Hydrogen-based power engineering has great potential for upgrading present and future structures of heat and electricity generation and for decarbonizing industrial technologies. The production of hydrogen and its optimal utilization in the economy and transport for the achievement of ecological and economic goals requires a wide discussion of many technological and operational – related issues as well as intensive scientific research. The introductory section of the paper indicates the main functions of hydrogen in the decarbonization of power energy generation and industrial processes, and discusses selected assumptions and conditions for the implementation of development scenarios outlined by the Hydrogen Council, 2017 and IEA, 2019. The first scenario assumes an 18% share of hydrogen in final energy consumption in 2050 and the elimination 6 Gt of carbon dioxide emissions per year. The second document was prepared in connection with the G20 summit in Japan. It presents the current state of hydrogen technology development and outlines the scenario of their development and significance, in particular until 2030. The second part of the paper presents a description of main hybrid Power-to-Power, Power-to-Gas and Power-to-Liquid technological structures with the electrolytic production of hydrogen from renewable sources. General technological diagrams of the use of water and carbon dioxide coelectrolysis in the production of fuels using F-T synthesis and the methanol production scheme are presented. Methods of integration of renewable energy with electrolytic hydrogen production technologies are indicated, and reliability indicators used in the selection of the principal modules of hybrid systems are discussed. A more detailed description is presented of the optimal method of obtaining a direct coupling of photovoltaic (PV) panels with electrolyzers.
Hydrogen as a raw material finds its main use and application on the Polish market in the chemical industry. Its potential applications for the production of energy in fuel cell systems or as a fuel for automobiles are widely analyzed and commented upon ever more frequently. At present, hydrogen is produced worldwide mainly from natural gas, using the SMR technology or via the electrolysis of water. Countries with high levels of coal resources are exceptional in that respect, as there the production of hydrogen is increasingly based on gasification processes. China is such an example. There some 68% of hydrogen is generated from coal. The paper discusses the economic efficiency of hydrogen production technologies employing lignite gasification, comparing it with steam reforming of natural gas technology (SMR). In present Polish conditions, this technology seems to be the most probable alternative for natural gas substitution.
For the purpose of evaluating the economic efficiency, a model has been developed, in which a sensitivity analysis has been carried out. An example of the technological process of energy-chemical processing of lignite has been presented, based on the gasification process rooted in disperse systems, characteristics of the fuel has been discussed, as well as carbon dioxide emission issues. Subsequently, the assumed methodology of economic assessment has been described in detail, together with its key assumptions. Successively, based on the method of discounted cash flows, the unit of hydrogen generation has been determined, which was followed by a detailed sensitivity analysis, taking the main risk factors connected with lignite/coal and natural gas price relations, as well as the price of carbon credits (allowances for emission of CO2) into account.
Ensuring the security of power generation systems is a pillar of the proper functioning of each state. Energy security is fundamental to ensure both economic growth and social welfare. As energy storage has not developed in an efficient extent, covering the current and prospective power demand is a major challenge for transmission system operators. Moreover, the activities that are to be taken should be technically and economically justified and need to meet the requirements of environmental protection. Cooperation between neighboring countries in the field of electricity exchange is among the activities undertaken to ensure the safety of the power generation systems. The integration of electricity markets is one of the key challenges of the European Union’s energy policy. The European Commission issued a directive on interconnection, according to which the capacity of interconnections should total 10% of installed capacity until 2020 (and 15% until 2030) in each Member State. The main objective of this study is to assess the changes in electricity imports and exports in 2003–2018 and to investigate the current level of cross-border exchanges between Poland and the neighboring countries. This paper also answers the question of whether Poland will fulfil the obligations set by the European Commission. In addition, the paper presents the risks and the challenges related to fulfilling the mentioned commitments. The results of the study indicate that the development and modernization of network infrastructure in the field of cross-border exchange are necessary because, in the context of the forecasted increase in electricity demand, Polish generation units will not be able to meet the demand.
The inevitability and successive implementation of the elements of the European Union (EU) energy policy and the freedom of achieving the goals left in this regard for the member states should translate into actions taking the specificity of local markets into account, in order to carry out liberalization processes in a harmonious manner. In 2016, the European Commission published a package of guidance documents “Clean Energy for All Europeans” in the perspective of 2030, also known as the Winter Package. The recommendations contained in some of the documents assume the continuation of integration of markets in the national and regional dimension, setting ambitious targets in the field of decarbonization, the increase of energy efficiency and the increase of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) share in the energy balance of EU countries. The short time to carry out a thorough reconstruction of the energy-generating sector forces to seek solutions that are in line with the European Community recommendations and, at the same time, do not constitute an excessive burden for the national economy and legal order. One of the activities is to use the potential of micro-networks of local communities striving for energy independence based on their own energy sources and to create regulations enabling the neighborly exchange of energy. This mechanism works in the form of pilot projects in many locations around the world (Sonnen Group; Power Ledger). The paper presents the concept of functional and analytical assumptions for an exemplary structure of neighboring prosumers along with the presentation of simulation results based on real generation and consumption profiles and the presentation of investment profitability indicators for the proposed functional model.
The condition of the Polish energy sector does not inspire any trust of its customers. Outdated machinery and the lack of investment in new technologies make it necessary to take action to ensure the stability and continuity of electricity supplies to the end-user. In Poland, the industrial power sector is based on the use of coal and despite the Government’s announcements to resign from this raw material, more and more power investments are being made to generate energy from coal (Ostrołęka power plant). The solution which compensates for the current state of the Polish power industry is the development of distributed generation. The article presents a description of dispersed sources, power market, its organization and problems arising from its implementation. Distributed energy sources in the form of micro installations, energy clusters and virtual power plants have been described and characterized as well. It also assesses the impact of power market introduction on the development of distributed energy sources. The impact of the power market on the development of distributed sources is very hard to predict and determine. The functioning and further development of the energy sector, including the capacity market, strongly depends on the laws, regulations, as well as the economic and political situation in Poland and Europe. The social factor will also play an important role as the introduction of the capacity market will burden the financial side of each energy consumer. On the basis of the data presented on particular sources and distributed systems, one can only make predictions related to the possible effects of introducing the capacity market for the development of distributed sources.
The article attempts to identify environmental conditions for the development of cogeneration companies in Poland. The article systematizes knowledge about environmental regulations which concern this issue. Within the framework of identified environmental conditions, the authors characterize issues related to national legislation that regulates the operation of cogeneration companies, as well as the requirements resulting from European Union and national regulations in this matter. These regulations, directly and indirectly, affect the long-term future of cogeneration companies and the energy sector as a whole. Undoubtedly, in the current state of environmental regulations in force, the key change for a power company such as a cogeneration company is to meet the requirements for the emission of harmful substances. The change was introduced in 2016 as a result of more stringent emission limits and the adoption of the IED (Industrial Emissions Directive). The implementation of recommendations of the BAT (Best Available Techniques) Conclusions in 2017 additionally tightened the required limits. Undeniably, the key period for cogeneration companies will be 2021 as per the implementation of imposed harmful substances emission’s limits. The article comprehensively discusses the conditions that substantially affect the long-term growth of a cogeneration company and are crucial when making assumptions intended to address strategic development issues in the domestic fuel and power sector.
The annexation of Crimea and military operations that began in eastern Ukraine in April 2014 were the cause of the growing threat to Ukraine’s energy security. In terms of coal supplies, Donbass is of key importance for the country’s economy. Despite military operations on the east, illegal trade with the occupied territories was flourishing. This situation led to an increase in dissatisfaction amid certain social strata, as well as among volunteer battalions participants who took part in the military operations in Donbass and were the initiators of the Donbass blockade. The main purpose of the study to analyse the specific of the development of coal industry in Ukraine and the main reasons of the blockade of Donbass and its consequences.
The paper analyzed the natural gas sector in Ukraine for the period 2000 to 2018. This sector was affected by external factors, such as the crisis which began in late 2008/2009, as well as internal factors, including the situation in Ukraine after 2013 (the Annexation of Crimea). A comparative analysis was also conducted of the natural gas sector in European Union countries and Ukraine – compared the specificity of natural gas consumption in 2018. The analysis (I) examined the demand for natural gas in Ukraine between 2000 and 2018; (II) described changes in sources to cover Ukraine’s gas needs with a particular emphasis on its own production; (III) pointed to the fundamental changes that have occurred in the natural gas supply routes to the Ukrainian sector in recent years; (IV) stressed the growing role of own production in balancing Ukraine’s gas needs; (V) described the role of Ukraine as a transit country for Russian gas to be delivered to EU countries (in recent years, the volume of natural gas transmitted via the Ukrainian transmission system has been around 90 bcm annually); and (VI) looked at the structure of natural gas consumption in the Ukrainian gas sector and how it has changed in recent years. Unlike EU countries, the growing role of own production in balancing Ukraine’s natural gas needs was emphasized, which is consistent with the strategy of the Ukrainian government. Also, attention was drawn to the threats that may significantly reduce the role of Ukraine as an important transit country. The paper also puts forward the most important parameters concerning the underground natural gas storage facilities in Ukraine which is one of the largest in Europe.
In this study the current legal and market conditions of waste management in Poland are analyzed. The main legal basis for changes in the national municipal waste management system and their impact on the market situation in the last few years have been determined. Additionally, the important function of the selective collection and the key role of the separation of raw material fractions in waste sorting plants constituting the basis for the operation of Regional Municipal Waste Processing (RMWP) plants was underlined. Furthermore, the possibilities of developing electricity production technology in low and medium power modules using waste gasification techniques were emphasized. The stream of plastic mixture from municipal waste sorting was identified as problematic in the context of effective material recovery. Tests were conducted on the morphology of this waste stream from two sorting plants. In line with the literature data and as part of the analytical work, the properties of the plastic waste stream designated for recycling and the energy properties of the post-recycling plastic mixture were estimated. Tests results showed that the calorific value of this mixture reached 31.8 MJ/kg, whereas, ash and chlorine content equaled 2.7% and 1.1% of dry mass, respectively. These parameters indicate that the mixture as a high-calorific fuel component may be a valuable addition to refuse-derived fuel (RDF) produced from the over-sieve fraction of municipal waste. Concurrently, as a result of the development of waste gasification technologies with a high share of electricity production in low-medium power range plants, it is possible to integrate them with plastic recycling and RMWP plants in the Polish national waste management system.
The offshore Oil & Gas Industry is very important to the European Union economy. Therefore it must be properly monitored and protected, and legal regulations must be in place. Directive 2013/30/EU implemented on July 18, 2018 obliged EU Member States as well as operators and owners of oil and gas related activities in sea areas to implement solutions reducing the risk of major accidents, minor accidents and dangerous situations.
The purpose of the article is to identify all the possible hazards that may occur during oil and gas operations in marine areas and attempt to assess the risk along with providing effective responses in the event of its occurrence by preparing appropriate plans for responding to the situation. For the completion of the main purpose of the work the provisions of Directive 2013/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 June 2013 on safety of offshore oil and gas operations were presented and analyzed using the Hazard Identification method, the analysis of available reports prepared by the European Commission, classification bodies and own experience obtained while working in the offshore industry during searching, drilling and oil and gas production located under the seabed at the Polish Economic Executive Zone. The study presents numerous analyses and comments, which were presented in the form of graphs and tables, based on international reports and own experience gained while working in an offshore company.
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