Applied sciences

Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi - Mineral Resources Management

Content

Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi - Mineral Resources Management | 2012 | vol. 28 | No 2 |

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Abstract

Bełchatów lignite deposit is located in the central partof Poland in the tectonic Kleszczów graben. It is dividedinto several parts, which are mining fields: Kamieńsk area (eastern part of the deposit), Bełchatów area (central partof the deposit) and Szczerców area (western part of the deposit). The subject of this study was the Belchatow area.The main issue of the investigations was the dependence of local, regional and global, horizontal variability of selected lignite qualitative parameters (moisture, ash content, calorific value and sulfur content in the as receivedstate) is a function of viewing direction. There was applied the geostatistical analysis of the lignite variability parameters with use of semivariograms.

The researches which were conducted at different scales of observation: in the locale scale – in small field size8 ́8 m called experimental area (local analysis), in larger homogeneous separated parts of the Belchatow area(regional analysis) and in the whole Bełchatów area scale (general analysis). The results proved the visible anisotropy of variability mine lignite parametres. Anisotropy structure observed in regional and global scale isconnected with tectonic structure of the Bełchatów Graben. The detailed studies show the variated level of anisotropy observed in different areas of Bełchatów field.

However, no dependence of the relative level of ash and total sulfur content anisotropy on the environment of sedimentation of the main coal deposit in different parts of the Belhchatów field has been observed. Both parameters characterize with strong or medium anisotropy level in examined fields. Moreover, anisotropy is alsovisible in the local scale. Conducted researches confirmed the thesis that zonal anisotropy is prevalent kind of anisotropy in the regional scale. In the range of the whole deposit the total sulfur content showed zonal anisotropy,whereas the ash content revealed geometric anisotropy

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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Bartuś
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Abstract

This paper presents the situation of coal mining in Slovakia, focusing on the social-political aspects and environmental aspects of its sustainable development. In recent years, the mining of lignite and brown coal in Slovakia has been closely linked to the production of electricity and heat in the Novaky power plant. Domestic brown coal production covered more than three quarters of demand in the Slovak Republic in the last few years. The sustainability of coal mining in the coming years in Slovakia is closely associated with raw materials reserves, new mining technologies, the development of the Novaky power plant, and the government's commitments to national economic interests through securing the energy supply or state aid. Of course, of these factors must be considered in the context of international obligations, such as those related to climate and environment, particularly air protection.

The three most important Slovak brown coal deposits are located in the Upper Nitra Basin. This territory includes areas in the 5th and 4th degrees of environmental quality, signifying a disturbed and very disturbed environment. Since coal is expected to remain the dominant fuel for electricity generation araund the world, and in particular for many of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, it is necessary to create conditions for the environmental sustainability of coal mining in the coming years within the context of international obligations. Both the security and the stability of the electricity network in Slovakia and maintaining employment levels in the Upper Nitra region play important roles in this discussion.

Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a newmining technology and a technology for gas recovery in situ.

A comprehensive evaluation of the impacts of underground coal gasification was carried out in addition to summarization of the expected impacts in terms of the significance and distribution of the time period.

Based on a comprehensive assessment of the proposed action, it can be stated that it could bring a socially unacceptable risk to the area, specifically the significant impairment of health or the environment (groundwater and nearby hot springs in Bojnice). The implementation of operations could affect the opulation's health, since the partition is placed in close proximity to residential areas.

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Authors and Affiliations

Erika Skvarekova
Lubica Kozakova
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Abstract

This article presents the history of mining for rock raw materials in the Cieszyn area since the beginning of the 20th century. The study assessed the possibility of continuing these activities in relation to the ongoing enlargement of conservation areas. The conflict between mining these deposits and environmental interests was described. The results of the analysis allowed for the identification of potential sites for further exploitation of Godula Sandstone and Cieszyn Limestone. The study used analog and digital data which were subjected to the procedures specific to the GIS (Geographic Information System) methods. The exploitation of Cieszyn Shale and Limestone played an important role in the first half of the 20th century. They were used for the production of lime and cement. However, the importance of these materials decreased gradually due to declining demand and quality. In later years, after the closure of the cement plant in Goleszów, limestone was used only for aggregate production. Natural aggregates and clay raw materials were initially exploited in small excavations based on local needs, and later in an organized manner with documented deposits. At present, mining of these materials has been discontinued. The centuries-old tradition of Godula Sandstone block production was maintained during the last hundred years. In the last decade, their extraction was conducted in the original quarry, as well as several new quarries. Additional resources have been documented at other locations. Because of the nature of the product, such extraction (in small quarries, without the use of blasting agents) does not significantly affect wildlife. Moreover, the locations of current and former mining operations often become tourist attractions. This is evidenced by the fact that the documentation sites are established on the basis of such excavations. Numerous objects of protection established in recent years have led to a major conflict between the exploitation of rock materials and the environment. This prevents development or even the continuation of exploitation. Therefore, in future planning processes, efforts must be made to characterize mineral deposits as a part of nature, requiring protection.

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Authors and Affiliations

Beata Figarska-Warchoł
Ewelina Matlak
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Abstract

Mineral markets, in spite of many common features with other goods markets, are distinctive. Their functioning sometimes deviates from the rules of the free market. This feature results from the specificity of acquiring the good being an object of trade. In general, changes in the supply of strategic raw materials are indicated earlier (characterized by a lengthy investment cycle from deposit reconnaissance to mining development), develop slowly, andare inelastic. Demand for common mineral raw materials often has a clear and economic character. However, mineral markets as well as markets of other goods have a common feature - the fact that both are a place where an incessant game is being played. In general, two types of strategic behaviours are distinguished: competition or cooperation. This paper recalls an existing model known as the oil market game. Based on a three-entity market of aggregate producers, an attempt has been made to model entrepreneurs' behaviour. The analysis applies n-person game theory. Game theory enables the evaluation of diverse potential coalitions forming. Possible strategies of activity coming from the prospect of cooperation (or its omission) are presented. Expected payoffs are estimated for possible alliances. Proposals for the division of the payoffs among the participants forming the coalition are also suggested.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mariusz Krzak
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Abstract

Running a business entails various risks which can significantly impact the economic and production results achieved by a given enterprise. One way of hedging certain risks is to use appropriately designed derivatives. This article presents the newest group of these contracts, i.e. swaps, and focuses on how these contracts can be used by Polish mining companies from the hard coal mining sector selling a part of their output on the global market. This article briefly characterises and presents types of swaps as well as the Polish swap market, pioneered by Polski Bank Rozwoju S.A. with the first FX swap of 1992. Since then, other types of transactions have also been included in the offering of domestic banks (assets swaps, cross-currency interest rate swaps). Mining companies producing hard coal have not been active on the swap market yet because of their poor activity on derivative markets. This article proposes a swap as an derivative hedging the hard coal price for a mining company exporting a part of its production to the global market. In the presented example, a mining company, by concluding a forward and an appropriately structured commodity swap, was able to both protect it self from a fall in the price and use additional gains due to prices rising in the global market. Apart from commodity swaps, mining companies can use FX swaps, IRS and other swaps described in the literature and commonly applied in practice by various economic entities, depending on the type of risk that needs hedging. A significant advantage of this kind of contract is that there is no need to freeze funds in security deposits, nor are there fees of other kinds (premiums) like those payable for other derivatives (futures, options).

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Authors and Affiliations

Edyta Brzychczy
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Abstract

Power production is the largest source of emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. The main fuels in Poland are solid fuels - hard coal and lignite. Their combustion produces large quantities of waste, primarily fly ash. The ashes from lignite, due to the chemical and phase composition, and thus their properties, have - so far - limited economic use. Among their possible applications is the use of mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide - this is the result of their relatively high content of active CaO and MgO, which can react with carbon dioxide in aqueous suspensions. The paper presents maximum theoretical capacity of CO2 bonding for examined fly ashes and the results of the research on absorption of CO2 by the ash-water suspensions from fly ash resulting from the combustion of lignite from Pątnów and Turów power plants. Calculated for the examined fly ashes maximum theoretical capacity of CO2 bonding amounted to 14% for the ashes from Pątnów power plant and 14.4% for the fly ashes from Turów power plant. Studies have shown that most CO2 - 8.15 g/100 g of ash, was absorbed by suspension with ashes from Turów power plant with a mass ratio of ash to water of at 0.8:1. In the case of ash from Pątnów power plant absorption was lower and amounted to a maximum - 8.7 g CO2/100 g ash. The largest increase CO2 absorption was observed in the first 30 minutes of carbonation in the suspensions of fly ash from Pątnów power plant and the first 15 minutes in suspensions of fly ash from Turów power plant. After this time, the absorption has increased slowly. An increase in temperature in the chamber system, confirming the occurrence of the process of carbonation and its endothermic character. The highest temperature - 44.8 C recorded in the suspension with ashes from Turów power plant, which has also the greatest absorption of CO2. The results confirm the usefulness of these ashes to sequester carbon dioxide.

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Authors and Affiliations

Alicja Uliasz-Bocheńczyk
Marek Gawlicki
Radosław Pomykała
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Abstract

The subject of this work was the investigation of zeolite as a sorbent of toxic gases. In Nizny Hrabovec in the Slovak republic, two layers of zeolite with the active component clinoptilolite can be found. The study presented here investigated the ability of this natural zeolite to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and NO emissions from engine exhaust. Exhaust gases from combustion engines include toxic components such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a component of hydrocarbons causing harmful influence on life forms. The experiments focused on the potential reduction of these toxic gases based on the sorption and catalytic properties of natural zeolite. Also observed was the influence of chemical adjustment including incorporation of certain metal elements. Chemical analysis by mutually independent technologies served to observe the sorption of PAH with carcinogenic properties on the natural zeolite tested. The experiments showed that chemical modification improved the sorption and catalytic properties of natural zeolite. The PAH were analysed in an extract of the contaminated, thermally-activated natural zeolite and modified zeolite after washing with ammonium chloride, cobalt chloride and copper sulphate. The study also presents results of NO measurements obtained by testing the filter-sorptive automobile system.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jozef Mačala
Iveta Pandová
Taťána Gondová
Katarína Dubayová

Additional info

The subject matter of the articles published in Mineral Resources Management covers issues related to minerals and raw materials, as well as mineral deposits, with particular emphasis on:

  • The scientific basis for mineral resources management,
  • The strategy and methodology of prospecting and exploration of mineral deposits,
  • Methods of rational management and use of deposits,
  • The rational exploitation of deposits and the reduction in the loss of raw materials,
  • Mineral resources management in processing technologies,
  • Environmental protection in the mining industry,
  • Optimization of mineral deposits and mineral resources management,
  • The rational use of mineral resources,
  • The economics of mineral resources,
  • The raw materials market,
  • Raw materials policy,
  • The use of accompanying minerals,
  • The use of secondary raw materials and waste,
  • Raw material recycling,
  • The management of waste from the mining industry.

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