Applied sciences

Metrology and Measurement Systems

Content

Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2014 | No 2 |

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Abstract

Detection of explosives vapors is an extremely difficult task. The sensitivity of currently constructed detectors is often insufficient. The paper presents a description of an explosive vapors concentrator that improves the detection limit of some explosives detectors. These detectors have been developed at the Institute of Optoelectronics. The concentrator is especially dedicated to operate with nitrogen oxide detectors. Preliminary measurements show that using the concentrator, the recorded amount of nitrogen dioxide released from a 0.5 ng sample of TNT increases by a factor of approx. 20. In the concentrator an induction heater is applied. Thanks to this and because of the miniaturization of the container with an adsorbing material (approx. 1 cm3), an extremely high rate of temperature growth is achieved (up to 500 °C within approx. 25 s). The concentration process is controlled by a microcontroller. Compact construction and battery power supply provide a possibility of using the concentrator as a portable device.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Wojtas
B. Rutecka
S. Popiel
J. Nawała
M. Wesołowski
J. Mikołajczyk
S. Cudziło
Z. Bielecki
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Abstract

Spectrophotometry is an analytical technique of increasing importance for the food industry, applied i.a. in the quantitative assessment of the composition of mixtures. Since the absorbance data acquired by means of a spectrophotometer are highly correlated, the problem of calibration of a spectrophotometric analyzer is, as a rule, numerically ill-conditioned, and advanced data-processing methods must be frequently applied to attain an acceptable level of measurement uncertainty. This paper contains a description of four algorithms for calibration of spectrophotometric analyzers, based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) of matrices, as well as the results of their comparison - in terms of measurement uncertainty and computational complexity - with a reference algorithm based on the estimator of ordinary least squares. The comparison is carried out using an extensive collection of semi-synthetic data representative of trinary mixtures of edible oils. The results of that comparison show the superiority of an algorithm of calibration based on the truncated SVD combined with a signal-to-noise ratio used as a criterion for the selection of regularisation parameters - with respect to other SVD-based algorithms of calibration.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jakub Wagner
Roman Z. Morawski
Andrzej Miękina
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Abstract

The concentration or the partial pressure of oxygen in an environment can be determined using different measuring principles. For high temperature measurements of oxygen, ceramic-based sensors are the most practical. They are simple in construction, exploration and maintenance. A typical oxygen potentiometric sensor consists of an oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte and two electrodes deposited on the two sides of the electrolyte. In this paper different structures of potentiometric oxygen sensors with a solid state reference electrode were fabricated and investigated. The fabricated structures consisted of oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte from yttria stabilized zirconia, a sensing platinum electrode and nickel-nickel oxide reference electrode. The mixture of nickel-nickel oxide was selected as the reference electrode because it provides reliable electrochemical potential in contact with oxygen conducting electrolyte. To avoid oxidation of nickel the reference electrode is sealed from ambient and the mixture of nickel-nickel oxide was formed electrochemically from nickel oxide after sealing. The effectiveness of the sealing quality and the effectiveness of nickel-nickel oxide mixture formation was investigated by impedance spectroscopy.

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Authors and Affiliations

Katarzyna Dunst
Grzegorz Jasiński
Piotr Jasinski
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Abstract

Electric energy meters are designed to account energy under sinusoidal and nonsinusoidal conditions, because both, old and new standards for energy meters require testing their accuracy under different conditions. The latest EN 50470 standard increases the range of meter testing under nonsinusoidal conditions, introducing new shapes of test signals such as the phase fired waveform or the burst fired waveform. This paper discusses calibration problems of electronic revenue energy meters for direct connection and for connection through current transformers, and it proposes a new calibration procedure which reproduces normal operating conditions better: three-phase configurations of measurement systems, load range during meter testing or shapes of test signals. Recently, modern Electrical Power Standards, also known as Power Calibrators, enable automatic testing of various types of electrical devices, including electricity meters in their normal operating conditions. This article presents examples of single and multi position fully automatic test systems, which employ Power/Energy Calibrator from Poland as the precision source with programmed waveforms of three phase voltages up to 560 V and currents up to 120 A conforming to EN 50470, or with random waveforms generated by PC software random wave generator. Measurement uncertainty of the energy meters under different nonsinusoidal conditions using a test system with reference to accuracy of the power calibrator or to the reference meter, are discussed.

Comparative analysis of test results for different shapes of voltage and current signals is presented in the conclusions of this paper.

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Olencki
Piotr Mróz
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Abstract

This paper presents a comparison of different techniques to capture nominal data for its use in later verification and kinematic parameter identification procedures for articulated arm coordinate measuring machines (AACMM). By using four different probing systems (passive spherical probe, active spherical probe, self-centering passive probe and self-centering active probe) the accuracy and repeatability of captured points has been evaluated by comparing these points to nominal points materialized by a ball-bar gauge distributed in several positions of the measurement volume. Then, by comparing these systems it is possible to characterize the influence of the force over the final results for each of the gauge and probing system configurations. The results with each of the systems studied show the advantages and original accuracy obtained by active probes, and thus their suitability in verification (active probes) and kinematic parameter identification (self-centering active probes) procedures.

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Authors and Affiliations

Agustín Brau
Margarita Valenzuela
Jorge Santolaria
Juan José Aguilar
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Abstract

In this paper distortion of surface topography measurement results by improper selection of the reference plane is taken into consideration. The following types of surfaces from cylindrical elements were analyzed: cylinder liners after plateau honing, cylinder liners with additionally burnished oil pockets and turned piston skirts. Surface topographies of these elements after a low wear process were also studied. In order to obtain areal surface topography parameters, the form was eliminated using cylinders and polynomials of the following degrees: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12. Parameters of surfaces after form removal were compared. After analysis of results the reference elements for each kind of surface were recommended. A special procedure was proposed in order to select the degree of a polynomial. This method is based on surface topography changes with increase of polynomial degree. The effect of improper form elimination on measuring uncertainty was studied.

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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Pawlus
Przemysław Podulka
Paweł Dobrzański
Agnieszka Lenart
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Abstract

Electronic voltage transformers (EVT) and electronic current transformers (ECT) are important instruments in a digital substation. For simple, rapid and convenient development, the paper proposed an on-site calibration system for electronic instrument transformers based on LabVIEW. In the system, analog signal sampling precision and dynamic range are guaranteed by the Agilent 3458A digital multimeter, and data synchronization is also achieved based on a self-developed PCI synchronization card. To improve the measurement accuracy, an error correction algorithm based on the Hanning window interpolation FFT has good suppression of frequency fluctuation and inter-harmonics interference. The human-computer interface and analysis algorithm are designed based on LabVIEW, and the adaptive communication technology is designed based on IEC61850 9-1/2. The calibration system can take into account pairs of digital output and analog output of the electronic voltage/current transformer calibration. The results of system tests show that the calibration system can meet the requirements of 0.2 class calibration accuracy, and the actual type test and on-site calibration also show that the system is easy to operate with convenience and satisfactory stability.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ming Zhang
Kaicheng Li
Jun Wang
Shunfan He
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Abstract

This paper concerns the issues of measurement techniques, analysis and assessment of the machined surface geometric structure. The aim of this work was to show the application of surface analysis in diagnosing the causes of discrepancies occurring in the manufacturing process, which may result from ill-matched (poorly fitting) process parameters. An appropriate system of control and interpretation of results may allow early reaction to unfavorable trends (for example blunting of the tool) and prevention of undesirable defects. The subject of research was a waste basket used in the construction of retaining sewer systems. In this paper, the quality of the waste basket as well as its manufacturing process were analyzed and assessed. The research was carried out with the use of three measurement stands, i.e. optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and white light interferometer (WLI). The surface analysis proved to be important from the viewpoint of outlining the production process as well as improving the product quality. The software used for topographical analysis appeared to be significant for the success of the analysis, providing notable economic effects, namely the lack of defects.

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Authors and Affiliations

Magdalena Niemczewska-Wójcik
Jerzy Sładek
Małgorzata Tabaka
Artur Wójcik
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Abstract

Based on real-time multi-domain communication signal analysis architecture, a high-efficiency blind carrier frequency estimation algorithm using the power spectrum symmetry of the measured modulated signal is presented. The proposed algorithm, which utilizes the moving averaged power spectrum achieved by the realtime spectrum analysis, iteratively identifies the carrier frequency in according to the power difference between the upper sideband and lower sideband, which is defined and revised by the estimated carrier frequency in each iteration. When the power difference of the two sidebands converges to the preset threshold, the carrier frequency can be obtained. For the modulation analysis, the measured signal can be coarsely compensated by the estimated result, and the residual carrier frequency error is eliminated by a following carrier synchronization loop. Compared with previous works, owing to the moving averaged power spectrum normalization and the smart iterative step variation mechanism for the two sidebands definition, the carrier frequency estimation accuracy and speed can be significantly improved without increasing the computational effort. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the outstanding performance of the proposed algorithm.

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Authors and Affiliations

Qian Wang
Xiaomei Yang
Xiao Yan
Kaiyu Qin
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Abstract

One of the most important parameters, crucial to applications of superconductors in cryo-electrotechnique, is power loss. Measurements of losses in superconducting long sample wires require AC magnetic fields of a special geometry and appropriate high homogeneity. In the paper part of the theoretical basis for calculations and a simple design method for a race-track coil set are presented. An example of such home-made coils, with a magnetic field uniformity of about 0.2 % over the range of about 8 cm, is given. Also a simple electronic measurement system for the determination of AC magnetization loss in samples of superconducting tapes is presented.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marian Ciszek
Stanisław Trojanowski
Eduard Maievskyi
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Abstract

The ultrasonic flowmeter which is described in this paper, measures the transit of time of an ultrasonic pulse. This device consists of two ultrasonic transducers and a high resolution time interval measurement module. An ultrasonic transducer emits a characteristic wave packet (transmit mode). When the transducer is in receive mode, a characteristic wave packet is formed and it is connected to the time interval measurement module inputs. The time interval measurement module allows registration of transit time differences of a few pulses in the packet. In practice, during a single measuring cycle a few time-stamps are registered. Moreover, the measurement process is also synchronous and, by applying the statistics, the time interval measurement uncertainty improves even in a single measurement. In this article, besides a detailed discussion on the principle of operation of the ultrasonic flowmeter implemented in the FPGA structure, also the test results are presented and discussed

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Authors and Affiliations

Stanisław Grzelak
Marcin Kowalski
Jarosław Czoków
Marek Zieliński
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Abstract

Considering the low efficiency during the process of traditional calibration for digital-display vibrometers, an automatic calibration system for vibrometers based on machine vision is developed. First, an automatic vibration control system is established on the basis of a personal computer, and the output of a vibration exciter on which a digital-display vibrometer to be calibrated is installed, is automatically adjusted to vibrate at a preset vibration level and a preset frequency. Then the display of the vibrometer is captured by a digital camera and identified by means of image recognition. According to the vibration level of the exciter measured by a laser interferometer and the recognized display of the vibrometer, the properties of the vibrometer are calculated and output by the computer. Image recognition algorithms for the display of the vibrometer with a high recognition rate are presented, and the recognition for vibrating digits and alternating digits is especially analyzed in detail. Experimental results on the built-up system show that the prposed image recognition methods are very effective and the system could liberate operators from boring and intense calibration work for digital-display vibrometers

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Authors and Affiliations

Wen He
Guanhua Xu
Zuochao Rong
Gen Li
Min Liu
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Abstract

This article presents the validation process of a brake FE model by means of temperature measured on a special stand using infrared technology. Unlike many other publications, the authors try to show the interaction between measurement technology and numerical modeling rather than only nice, perfectly correlated graphs. Some difficulties in choosing and using validation parameters are also pointed out and discussed. Finally, results of FE analyses are compared with measured data, followed by explanation of applied numerical technology and estimation of validation process effectiveness.

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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Baranowski
Krzysztof Damaziak
Jerzy Malachowski
Lukasz Mazurkiewicz
Henryk Polakowski
Tadeusz Piatkowski
Mariusz Kastek
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Abstract

Non-invasive damage monitoring of concrete structures by means of Acoustic Emission (AE) requires multitransducers, multi-channel acquisition, high sampling frequency and long observation time. Owing to its propagation in concrete, the signal from AE reduces its amplitude during the propagation, and, consequently, some events can be lost due to lower signal intensity than the trigger level set on one sensor only. The innovative proposal discussed in the paper consists in the introduction of a Flat Amplifier and Trigger generator block (FAT) in order to generate a logical trigger when the AE is detected by any transducer. Experimental tests confirm the effectiveness of the FAT to acquire all the AE events and to increase the evaluation accuracy of damage indexes.

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Authors and Affiliations

Francesco Lamonaca
Antonio Carrozzini
Domenico Grimaldi
Renato Sante Olivito
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Abstract

The paper addresses the problem of experimental studies of miniature tilt sensors based on low-range accelerometers belonging to Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS). A custom computer controlled test rig is proposed, whose kinematics allows an arbitrary tilt angle to be applied (i.e. its two components: pitch and roll over the full angular range). The related geometrical relationships are presented along with the respective uncertainties resulting from their application. Metrological features of the test rig are carefully evaluated and briefly discussed. Accuracy of the test rig is expressed in terms of the respective uncertainties, as recommended by ISO; its scope of application as well as the related limitations are indicated. Even though the test rig is mostly composed of standard devices, like rotation stages and incremental angle encoder, its performance can be compared with specialized certified machines that are very expensive. Exemplary results of experimental studies of MEMS accelerometers realized by means of the test rig are presented and briefly discussed. Few ways of improving performance of the test rig are proposed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Sergiusz Łuczak
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Abstract

Velocity is one of the main navigation parameters of moving objects. However some systems of position estimation using radio wave measurements cannot provide velocity data due to limitation of their performance. In this paper a velocity measurement method for the DS-CDMA radio navigation system is proposed, which does not require full synchronization of reference stations carrier frequencies. The article presents basics of FDOA (frequency difference of arrival) velocity measurements together with application of this method to an experimental radio navigation system called AEGIR and with some suggestions about the possibility to implement such FDOA measurements in other kinds of asynchronous DS-CDMA radio networks. The main part of this paper present results of performance evaluation of the proposed method, based on laboratory measurements

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Authors and Affiliations

Jarosław Sadowski

Instructions for authors

Sample article with Author guidelines

Types of contributions
Metrology and Measurement Systems welcomes submissions of the following article types:
• invited special issue or review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge within scope of the journal (about 20 edited pages, approximately 3000 characters each),
• research papers reporting high-quality original scientific or technological advancements (max. 12 pages),
• papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
• short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).

Manuscript preparation
General The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The camera-ready format – with attached separate files containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is required. A cover letter with clear explanation of scientific novelty of the paper is strongly recommended. Papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences, or strongly related to previous authors’ works, must be accompanied with a cover letter file, which should explain in details changes made in the manuscript in comparison with the original conference paper and highlight the novelty in reference to other authors’ works.
The main text of a manuscript should be printed on an A4 page (with margins of 2.5 cm) using Times New Roman style with a font size of 12 pt; the paragraphs should start with the indentation of 5 mm, and titles should be written in bold. That text can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, …), first-order subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., …, written in italics), and – if needed – second-order subsections (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., …, written same as first-order subsections). The only acceptable manuscript formats are in Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx).
The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors. The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors.

Figures
Figures (illustrations, photographs) and tables, provided in the camera-ready form suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction), should be additionally submitted (one per page), larger than the final size. While preparing figures we encourage to start with defining expected size and minimum font size that fit to all graphics in the manuscript – using the same style in all of your graphics visually improves the article. Final figure formats must be in one of the following: (vectors) .eps, .pdf, .ai or .cdr, and (bitmaps) .bmp, .gif, .tif or .jpg.
As far as plots, block diagrams, schematics etc. are concerned, we suggest to use one of vector formats to improve quality and scalability. Figures in vector formats must be saved using RGB colours and with fully white background (0% K). Hidden layers are unacceptable. Minimum line thickness printed in a single colour is 0.25 pt (0.09 mm), and 1 pt (0.36 mm) when using more colours. Typically we suggest 0.2-0.5 mm but in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Lines in plots should be distinguished not only by using different colours but also using different line types and markers, if needed.

Equation
All equations must be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Each equation should be preceded and followed by a 6-point spacing. Punctuate equations when they are part of a sentence. Equation numbers should be enclosed in parentheses. Equations should be prepared with the use of MathType or Microsoft Equation editors. The type size in the equation is the same as for the text. To make your equations more compact, you may use the appropriate mathematical symbols or expressions. The symbols used in an equation have to be defined before that equation or immediately after it. Use italics for variables (e.g. i, x, n), physical quantity symbol (e.g. voltage U, temperature T), letter pointers and general function symbols. Do not use italics for constants, indexes, minimum, maximum and trigonometric functions, mathematical operators, differentials, etc. To refer to the equation use “(1)”, not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, except at the beginning of a sentence where “Equation (1)” should be used. We recommend to use International System of Units SI i.e. metre-kilogram-second system of units. As a decimal separator dot should be used in the entire manuscript (text, figures, tables).

References
The paper has to be clearly positioned in the context of relevant literature in the field of measurements and instrumentation. Note that lack of references from the main field of Metrology and Measurement Systems interest may suggest that the content of manuscript does not exactly correspond to the scope of metrological journals. It may reduce possibility that a proposed paper will be read by audience society. In such a case our Editorial Board may suggest to send the manuscript to a more appropriate journal. Also note that the use of possibly up-to-date references may indicate importance of your work. Table below gives examples of some relevant and renewable journals related to widely understood metrology.

Journal

Publisher

ISSN

Metrologia

IOP Publishing

0026-1394

IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

IEEE

0018-9456

Measurement

Elsevier

0263-2241

Measurement Science and Technology

IOP Publishing

0957-0233

Metrology and Measurement Systems

PAS

0860-8229

Review of Scientific Instruments

IOP Publishing

0034-6748

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE

1557-9948

IET Science, Measurement & Technology

IET

1751-8822

Journal of Instrumentation

SISSA, IOP Publishing

1748-0221

Measurement Science Review

Walter de Gruyter

1335-8871

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine

IEEE

1094-6969

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences

PAS

2300-1917

Opto-Electronics Review

PAS

1896-3757

IEEE Sensors Journal

IEEE

1558-1748

Sensors

MDPI

1424-8220



References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, i.e. [1]; their list, numbered in citation order, should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should follow the APA 7th edition formatting style, i.e.: for an journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, full journal name, volume, issue (in brackets) and page numbers. Put all author names unless there are more than 20. Otherwise, after the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author’s name (do not place an ampersand before it).

Submission process
Manuscript should be submitted via the Internet Editorial System (IES) – an online submission and peer review system. In order to submit the manuscript via the IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. The submission of the manuscript in a single file, i.e. “Article File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures of high quality and tables embedded in the text), is preferred. All figures have to be uploaded in separate files. The generated PDF file has to be approved. The PDF file has lower quality of the embedded figures to limit its size only.
The submission of a manuscript means that its content has not been published previously, it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which has to be signed before publication. The copyright form is available in the IES.
The Authors are urged to suggest 4 to 5 reviewers in their application (with names, affiliations and addresses) with whom the Editorial Board could co-operate while processing the paper. Proposed reviewers should be experts deeply involved in issues related to the subject matter of the paper and they are intended to come from different universities or research centres.
Each submitted manuscript is subject to a single-blind peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on the reviewers’ comments. If necessary, the authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to exactly fit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the research field, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours from receipt. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding author free of charge. For colour pages the authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of the main distributor (given in “Subscription Information”) must be completed before the date indicated by the Editorial Office.

Other information
It is possible to include supplementary files related to the article content, such as e.g. developed databases. These files can be then used by other researchers to compare their algorithms using the same input data. For more details about supplementary files please contact the Editorial Board: metrology@wat.edu.pl. The biographical statements, at the very end of the article, are not obligatory, however, they are kindly recommended. Each statement should include the author’s full name and brief personal history focused on areas of research and scientific achievements. The biographical statement may not exceed 100 words and should be written using Times New Roman style with a font size of 8 pt.
The publication of your article is a great achievement but then it needs to be further promoted to make it more visible to the research community. Responsibility for this task lies with the Authors and our Editorial Board. We guarantee free access to the article in the Journals PAN of the Polish Academy of Science, including articles in Early Access form (published just after acceptance decision), indexing in popular and renewable databases (e.g. Thomson Scientific Master Journal List, Elsevier’s Scopus, Google Scholar). Furthermore, selected articles are highlighted on the journal website and are reprinted for promotion at conferences and other events. The Authors can share the final form of the article on various social networks and research-sharing platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin, ResearchGate, Academia.edu, SciProfiles. They are also encouraged to update personal and institutional webpages by adding the title and a link of the article. Feel free also to share your work with your colleagues using any other methods that do not conflict with the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license.
For more detailed description about how to write a paper for the Metrology and Measurement Systems journal please look at the Author guidelines for manuscript preparation. We strongly recommend using this file as a template for manuscript preparation.

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