Applied sciences

Chemical and Process Engineering: New Frontiers


Chemical and Process Engineering | 2011 | No 3 September

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The article presents the procedure for how to establish a mathematical model of nitrogen oxides formation based on the theory of dimensional analysis. The model is based on selected physical quantities (parameters) measurable during regular operation of a heat generation plant. The objective of using dimensional analysis to describe nitrogen oxides formation is to show that between operating parameters of the combustion equipment and the NOx formation there is a significant correlation.

The obtained results, which are further described in this article, have proved this fact. The obtained formula expressing nitrogen oxides formation, based on dimensional analysis, applies universally to any boiler fuelled by coal, gas or biomass. However, it is necessary to find C, m, n constants for the formula by experiment, individually for each type of boiler and used fuel. The experiment is based on on-line measurements of selected operational parameters for a given boiler, combusting a certain type of fuel with its actual moisture content and calorific value. The methodology, described in this article, helps to find relationships between the operational parameters and the formation of NOx emissions for a particular furnace. The developed mathematical model has been validated with boilers fuelled by black coal and biomass. Both the results obtained from direct measurements of NOx in both types of boilers, and the results obtained by calculation using equation based on the dimensional analysis, are in a very good accord. When burning coal, the variation between NOx expression from the model and the on-line measurements ranges between -12.23 % and + 9.92 %, and for burning biomass between -0.54 % and 0.48 %.

The intention of the authors is to inform the professional community about the suitability of the dimensional analysis to describe any phenomena for which there is currently no exact mathematical formulation based on differential equations or empirical formulas. Many other examples of dimensional analysis applications in practice may be found in the work of Čarnogurská and Příhoda (2011).

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Authors and Affiliations

Mária Čarnogurská
Miroslav Příhoda
Tomáš Brestovič
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This paper concerns convective drying of carrot preliminary dehydrated in aqueous solutions of three types of osmotic agents (sucrose, fructose, glucose). Three solution concentrations (20, 40 and 60%) were examined to work out efficient conditions of osmotic dewatering. The parameters such as water loss (WL), solid gain (SG) and osmotic drying rate (ODR) indicating the real efficiency of osmotic dehydrations (OD) were determined. The samples dehydrated with osmotic solutions underwent further convective drying to analyze influence of dehydration process on drying kinetics and final products quality. The quality of products was assessed on the basis of visual appearance of the samples and colorimetric measurements. It was found that osmotic pretreatment improves significantly the final product quality as the samples were less deformed and their colour was better preserved compared to samples, which had not been preliminarily dehydrated. Preliminary dehydration, however, did not influence significantly the overall drying time of the samples.

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Authors and Affiliations

Stefan Kowalski
Dominik Mierzwa
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Microporous carbon molecular sieves of extremely narrow pore size distribution were obtained by carbonization of a novel raw material (Salix viminalis). The precursor is inexpensive and widely accessible. The pore capacity and specific surface area are upgradable by H3PO4 treatment without significant change of narrowed PSD. The dominating pore size indicates that these molecular sieves are a potential competitor to other nanoporous materials such as opened and purified carbon nanotubes.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jerzy Łukaszewicz
Krzysztof Zieliński
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Results of a research study into the velocity field in combustion chamber of internal combustion engine are presented in the paper. Measurements of fresh charge flow velocity in the cylinder axis and near the cylinder squeezing surface were performed. The hot-wire anemometer was used. The measurement results were used for analysis of turbulence field in the examined combustion chamber. It turned out that in the axis of cylinder the maximum of velocity occurs 30 deg before TDC and achieves 6 m/s. In the studied combustion chamber, the maximum value of turbulence intensity was close to 0.2 and it was achieved 35 deg BTDC. Additionally, the maximal velocity dispersion in the following cycles of the researched engine was at the level of 2 m/s, which is 35% of the maximum value of flow velocity. At a point located near the squeezing surface of the piston, a similar level of turbulence, but a the smaller value of the average velocity was achieved. The turbulence field turned out to be inhomogeneous in the combustion chamber.

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Authors and Affiliations

Wojciech Tutak
Arkadiusz Jamrozik
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In this paper a three-dimensional model for determination of a microreactor's length is presented and discussed. The reaction of thermocatalytic decomposition has been implemented on the base of experimental data. Simplified Reynolds-Maxwell formula for the slip velocity boundary condition has been analysed and validated. The influence of the Knudsen diffusion on the microreactor's performance has also been verified. It was revealed that with a given operating conditions and a given geometry of the microreactor, there is no need for application of slip boundary conditions and the Knudsen diffusion in further analysis. It has also been shown that the microreactor's length could be practically estimated using standard models.

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Authors and Affiliations

Janusz Badur
Paweł Jóźwik
Michał Karcz
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The influence of ozone injection mode on the effectiveness of nitrogen monoxide oxidation to nitrogen dioxide by ozone in a flow reactor was investigated experimentally in laboratory apparatus. Nitrogen monoxide was diluted to the mole fraction 100 ppm in air which served as the carrier gas flowing through the tube of the diameter D = 60 mm into which ozone was injected. The effects of a number of ozone injecting nozzles and their configuration on the effectiveness of NO oxidation were examined. In the closest vicinity from the injection site the counter-current injection mode appeared to be superior to the co-current injection mode, but in areas located further from the injection site both injection systems were almost equally effective.

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Authors and Affiliations

Maciej Jakubiak
Włodzimierz Kordylewski

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Charpentier J. C., McKenna T. F., 2004. Managing complex systems: some trends for the future of chemical and process engineering. Chem. Eng. Sci., 59, 1617-1640. DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.01.044.
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Bird R. B., Stewart W.E., Lightfood E.N., 2002. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 415-421.
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Hanjalić K., Jakirlić S., 2002. Second-moment turbulence closure modelling, In: Launder B.E., Sandham N.D. (Eds.), Closure strategies for turbulent and transitional flows. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 47-101.
ten Cate A., Bermingham S.K., Derksen J.J., Kramer H.M.J., 2000. Compartmental modeling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on Large Eddy flow simulation. 10th European Conference on Mixing. Delft, the Netherlands, 2-5 July 2000, 255-264.

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