Abstract

Biobased hydrogels are three-dimensional polymeric matrices with a unique high water-holding capacity, which are mainly obtained from polysaccharides and proteins. Such a variety of natural polymer structures offers a range of hydrogel products with interesting physicochemical and biological properties. Nowadays, these matrices are already used in many industrial and environmental fields, which is considered extremely important. Moreover, the literature on the subject is constantly expanding, especially in areas of scientific research. The main purpose of this article is to briefly review the current development of matrices composition and properties of hydrogels of natural origin, considered as functional platforms in three application areas, primarily in biocatalysis, nutrition and medicine. The description of individual issues in the present article is supported by examples of case studies described in our previously published research papers, as well as considered in current projects of our research group.
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Authors and Affiliations

Karolina Labus
1
ORCID: ORCID
Halina Maniak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Katarzyna Kołodzińska
1
Łukasz Radosiński
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Micro, Nano and Bioprocess Engineering, Norwida 4/6 50-373 Wrocław, Poland
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Abstract

Current efforts are taken to increase resource efficiency, close material loops, and improve sustainable waste and by-products management. Thus, networking agro-food by-products andc onverting them into valuable products completely exhausting the potential of the raw material becomes significant. Model lignocellulosic and starch based biomass were subjected to pre-treatment with the application of acidic compounds, i.e. sulphuric (SA) and acetic (AA) acids. The response, i.e. total sugar content and derivatives content is investigated depending on variables changed during hydrolysis: concentration of acid, process duration, temperature and the size of the biomass particles. After saccharification, the hydrolysates were analysed via HPLC. Total reducing sugars concentration was in the range of 0.1 – 15.53 g/LAmong the substances present in the hydrolysates, protein, peptides, hydroxybenzyl acid (HA), 5-HMF, furfural (FF), vanillin (V), vanillic acid (VA), formic acid (FA) and levulinic acid (LA) were found in the range of 0.44 – 9.05 g/L and determined as total derivatives concentration. The aim of the study was to evaluate the measurable effects of the research and deliver information about the statistically important parameters for the process course and relations between the variables.
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Authors and Affiliations

Karolina Kucharska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Patrycja Makoś-Chełstowska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Edyta Słupek
1
ORCID: ORCID
Jacek Gębicki
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Process Engineering and Chemical Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
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Abstract

Most of the existing toxic gas mitigation techniques have difficulty in practical implementation. More effective mitigation methods are required for handling hazardous gas releases in Chemical Process Industries (CPIs). One of the most hazardous chemicals is chlorine, an integral part of almost all chemical industries, especially chlor-alkali. This study examined a possible accidental spill of liquid chlorine from a chlorine storage area. Computational Fluid Dynamics, Process Hazard Analysis Software Tool (PHAST), and Probit analysis were combined to develop the overall effect and vulnerability models. The dispersion of chlorine vapors at wind speeds of 2, 3, and 4 m/s was analyzed, and the corresponding threat zones were plotted. Many public establishments of extreme vulnerability were located inside the threat zones. Offsite emergency planning guidelines are necessary for such conditions. Based on the results of the consequence analysis, a practical and cost-efficient IoT (Internet of Things) based mitigation system using physical barriers is proposed. The proposed mitigation system accounts for entrapment, continuous removal, and safe handling of the chlorine vapor from the release area. The proposed mitigation system can be implemented in all CPIs dealing with the production and storage of toxic gases. The outcome of this study can contribute to the development of Emergency Response Planning (ERP) guidelines for chlorine release.
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Authors and Affiliations

E Ahammed
1 2
AR Soman
1 3
PA Abdul Samad
1 2
B Varikkadinmel
4

  1. Department of Mechanical engineering, Government Engineering College, Thrissur, Kerala, India
  2. APJ Abdul Kalam Technological University, Kerala, India
  3. Department of Mechanical engineering, Government Engineering College, Idukki, Kerala, India
  4. Mechanical and Industrial engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India
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Abstract

In this study, a stable and effective magnetically recoverable nanocatalyst was prepared by coating Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles with SiO 2, followed by functionalization with N-(2-aminoethyl)- 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AEPTMS) and produce Schiff base ligand to linkage Ru(OTf) 2 onto the surface. The nanocatalyst was characterized using various techniques such as FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, and VSM to confirm its successful synthesis. The nanocatalyst was used for the trimethylsilylation of various alcohols (primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols) using hexamethyldisilazane as a silylating agent in dichloromethane at room temperature. The reaction proceeded quickly with a protection time of only 90 seconds, which is a remarkable advantage of this nanocatalyst. The turnover frequency (TOF) values of the catalytic system were estimated to be 1869 h -1. The use of this nanocatalyst offers many advantages, such as excellent yield, catalyst reusability, high acidity, and strong magneticp roperties. These advantages make it a fascinating candidate for green chemistry principles. The simple reprocessing procedure and quick response times are also additional benefits of this nanocatalyst. Overall, this study provides a promising approach for the facile preparation of a stable and effective magnetically recoverable nanocatalyst that can be utilized for the trimethylsilylation of alcohols. The exceptional properties of this catalyst make it an attractive candidate for practical applications in the field of catalysis.
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Authors and Affiliations

Somayeh Mehdigholami
1
Esmaeil Koohestanian
2

  1. Young Researchers and Elite Club, Iranshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iranshahr, Iran
  2. Department of Chemical Engineering, Iranshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iranshahr, Iran
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Abstract

Despite its unique properties (biocompatibility and nontoxicity), chitin itself has limited application. Chitin is completely insoluble in most organic or inorganic solvents what can be beneficial when chitin is investigated as a support for chromatography or enzyme immobilization. These applications require the particles to have an extensive outer surface with a large number of reactive ligands. The increase in specific surface area of chitin particles can be performed by dissolution in ionic liquid and precipitation with water. To increase the number of reactive ligands (amine groups), deacetylation of the surface of chitin particles is necessary. The deacetylation process can be carried out by an enzymatic process with the enzyme, chitin deacetylase. In our investigation, 21 ionic liquids were used for chitin particle structure modification followed by enzymatic deacetylation. Results proved positive effect of modifications with ionic liquid on enzymatic deacetylation of the chitin surface with chitin deacetylase. For 12 samples the deacetylation gave an increase in number of active ligands in comparison to natural chitin. The best results were observed for [Bmim][Br], [Emim][Cl] and [MPpip][Ac]. That could be correlated with an increase in outer surface area by increasing porosity of particles or by structural changes in chitin particles.
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Authors and Affiliations

Małgorzata M. Jaworska
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dorota Biniaś
2
ORCID: ORCID
Katarzyna Dąbkowska-Susfał
1
ORCID: ORCID
Andrzej Górak
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warynskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw, Poland
  2. University of Bielsko-Biała, Faculty of Materials, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Environmental Protection and Engineering, Willowa 2, 43-309 Bielsko-Biała, 9 Poland
  3. Faculty of Process Engineering and Environmental Protection, Lodz Technical University, ul. Wólczanska 213, 93-005 Lodz, Poland
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Abstract

This paper presents the development of a multiphase aerodynamic reactor designed for multi-component systems, focusing on precise catalyst dosing in the combustion chamber. The study aims to underscore the significance of this work by emphasizing the critical role of optimized operational conditions in enhancing the transportation of the modifier for combustion processes. Through comprehensive numerical simulations and experimental tests, this research explores the impact of parameters such as flow rates of the dosed substance and air, dosing nozzle outlet diameter, and conduit diameter on the flow rate and trajectory of the transported modifier. The findings highlight the importance of a minimum droplet diameter of 30 μm, preferably 50 μm, for proper delivery to the combustion chamber. This study not only identifies key differences between analyzed structures but also emphasizes the crucial role of these operational parameters in achieving optimal conditions for modifier transport.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marek Ochowiak
1 2
Zdzisław Bielecki
2 3
Andżelika Krupińska
1
Sylwia Włodarczak
1
Magdalena Matuszak
1

  1. Department of Chemical Engineering and Equipment, Poznan University of Technology, Pl. M. Sklodowska-Curie 5, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
  2. Kuncar S.A., Pszczyńska 167C, 43-175 Wyry, Poland
  3. Department of Automatic Control and Robotics, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 2A Str., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland

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All manuscripts submitted for publication in Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers must comprise a description of original research that has neither been published nor submitted for publication elsewhere.

The content, aim and scope of the proposals have to comply with the main topics of the journal, i.e. discuss at least one of the four main areas, namely:
• New Advanced (Nano) Materials
• Environment & Water Processing (including circular economy)
• Biochemical & Biomedical Engineering (including pharmaceuticals)
• Climate & Energy (including energy conversion & storage, electrification, decarbonization)

Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers publishes: i) experimental and theoretical research papers, ii) short communications, iii) critical reviews, and iv) perspective articles. Each publication form is peer-reviewed by at least two independent referees.

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• Use Simple Past to talk about your experiment and your results as they were finished before you wrote the paper. Use Simple Past to describe what you did.
Example: Two samples were taken. Temperature increased to 200K at the end of the process.
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Example: Table 2 shows nitrogen concentration changes in the process.
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Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421.
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Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.
Conferences
ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.



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