Applied sciences

Metrology and Measurement Systems

Content

Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2010 | No 3 |

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Abstract

Diagnosis and therapy of human diseases is often associated with an analysis of the geometry of internal organs or their pathological conditions. That is why the problem of accuracy assessment of shape mapping using computer tomography and the latest imaging techniques became very important. Therefore, in the paper the accuracy assessment of mapping was proposed using the real shape of the synthetic indices. Two test cases were presented - a reference sphere and the cartilage surface of the knee condyle. The results of tomography research and analysis of accuracy of shape mapping using the "best fit" method and the program Reshaper, in the form of synthetic indicators are presented.

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Ryniewicz
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Abstract

The paper deals with the new method of automatic vehicle classification called ALT (ALTernative). Its characteristic feature is versatility resulting from its open structure, moreover a user can adjust the number of vehicles and their category according to individual requirements. It uses an algorithm for automatic vehicle recognition employing data fusion methods and fuzzy sets. High effectiveness of classification while retaining high selectivity of division was proved by test results. The effectiveness of classification of all vehicles at the level of 95% and goods trucks of 100% is more than satisfactory.

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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Burnos
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Abstract

In a parallel time-interleaved data sampling system, timing and amplitude mismatches of this structure degrade the performance of the whole ADC system. In this paper, an adaptive blind synthesis calibration algorithm is proposed, which could estimate the timing, gain and offset errors simultaneously, and calibrate automatically. With no need of an extra calibration signal and redesign, it could efficiently and dynamically track the changes of mismatches due to aging or temperature variation. A fractional delay filter is developed to adjust the timing mismatch, which simplifies the design and decreases the cost. Computer simulations are also included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

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Authors and Affiliations

Huiqing Pan
Shulin Tian
Peng Ye
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Abstract

The paper shows the usefulness of the lung mechanical model for time and frequency characteristics reconstruction proper for the mechanics of an adult human respiratory system in its various regimes of work. The complex set-up for measurements of human respiratory system mechanics is presented. Two separate scenarios were created, firstly, the mechanical model was examined using standard mechanical ventilation routine with embedded Interrupter Technique and then the Optimized Ventilator Waveform technique was tested. An analysis of experimental results is presented, as well as an outline of the issues and problems revealed during investigations.

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Authors and Affiliations

Kamil Jakuszkin
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Abstract

The sensor-shifted stereo camera provides the mechanism for obtaining 3D information in a wide field of view. This novel kind of stereo requires a simpler matching process in comparison to convergence stereo. In addition to this, the uncertainty of depth estimation of a target point in 3D space is defined by the spatial quantization caused by the digital images. The dithering approach is a way to reduce the depth reconstruction uncertainty through a controlled adjustment of the stereo parameters that shift the spatial quantization levels. In this paper, a mathematical model that relates the stereo setup parameters to the iso-disparities is developed and used for depth estimation. The enhancement of the depth measurement accuracy for this kind of stereo through applying the dithering method is verified by simulation and physical experiment. For the verification, the uncertainty of the depth measurement using dithering is compared with the uncertainty produced by the direct triangulation method. A 49% improvement of the uncertainly in the depth reconstruction is proved.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jiandan Chen
Wail Mustafa
Abu Siddig
Wlodek Kulesza
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Abstract

The development of accurate computer control of a 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator operation is described. The developed system comprises the accelerator turn-on and turn-off procedures during a normal run, which includes the setting of the terminal voltage, ion source light up, beam focusing and control of ion beam current and energy during operation. In addition, the computer monitors the vacuum and is able to make a detail register of the most important events during a normal run. The computer control system uses a LabVIEW application for interaction with the operator and an I/O board that interfaces the computer and the accelerator system. For everyday operating conditions the control implemented is able to turn-on and off the machine in about the same time as a specialized technician. In addition, today more users can make experiments in the accelerator without the help of a specialized operator, which in turns increases the number of hours during which the accelerator can be used.

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Authors and Affiliations

José Lopes
Francisco Alegria
Luís Redondo
Jorge Rocha
Eduardo Alves
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Abstract

Three methods of estimating radii of spray droplets are discussed and results of their practical application in the case of explosively produced water spray are reported. Parameters of model radii distributions are fitted using the least squares method. Finally, the data obtained for a number of tests are used for estimating fraction of explosion energy used for pulverization of water in the process of explosive production of water-spray.

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Authors and Affiliations

Dariusz Chaberski
Krzysztof Stefański
Stanisław Grzelak
Damian Lewandowski
Roman Dygdała
Marek Zieliński
Grzegorz Śmigielski
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Abstract

The prediction of machined surface parameters is an important factor in machining centre development. There is a great need to elaborate a method for on-line surface roughness estimation [1-7]. Among various measurement techniques, optical methods are considered suitable for in-process measurement of machined surface roughness. These techniques are non-contact, fast, flexible and tree-dimensional in nature.

The optical method suggested in this paper is based on the vision system created to acquire an image of the machined surface during the cutting process. The acquired image is analyzed to correlate its parameters with surface parameters. In the application of machined surface image analysis, the wavelet methods were introduced. A digital image of a machined surface was described using the one-dimensional Digital Wavelet Transform with the basic wavelet as Coiflet. The statistical description of wavelet components made it possible to develop the quality measure and correlate it with surface roughness [8-11].

For an estimation of surface roughness a neural network estimator was applied [12-16]. The estimator was built to work in a recurrent way. The current value of the Ra estimation and the measured change in surface image features were used for forecasting the surface roughness Ra parameter. The results of the analysis confirmed the usability of the application of the proposed method in systems for surface roughness monitoring.

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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Zawada-Tomkiewicz
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Abstract

The one-dimension frequency analysis based on DFT (Discrete FT) is sufficient in many cases in detecting power disturbances and evaluating power quality (PQ). To illustrate in a more comprehensive manner the character of the signal, time-frequency analyses are performed. The most common known time-frequency representations (TFR) are spectrogram (SPEC) and Gabor Transform (GT). However, the method has a relatively low time-frequency resolution. The other TFR: Discreet Dyadic Wavelet Transform (DDWT), Smoothed Pseudo Wigner-Ville Distribution (SPWVD) and new Gabor-Wigner Transform (GWT) are described in the paper. The main features of the transforms, on the basis of testing signals, are presented.

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Authors and Affiliations

Janusz Mroczka
Mirosław Szmajda
Krzysztof Górecki
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Abstract

A research study aimed at developing a novel indoor positioning system is presented. The realized system prototype uses sensor fusion techniques to combine information from two sources: an in-house developed local Ultra-Wideband (UWB) radio-based ranging system and an inertial navigation system (INS). The UWB system measures the distance between two transceivers by recording the round-trip-time (RTT) of UWB radio pulses. Its principle of operation is briefly described, together with the main design features. Furthermore, the main characteristics of the INS and of the Extended Kalman Filter information fusion approach are presented. Finally, selected static and dynamic test scenario experimental results are provided. In particular, the advantages of the proposed information fusion approach are further investigated by means of a high dynamic test scenario.

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Authors and Affiliations

Alessio De Angelis
John Nilsson
Isaac Skog
Händel Peter
Paolo Carbone
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Abstract

The contribution presents a novel approach to the detection and tracking of lanes based on lidar data. Therefore, we use the distance and reflectivity data coming from a one-dimensional sensor. After having detected the lane through a temporal fusion algorithm, we register the lidar data in a world-fixed coordinate system. To this end, we also incorporate the data coming from an inertial measurement unit and a differential global positioning system. After that stage, an original image of the road can be inferred. Based on this data view, we are able to track the lane either with a Kalman filter or by using a polynomial approximation for the underlying lane model.

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Authors and Affiliations

Michael Thuy
Fernando León
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Abstract

The paper discusses a method of quantitative comparison of cylindricity profiles measured with different strategies. The method is based on applying so-called Legendre-Fourier coefficients. The comparison is carried out by computing the correlation coefficient between the profiles. It is conducted by applying a normalized cross-correlation function and it requires approximation of cylindrical surfaces using the Legendre-Fourier method. As the example two sets of measurement data are employed: the first from the CMM and the second one from the traditional radial measuring instrument. The measuring data are compared by analyzing the values of selected cylindricity parameters and calculating the coefficient of correlation between profiles.

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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Stępień
Włodzimierz Makieła
Stanisław Adamczak
Dariusz Janecki
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Abstract

A new soft-fault diagnosis approach for analog circuits with parameter tolerance is proposed in this paper. The approach uses the fuzzy nonlinear programming (FNLP) concept to diagnose an analog circuit under test quantitatively. Node-voltage incremental equations, as constraints of FNLP equation, are built based on the sensitivity analysis. Through evaluating the parameters deviations from the solution of the FNLP equation, it enables us to state whether the actual parameters are within tolerance ranges or some components are faulty. Examples illustrate the proposed approach and show its effectiveness.

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Authors and Affiliations

Wei Zhang
Longfu Zhou
Yibing Shi
Chengti Huang
Yanjun Li
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Abstract

The paper concerns the problem of treatment of the systematic effect as a part of the coverage interval associated with the measurement result. In this case the known systematic effect is not corrected for but instead is treated as an uncertainty component. This effect is characterized by two components: systematic and random. The systematic component is estimated by the bias and the random component is estimated by the uncertainty associated with the bias. Taking into consideration these two components, a random variable can be created with zero expectation and standard deviation calculated by randomizing the systematic effect. The method of randomization of the systematic effect is based on a flatten-Gaussian distribution. The standard uncertainty, being the basic parameter of the systematic effect, may be calculated with a simple mathematical formula. The presented evaluation of uncertainty is more rational than those with the use of other methods. It is useful in practical metrological applications.

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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Fotowicz
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Abstract

This contribution deals with the modelling of a selected part of a new automotive communication standard called FlexRay. In particular, it focuses on the mechanism ensuring the start-up of a FlexRay network. The model has been created with the use of timed automata and verified. For this purpose the UPPAAL software tool has been used that allows the modelling of discrete event systems with the use of timed automata, and subsequently the verification of the model with the use of suitable queries compiled in the so called computation tree logic. This model can be used to look for incorrect settings of time parameters of communication nodes in the network that prevent network start-up and subsequently the start of the car. The existence of this model also opens the way for finding possible errors in the standard. On the basis of the model, the work gives a case study of the start-up mechanism behaviour verification in a FlexRay network consisting of three communication nodes.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jan Malinský
Jiří Novák

Instructions for authors

Sample article with Author guidelines

Types of contributions
Metrology and Measurement Systems welcomes submissions of the following article types:
• invited special issue or review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge within scope of the journal (about 20 edited pages, approximately 3000 characters each),
• research papers reporting high-quality original scientific or technological advancements (max. 12 pages),
• papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
• short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).

Manuscript preparation
General The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The camera-ready format – with attached separate files containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is required. A cover letter with clear explanation of scientific novelty of the paper is strongly recommended. Papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences, or strongly related to previous authors’ works, must be accompanied with a cover letter file, which should explain in details changes made in the manuscript in comparison with the original conference paper and highlight the novelty in reference to other authors’ works.
The main text of a manuscript should be printed on an A4 page (with margins of 2.5 cm) using Times New Roman style with a font size of 12 pt; the paragraphs should start with the indentation of 5 mm, and titles should be written in bold. That text can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, …), first-order subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., …, written in italics), and – if needed – second-order subsections (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., …, written same as first-order subsections). The only acceptable manuscript formats are in Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx).
The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors. The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors.

Figures
Figures (illustrations, photographs) and tables, provided in the camera-ready form suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction), should be additionally submitted (one per page), larger than the final size. While preparing figures we encourage to start with defining expected size and minimum font size that fit to all graphics in the manuscript – using the same style in all of your graphics visually improves the article. Final figure formats must be in one of the following: (vectors) .eps, .pdf, .ai or .cdr, and (bitmaps) .bmp, .gif, .tif or .jpg.
As far as plots, block diagrams, schematics etc. are concerned, we suggest to use one of vector formats to improve quality and scalability. Figures in vector formats must be saved using RGB colours and with fully white background (0% K). Hidden layers are unacceptable. Minimum line thickness printed in a single colour is 0.25 pt (0.09 mm), and 1 pt (0.36 mm) when using more colours. Typically we suggest 0.2-0.5 mm but in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Lines in plots should be distinguished not only by using different colours but also using different line types and markers, if needed.

Equation
All equations must be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Each equation should be preceded and followed by a 6-point spacing. Punctuate equations when they are part of a sentence. Equation numbers should be enclosed in parentheses. Equations should be prepared with the use of MathType or Microsoft Equation editors. The type size in the equation is the same as for the text. To make your equations more compact, you may use the appropriate mathematical symbols or expressions. The symbols used in an equation have to be defined before that equation or immediately after it. Use italics for variables (e.g. i, x, n), physical quantity symbol (e.g. voltage U, temperature T), letter pointers and general function symbols. Do not use italics for constants, indexes, minimum, maximum and trigonometric functions, mathematical operators, differentials, etc. To refer to the equation use “(1)”, not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, except at the beginning of a sentence where “Equation (1)” should be used. We recommend to use International System of Units SI i.e. metre-kilogram-second system of units. As a decimal separator dot should be used in the entire manuscript (text, figures, tables).

References
The paper has to be clearly positioned in the context of relevant literature in the field of measurements and instrumentation. Note that lack of references from the main field of Metrology and Measurement Systems interest may suggest that the content of manuscript does not exactly correspond to the scope of metrological journals. It may reduce possibility that a proposed paper will be read by audience society. In such a case our Editorial Board may suggest to send the manuscript to a more appropriate journal. Also note that the use of possibly up-to-date references may indicate importance of your work. Table below gives examples of some relevant and renewable journals related to widely understood metrology.

Journal

Publisher

ISSN

Metrologia

IOP Publishing

0026-1394

IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

IEEE

0018-9456

Measurement

Elsevier

0263-2241

Measurement Science and Technology

IOP Publishing

0957-0233

Metrology and Measurement Systems

PAS

0860-8229

Review of Scientific Instruments

IOP Publishing

0034-6748

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE

1557-9948

IET Science, Measurement & Technology

IET

1751-8822

Journal of Instrumentation

SISSA, IOP Publishing

1748-0221

Measurement Science Review

Walter de Gruyter

1335-8871

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine

IEEE

1094-6969

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences

PAS

2300-1917

Opto-Electronics Review

PAS

1896-3757

IEEE Sensors Journal

IEEE

1558-1748

Sensors

MDPI

1424-8220



References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, i.e. [1]; their list, numbered in citation order, should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should follow the APA 7th edition formatting style, i.e.: for an journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, full journal name, volume, issue (in brackets) and page numbers. Put all author names unless there are more than 20. Otherwise, after the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author’s name (do not place an ampersand before it).

Submission process
Manuscript should be submitted via the Internet Editorial System (IES) – an online submission and peer review system. In order to submit the manuscript via the IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. The submission of the manuscript in a single file, i.e. “Article File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures of high quality and tables embedded in the text), is preferred. All figures have to be uploaded in separate files. The generated PDF file has to be approved. The PDF file has lower quality of the embedded figures to limit its size only.
The submission of a manuscript means that its content has not been published previously, it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which has to be signed before publication. The copyright form is available in the IES.
The Authors are urged to suggest 4 to 5 reviewers in their application (with names, affiliations and addresses) with whom the Editorial Board could co-operate while processing the paper. Proposed reviewers should be experts deeply involved in issues related to the subject matter of the paper and they are intended to come from different universities or research centres.
Each submitted manuscript is subject to a single-blind peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on the reviewers’ comments. If necessary, the authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to exactly fit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the research field, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours from receipt. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding author free of charge. For colour pages the authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of the main distributor (given in “Subscription Information”) must be completed before the date indicated by the Editorial Office.

Other information
It is possible to include supplementary files related to the article content, such as e.g. developed databases. These files can be then used by other researchers to compare their algorithms using the same input data. For more details about supplementary files please contact the Editorial Board: metrology@wat.edu.pl. The biographical statements, at the very end of the article, are not obligatory, however, they are kindly recommended. Each statement should include the author’s full name and brief personal history focused on areas of research and scientific achievements. The biographical statement may not exceed 100 words and should be written using Times New Roman style with a font size of 8 pt.
The publication of your article is a great achievement but then it needs to be further promoted to make it more visible to the research community. Responsibility for this task lies with the Authors and our Editorial Board. We guarantee free access to the article in the Journals PAN of the Polish Academy of Science, including articles in Early Access form (published just after acceptance decision), indexing in popular and renewable databases (e.g. Thomson Scientific Master Journal List, Elsevier’s Scopus, Google Scholar). Furthermore, selected articles are highlighted on the journal website and are reprinted for promotion at conferences and other events. The Authors can share the final form of the article on various social networks and research-sharing platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin, ResearchGate, Academia.edu, SciProfiles. They are also encouraged to update personal and institutional webpages by adding the title and a link of the article. Feel free also to share your work with your colleagues using any other methods that do not conflict with the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license.
For more detailed description about how to write a paper for the Metrology and Measurement Systems journal please look at the Author guidelines for manuscript preparation. We strongly recommend using this file as a template for manuscript preparation.

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