The future and the development of power industry are the one of the major issues in the domestic and global policy. The impact of the power sector on the earth climate changes and the attention for sufficient funds of energy in the following years are the primary challenges which the power industry is facing. The article delineates the current state of the domestic sector of energy production. In the prospect of the next few years, it will draw on conventional power engineering nevertheless, with the growing involvement of renewable energy sources. However, it is important to develop the new energy strategy, which will point the direction of domestic energy production sector changes. What is more relevant, the new legal regulations connected with environmental protection will definitely restrict using fossil fuels in the power industry. In addition, the paper discusses the most important aspects involved in creating a country’s energy mix. The first aspect is the current state of the energy sector in Poland, i.e. the percentage of particular technologies in the present power and electrical energy balances, the technical state of the manufacturing sector’s infrastructure. Based on historical data of Polskie Sieci Elektroenergetyczne SA regarding the energy consumption and demand, a mathematical estimation for electricity demand and its consumption forecast was performed. The obtained forecasts were then used to conduct a simulation of power and energy demand fulfillment in the national power system. Finally, several possible scenarios were presented, taking different factors affecting the energy sector in Poland into consideration.
In this paper, selected aspects of energy efficiency are shown. The European Union regulations in area of energy efficiency such as Directive 2012/27/EU, are discussed. The national legal regulations which describe energy efficiency such as the Energy Efficiency Act are presented. Principles concerning the obligation of energy savings and energy audits of enterprises are described. National, regional and local programs and measures concerning the improvement of energy efficiency are performed. These are horizontal measures and energy efficiency measures in: industry, transport, the buildings of public institutions and energy generation and supplies. National economy energy efficiency is shown. The energy intensity indicators (primary, final) and rate of their changes in last years are performed. Moreover, directions of undertakings connected with the possible future reduction in energy intensity of the national economy, are defined. An analysis of energy efficiency measures and solutions for the improvement of energy efficiency, especially in industry and households, is performed. The improvement of economy energy intensity indicators constitutes the most effective solution which brings significant economic, technical and environmental benefits such as an increase in economic innovation and its competitiveness, the improvement of the energy supply security level, a reduction in the consumption of natural resources and a reduction of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. The conclusions contain an analysis of the present level of energy efficiency in Poland and the perspectives of its increase in the future along with the benefits connected with it.
The paper presents an analysis of energy and economic effectiveness of the combined heat and power (cogeneration) technologies fired with natural gas that may be deemed prospective for the Polish electric power system. The current state of the cogeneration technologies fired with natural gas in Poland is presented. Five cogeneration technologies fired with natural gas, prospective from the point of view of the Polish electric power system, were selected for the analysis. Namely, the paper discusses: gas-steam combined heat and power (CHP) unit with 3-pressure heat recovery generator (HRSG) and steam interstage reheat, gas-steam CHP unit with 2-pressure HRSG, gas-steam CHP unit with 1-pressure HRSG, gas CHP unit with small scale gas turbine, operating in a simple cycle and gas CHP unit with gas engine. The following quantities characterizing the energy effectiveness of the cogeneration technologies were selected for the analysis: electricity generation efficiency, heat generation efficiency, primary energy savings (PES) and CO2 unit emission. The economic effectiveness of particular technologies was determined based on unit electricity generation costs, discounted for 2019, including the costs of purchasing CO2 emission allowances. The results of calculations and analyses are presented in a table and on a figures.
The aim of the paper was to estimate how the value of 1 GJ of energy in coal with a calorific value of 5500 kcal/kg varies on the international coal market compared to 1 GJ of energy in coal with a calorific value of 6000 kcal/kg. The analysis of data from different ports was intended to answer the question of whether the pricing of coals of different producers according to their calorific value is convergent. The best-known price standard for thermal coal is 25.1 MJ/kg coal (6000 kcal/kg) and, until recently, coals with such quality parameters dominated international trade. Currently, coals with parameters other than considered to be standard parameters are traded on the coal market, hence it is necessary to price a unit of energy (e.g. 1 GJ) contained in these coals. The indices have been selected of the largest exporters of thermal coal for which data was available and referred to the same coal types (grades) determined on the same basis (FOB). Theoretically, the price differential between 6000 kcal/kg and 5000 kcal/kg coal (in USD/ton) should be (at least) as much as the difference in calorific value, i.e. about 9% per USD/ton. In reality, the price differential between these types of coal is greater, though. The overall conclusion of the analysis is that the price calculated per 1 GJ of energy fluctuated on average by 5.9% over the entire period considered. The analytical results obtained for coal from four countries are quite convergent, so it can be assumed that the calculated relationship between the prices of coal with different calorific values (6000 and 5000 kcal/kg) is a good approximation of the observed relationships in the international trade. The calculation results provide a simple formula allowing to estimate the price of coal with a calorific value other than the standard 25.1 MJ/kg (6000 kcal/kg) using the relationships from the international market.
The paper presents an analysis of hard coal prices offered at the coal depots in Poland. Coal depots are one of the most popular forms of purchasing coal by Polish households. Prices refer to price offers for cobble coal (grain size: 60–120 mm) and their analysis is performed based on the regions rather than on all Polish provinces. From January 2010 to May 2019, there were two regions that were distinguished in terms of price spread: the S-W region and the N-E region. In the case of the S-W region, the difference between the province with the minimum price (Śląskie Province) and with the maximum price (Dolnośląskie Province since September 2017) ranged from PLN 53–83/ton, and in the N-E region the difference ranged PLN 64–130/ton. In the case of the remaining two regions, prices varied from a few to approximately PLN 80/ton for the N-W region, and from a few to about PLN 40 /ton for the S-E region. In order to determine how the origin of the coal affects its prices (domestic coal, imported coal), the analysis also included cobble coal price offers that are part of the Author’s own database created for several years. In the case of cobble coal from domestic producers, price offers varied betwwen PLN 14–33/GJ, and price offers for imported cobble coal stood varied between PLN 12–32/GJ. The N-E region attracted particular attention as the price offers for imported cobble coal reached a level similar to the offers from the S-W region, i.e. the region closest to Silesian coal mines. Price differentials within provinces belonging to a given region were influenced by the geographical rent. The paper also analyses average selling prices offered by domestic producers for various size grades of steam coal as well as selling prices for imported coal (free-at-frontier price).
Ensuring access to a stable supply of a number of raw materials has become a serious challenge for domestic and regional economies with limited production, the EU economy alike. Reliable and unconstrained access to certain raw materials is an ever more serious concern. In order to tackle this challenge, the European Commission has established a list of Critical Raw Materials (CRMs) for the EU, which is regularly reviewed and updated. In its Communication COM(217) 490 final of September 13, 2017, the European Commission presented an updated list of 27 critical raw materials for the EU as a result of a third assessment based on a refined methodology developed by the Commission. Economic Importance (EI) and Supply Risk (SR) have remained the two main parameters to determine the criticality of a given raw material. The list of critical raw materials for the EU includes raw materials that reach or exceed the thresholds for both parameters set by the European Commission. The only exception is coking coal (included in the list of critical raw materials for the first time in 2014) which, although not reaching the economic importance threshold, has been conditionally kept on the 2017 list for the sake of caution. Should it not fully meet this criterion, it will be withdrawn from the list during the next assessment.
The article discusses the most important changes to the methodology used in the third review and their impacts on the coking coal criticality assessment. It presents the geographical structure of coking coal global production and consumption as well as the degree to which the EU is reliant on coking coal imports. Raw materials, even if not classified as critical raw materials, are essential for the European economy as they are at the beginning of manufacturing value chains. Their availability may change rapidly due to developments in trade flows or trade policy, which reveals the general need for the diversification of supply.
Hard coal sludge is classified as group 01 waste or it is a by-product in the production of a hard coal with variable energy importance. Pulverized lignite is not waste but a final product of drying and the very fine pulverization of lignite with a high calorific value. The study comprised the basic material before granulation such as coal sludge (PG SILESIA) and pulverized lignite (LEAG) as well as their prepared blends after the granulation on a pipe vibration granulator designed at AGH. The pulverized lignite of the LEAG company shows a low sulfur contents. In the analyzed samples its average content (Stot d) is 0.61%. An average value of this parameter in the analyzed coal sludge samples is 0.55%. The addition of pulverized lignite does not have a significant impact on the total content of sulfur and of analyzed toxic elements (Hg, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl, and W) in the samples. The calorific value of coal sludge falls within the range of 11.0−12.4 MJ/kg (on a dry basis). For the coal sludge and pulverized lignite blends the calorific value clearly increases to values of 14.8−17.7 MJ/kg (on dry basis). The calorific value slightly decreases in the
In 2008, the European Union adopted the climate and energy package. It foresees the three most important goals to achieve by 2020 in the field of energy: 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, 20% share of energy from renewable sources in total energy consumption in the EU, 20% increase in EU energy efficiency. Therefore, individual countries were obliged to move away from fossil fuels for renewable energy production. Depending on the capabilities of each country and the development of renewable energy, various goals have been set for individual countries. For Poland, the share of RES energy in total energy consumption has been set at 15% (Directive 2009). The Polish energy policy until 2030 includes state strategies in the field of implementation of tasks and objectives in the area of energy resulting from the need to build national security and EU regulation. The challenges of the current national energy industry include increasing demand for energy and implementation of international commitments in the area of environmental and climate protection (Policy 2009). Contemporary domestic energy is characterized by a high share of fossil fuels, mainly coal, in the production of electricity and heat, and the different share of RES energy in individual technologies and energy sectors. Poland has significant natural resources, which are a source of biomass for energy purposes. Large energy units dominate in the national consumption of biomass while the share of heating plants is still insignificant (Olsztyńska 2018). The aim of the article is to analyze, based on available data and own observations of the author, the share of biomass in the national energy and heat, as well as defining factors affecting the level of biomass use in the area of Polish power industry.
The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the energy efficiency of the phytoremediation process, supported using energy crops. The scope of conducted work includes the preparation of a field experiment. During the evaluation, 2 factors were into consideration – total energy demand and total energy benefit. The case study, used as an origin of data, consists a 3-years field study, conducted with the use of 2 energy crops – Phalaris arundinacea L. and Brassica napus L. The area subjected to the experiment was polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and herbicides, classified as phenoxy acids (2, 4 D). The experimental design consisted of 4 groups of fields, divided according to the used plant species and type of treatment. For each energy crop, 2 types of fertilization strategies were used. Therefore the 1st and 3rd sets of fields were not treated with any soil amendment while the 2nd and 4th sets were fertilized with compost. The obtained data allowed to observe that the cultivation of P. arundinacea L. and B. napus L. allowed a positive energy balance of the process to be achieved. However, it should be noted, that the B. napus L. growth in the first vegetation season was not sufficient to fully compensate a total energy demand. Such a goal, in the mentioned case, was possible after the 2nd vegetation season. The collected results show also that the best energetic potential combined with the most effective soil remediation were obtained on the fields with the cultivation of P. arundinacea L. fertilized with compost. The number of biofuels, collected from the 1 ha of such fields, can reach a value equal even to12.76 Mg of coal equivalent.
Financial management in a capital group is very important for its growth and operation. Liquidity risk management can be analyzed regarding their static and dynamic dimensions. The process can also be facilitated by cash management products offered by financial institutions. One of the mechanisms influencing the increase in cash management efficiency of a capital group examined in this article is cash pooling, notably multicurrency cash pooling. This type of product is based frequently on the virtual consolidation. Its essence is the consolidation of cash available on the accounts of individual system participants. Using this solution the capital group can manage surpluses and shortages achieving the “economies of scale” (cost reduction and maximization of interest income). Available one the banking services market solutions offer consolidation in USD, EUR, CHF, GBP. The article presents the definition of cash pooling and the essence of its operation. Based on the literature analysis, the article lists types of cash pooling and benefits associated with it. Following on from the solution described, the article presents a model of multicurrency cash pooling in a capital group, including steps necessary to implement it and proposed technical solutions. The solution is described, can be also successfully applied in capital groups of energy sector. Using multicurrency consolidation is very useful solution in deposits management for transactions concluded in international commodities exchanges.
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