Applied sciences

Metrology and Measurement Systems

Content

Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2020 | vol. 27 | No 4 |

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Abstract

This article concerns a new method of assessing the thread cutting process and the quality of the formed thread using the method of optical observation of the workpiece during machining. A series of digital images of the thread profile was taken in transmitted light for each tool infeed. Such images, obtained with high resolution for three angular positions, were binarized, with the space between ridges taken in successive infeeds identified as “void”, and its projection was then parameterized. Two of these parameters, area of void and aspect ratio, were used as indicators of the technological quality of the thread. The suitability of the selected parameters for technological description of the thread was verified using the example of titanium alloy thread turning under ambient and cryogenic conditions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Zawada-Tomkiewicz
Łukasz Żurawski
Dariusz Tomkiewicz
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Abstract

The paper presents a circuit structure that can be used for powering an IoT (Internet of Things) sensor node and that can use energy just from its surroundings. The main advantage of the presented solution is its very low cost that allows mass applicability e.g. in the IoT smart grids and ubiquitous sensors. It is intended for energy sources that can provide enough voltage but that can provide only low currents such as piezoelectric transducers or small photovoltaic panels (PV) under indoor light conditions. The circuit is able to accumulate energy in a capacitor until a certain level and then to pass it to the load. The presented circuit exhibits similar functionality to a commercially available EH300 energy harvester (EH). The paper compares electrical properties of the presented circuit and the EH300 device, their form factors and costs. The EH circuit’s performance is tested together with an LTC3531 buck-boost DC/DC converter which can provide constant voltage for the following electronics. The paper provides guidelines for selecting an optimal capacity of the storage capacitor. The functionality of the solution presented is demonstrated in a sensor node that periodically transmits measured data to the base station using just the power from the PV panel or the piezoelectric generator. The presented harvester and powering circuit are compact part of the sensor node’s electronics but they can be also realized as an external powering module to be added to existing solutions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Adam Bouřa
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Abstract

In automatic and accurate reading recognition of analog meters based on machine vision, one of important issues is the detection of pointer features, which includes the meter center and pointer image processing. The current automatic-recognition approaches to reading analog meters often consist in locating the meter center based on the dial region or its border. The located center is not coincident with the rotation center of pointer which leads to inevitable reading errors. In the paper, the centripetalism of annular scale lines is used to calculate the position of the pointer rotation center. First, it uses the region growing method to locate the dial region and uses the eccentricity measure to extract annular scale lines. Second, the parameters of these scale lines are estimated with the Hough transform method. Then, the common intersection of a group of lines, i.e., the meter rotation center, is determined with the maximum probability criterion. Finally, the pointer centerline and direction are detected through the calculated center and the Hough transform results. The simulated and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can accurately locate the pointer rotation center and obtain pointer centerline. Moreover, it is applicable to the meter image captured under a slant camera view or with uneven light illumination.

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Authors and Affiliations

Hai-Bo Zhuo
Fu-Zhong Bai
Yong-Xiang Xu
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Abstract

Virtual reality (VR) has become a realistic alternative to conventional learning methods in numerous fields including military training. Accurate and precise tracking of a user wearing a head-mounted display is necessary to achieve an immersive VR experience. The widely available SteamVR system, where licensed users can design and construct trackers optimized for a given application can be an alternative to very expensive professional motion tracking. This paper presents the complete design process of a SteamVR tracker dedicated to a shooting simulation in a VR environment.We describe the optimization and simulation of the tracker’s shape and configuration of the sensors. In the simulation phase the developed model had better parameters than its commercial counterparts. Next, the optimized prototype was constructed and configured. The dedicated and automated measuring arrangement provided experimental verification of the tracker’s performance. Tracking performance as well as the accuracy and precision of both position and orientation measurements were determined and compared with simulations, which proved that the simulation software can accurately predict selected properties of the proposed tracker.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marcin Maciejewski
Marek Piszczek
Mateusz Pomianek
Norbert Pałka
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Abstract

The Lithuanian national standard of electric resistance is maintained as the basis for calibration and measurement capabilities published in the key comparison database of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM). The stability and uncertainty of the resistance value measurements, performed since 2004 using the calibrated values of the standard resistors to predict their future behaviour as well as influence of environmental conditions, are discussed. Also discussed is the recovery of a standard resistor which had undergone a mechanical disturbance. It is concluded that the standard resistors operated by the Lithuanian National Electrical Standards Laboratory feature stable drift of resistance, which is well predicted by means of linear regression.

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrius Bartašiunas
Rimantas Miškinis
Dmitrij Smirnov
Emilis Urba
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Abstract

The paper presents a detailed theoretical background for coordinate measurement uncertainty evaluation by means of Type B evaluation method, taking into account information on accuracy of a coordinate measuring system given with the formula for maximum permissible errors of length measurement and verification test results. A proposal for evaluation of the verification test results is made. A measurement model based on the point-plane distance equation is presented. A detailed analysis of the partial derivatives (sensitivity factors in an uncertainty budget) of the measurement model is presented. The analyses of measurement uncertainty for different geometrical characteristicswere conducted using this measurement model. Examples of uncertainty evaluation for geometrical deviations are presented: position of a point related to a datum plane and flatness in the case of convex or concave surfaces. The examples include detailed uncertainty budgets.

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Authors and Affiliations

Wojciech Płowucha
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Abstract

Electrified railways are an example of AC single phase distribution networks. A non-negligible amount of active and nonactive power may be related to harmonics, especially for distorted highly-loaded systems. The paper considers the relevance of the harmonic power terms in order to identify distortion sources in a single-point perspective, in line with the approach of EN 50463 for the quantification of the power and energy consumption. Some single-point Harmonic Producer Indicators (HPI) based on harmonic active power direction and nonactive distortion power terms are reviewed and evaluated using pantograph voltage and current measured during several hours of runs in two European AC railways (operated at 16.7 and 50 Hz). The HPI based on active power shows to be consistent and provides detailed information of rolling stock characteristic components under variable operating conditions; those based on nonactive distortion power are global indexes and hardly can operate with complex harmonic patterns in variable operating conditions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrea Mariscotti
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Abstract

The objective of the study was to assess the potential use of optical measuring instruments to determine the minimum chip thickness in face milling. Images of scanned surfaces were analyzed using mother wavelets. Filtration of optical signals helped identify the characteristic zones observed on the workpiece surface at the beginning of the cutting process. The measurement data were analyzed statistically. The results were then used to estimate how accurate each measuring system was to determine the minimum uncut chip thickness. Also, experimental verification was carried out for each mother wavelet to assess their suitability for analyzing surface images.

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Authors and Affiliations

Damian Gogolewski
Włodzimierz Makieła
Łukasz Nowakowski
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Abstract

HPM meters are required for the assessment of fields generated by sources of high-power microwaves. Finding the inverse calibration curves for such instruments is important for ensuring accuracy. The procedure is relatively simple for meters consisting of linear devices but there can also be hardware solutions implementing nonlinear ones. The objective of the present work was to develop a convenient procedure to allow finding such a curve when the meter uses a D-dot probe and a power detector. For that purpose, the results of low voltage measurements describing the properties of the detector were first analysed. Then a software code was developed to estimate the RMS value of an incident field based on measured output and frequency response. The response was estimated with very low electric field. And finally, the performance of the proposed procedure was verified by tests conducted with high electric field in a TEM cell. High conformity of the output of the meter with fields of known values was demonstrated. The maximum error related to the meter range did not exceed 4%.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jacek Jakubowski
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Abstract

The article presents methodology for testing the electric strength of vacuum chambers designed for modern medium voltage switchgear developed by the authors, using two innovative test stands designed and constructed by the research team above. Verification of the correctness of operation of the test stands, as well as the validity of the developed methodology was carried out by performing a series of tests. It was determined that below certain pressure values in the tested chamber (from about 5.0×10 0 Pa for station 1 and for about 4.0×10 -1 Pa for station 2), the electric strength maintains a constant value, which guarantees stable operation of the vacuum chamber. The values of the total measurement uncertainty for the electric strength tests were also estimated.

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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Węgierek
Michał Lech
Czesław Kozak
Justyna Pastuszak
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Abstract

We present spectral emission characteristics from laser-plasma EUV/SXR sources produced by irradiation of < 1 J energy laser pulse on eleven different double stream gas puff targets, with most intense electronic transitions identified in the spectral range from 1 nm to 70 nm wavelength which corresponds to photon energy from 18 eV to 1240 eV. The spectra were obtained using grazing incidence and transmission spectro- graphs from laser-produced plasma emission, formed by the interaction of a laser beam with a double stream gas puff target. Laser pulses with a duration of 4 ns and energy of 650 mJ were used for the experiment. We present the results obtained from three different spectrometers in the wavelength ranges of SXR (1–5.5 nm), SXR/EUV (4–15.5 nm), and EUV (10–70 nm). In this paper, detailed information about the source, gas targets under investigation, the experimental setup, spectral measurements and the results are presented and discussed. Such data may be useful for the identification of adequate spectral emissions from gasses in the EUV and SXR wavelength ranges dedicated to various experiments (i.e. broadband emission for the X-ray coherence tomography XCT) or may be used for verification of magnetohydrodynamic plasma codes.

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Authors and Affiliations

Antony Jose Arikkatt
Przemysław Wachulak
Henryk Fiedorowicz
Andrzej Bartnik
Joanna Czwartos
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Abstract

The paper examines the usage of Convolutional Bidirectional Recurrent Neural Network (CBRNN) for a problem of quality measurement in a music content. The key contribution in this approach, compared to the existing research, is that the examined model is evaluated in terms of detecting acoustic anomalies without the requirement to provide a reference (clean) signal. Since real music content may include some modes of instrumental sounds, speech and singing voice or different audio effects, it is more complex to analyze than clean speech or artificial signals, especially without a comparison to the known reference content. The presented results might be treated as a proof of concept, since some specific types of artefacts are covered in this paper (examples of quantization defect, missing sound, distortion of gain characteristics, extra noise sound). However, the described model can be easily expanded to detect other impairments or used as a pre-trained model for other transfer learning processes. To examine the model efficiency several experiments have been performed and reported in the paper. The raw audio samples were transformed into Mel-scaled spectrograms and transferred as input to the model, first independently, then along with additional features (Zero Crossing Rate, Spectral Contrast). According to the obtained results, there is a significant increase in overall accuracy (by 10.1%), if Spectral Contrast information is provided together with Mel-scaled spectrograms. The paper examines also the influence of recursive layers on effectiveness of the artefact classification task.

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Authors and Affiliations

Kamila Organiściak
Józef Borkowski

Instructions for authors

Sample article with Author guidelines

Types of contributions
Metrology and Measurement Systems welcomes submissions of the following article types:
• invited special issue or review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge within scope of the journal (about 20 edited pages, approximately 3000 characters each),
• research papers reporting high-quality original scientific or technological advancements (max. 12 pages),
• papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
• short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).

Manuscript preparation
General The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The camera-ready format – with attached separate files containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is required. A cover letter with clear explanation of scientific novelty of the paper is strongly recommended. Papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences, or strongly related to previous authors’ works, must be accompanied with a cover letter file, which should explain in details changes made in the manuscript in comparison with the original conference paper and highlight the novelty in reference to other authors’ works.
The main text of a manuscript should be printed on an A4 page (with margins of 2.5 cm) using Times New Roman style with a font size of 12 pt; the paragraphs should start with the indentation of 5 mm, and titles should be written in bold. That text can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, …), first-order subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., …, written in italics), and – if needed – second-order subsections (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., …, written same as first-order subsections). The only acceptable manuscript formats are in Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx).
The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors. The Editor encourages the Authors of submitted papers who are not English native speakers, to use a language service checking the language correctness not only with respect to grammar, but also in the way of presentation of research results accepted by renowned publishers, e.g. presented on the website of the European Association of Science Editors.

Figures
Figures (illustrations, photographs) and tables, provided in the camera-ready form suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction), should be additionally submitted (one per page), larger than the final size. While preparing figures we encourage to start with defining expected size and minimum font size that fit to all graphics in the manuscript – using the same style in all of your graphics visually improves the article. Final figure formats must be in one of the following: (vectors) .eps, .pdf, .ai or .cdr, and (bitmaps) .bmp, .gif, .tif or .jpg.
As far as plots, block diagrams, schematics etc. are concerned, we suggest to use one of vector formats to improve quality and scalability. Figures in vector formats must be saved using RGB colours and with fully white background (0% K). Hidden layers are unacceptable. Minimum line thickness printed in a single colour is 0.25 pt (0.09 mm), and 1 pt (0.36 mm) when using more colours. Typically we suggest 0.2-0.5 mm but in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Lines in plots should be distinguished not only by using different colours but also using different line types and markers, if needed.

Equation
All equations must be numbered consecutively throughout the text. Each equation should be preceded and followed by a 6-point spacing. Punctuate equations when they are part of a sentence. Equation numbers should be enclosed in parentheses. Equations should be prepared with the use of MathType or Microsoft Equation editors. The type size in the equation is the same as for the text. To make your equations more compact, you may use the appropriate mathematical symbols or expressions. The symbols used in an equation have to be defined before that equation or immediately after it. Use italics for variables (e.g. i, x, n), physical quantity symbol (e.g. voltage U, temperature T), letter pointers and general function symbols. Do not use italics for constants, indexes, minimum, maximum and trigonometric functions, mathematical operators, differentials, etc. To refer to the equation use “(1)”, not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, except at the beginning of a sentence where “Equation (1)” should be used. We recommend to use International System of Units SI i.e. metre-kilogram-second system of units. As a decimal separator dot should be used in the entire manuscript (text, figures, tables).

References
The paper has to be clearly positioned in the context of relevant literature in the field of measurements and instrumentation. Note that lack of references from the main field of Metrology and Measurement Systems interest may suggest that the content of manuscript does not exactly correspond to the scope of metrological journals. It may reduce possibility that a proposed paper will be read by audience society. In such a case our Editorial Board may suggest to send the manuscript to a more appropriate journal. Also note that the use of possibly up-to-date references may indicate importance of your work. Table below gives examples of some relevant and renewable journals related to widely understood metrology.

Journal

Publisher

ISSN

Metrologia

IOP Publishing

0026-1394

IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

IEEE

0018-9456

Measurement

Elsevier

0263-2241

Measurement Science and Technology

IOP Publishing

0957-0233

Metrology and Measurement Systems

PAS

0860-8229

Review of Scientific Instruments

IOP Publishing

0034-6748

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE

1557-9948

IET Science, Measurement & Technology

IET

1751-8822

Journal of Instrumentation

SISSA, IOP Publishing

1748-0221

Measurement Science Review

Walter de Gruyter

1335-8871

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine

IEEE

1094-6969

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences

PAS

2300-1917

Opto-Electronics Review

PAS

1896-3757

IEEE Sensors Journal

IEEE

1558-1748

Sensors

MDPI

1424-8220



References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, i.e. [1]; their list, numbered in citation order, should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should follow the APA 7th edition formatting style, i.e.: for an journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, full journal name, volume, issue (in brackets) and page numbers. Put all author names unless there are more than 20. Otherwise, after the first 19 authors’ names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author’s name (do not place an ampersand before it).

Submission process
Manuscript should be submitted via the Internet Editorial System (IES) – an online submission and peer review system. In order to submit the manuscript via the IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. The submission of the manuscript in a single file, i.e. “Article File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures of high quality and tables embedded in the text), is preferred. All figures have to be uploaded in separate files. The generated PDF file has to be approved. The PDF file has lower quality of the embedded figures to limit its size only.
The submission of a manuscript means that its content has not been published previously, it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which has to be signed before publication. The copyright form is available in the IES.
The Authors are urged to suggest 4 to 5 reviewers in their application (with names, affiliations and addresses) with whom the Editorial Board could co-operate while processing the paper. Proposed reviewers should be experts deeply involved in issues related to the subject matter of the paper and they are intended to come from different universities or research centres.
Each submitted manuscript is subject to a single-blind peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on the reviewers’ comments. If necessary, the authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to exactly fit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the research field, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours from receipt. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding author free of charge. For colour pages the authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of the main distributor (given in “Subscription Information”) must be completed before the date indicated by the Editorial Office.

Other information
It is possible to include supplementary files related to the article content, such as e.g. developed databases. These files can be then used by other researchers to compare their algorithms using the same input data. For more details about supplementary files please contact the Editorial Board: metrology@wat.edu.pl. The biographical statements, at the very end of the article, are not obligatory, however, they are kindly recommended. Each statement should include the author’s full name and brief personal history focused on areas of research and scientific achievements. The biographical statement may not exceed 100 words and should be written using Times New Roman style with a font size of 8 pt.
The publication of your article is a great achievement but then it needs to be further promoted to make it more visible to the research community. Responsibility for this task lies with the Authors and our Editorial Board. We guarantee free access to the article in the Journals PAN of the Polish Academy of Science, including articles in Early Access form (published just after acceptance decision), indexing in popular and renewable databases (e.g. Thomson Scientific Master Journal List, Elsevier’s Scopus, Google Scholar). Furthermore, selected articles are highlighted on the journal website and are reprinted for promotion at conferences and other events. The Authors can share the final form of the article on various social networks and research-sharing platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin, ResearchGate, Academia.edu, SciProfiles. They are also encouraged to update personal and institutional webpages by adding the title and a link of the article. Feel free also to share your work with your colleagues using any other methods that do not conflict with the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license.
For more detailed description about how to write a paper for the Metrology and Measurement Systems journal please look at the Author guidelines for manuscript preparation. We strongly recommend using this file as a template for manuscript preparation.

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