Life Sciences and Agriculture

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences

Content

Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences | 2021 | vol. 24 | No 2 |

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Abstract

Koumiss has beneficial therapeutic effects on bacterial diseases. Four antibacterial com- pounds from yeasts ( Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in koumiss were evaluated for their antibacterial effects against three Gram-negative bacteria, three Gram-positive bacteria and five pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. The antibacterial compounds from yeasts in koumiss were extracted, and their main components were determined. The inhibition zones were analyzed, and their minimum inhibition concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined. Aqueous phases of Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at pH 2.0 and 8.0 produced larger inhibition zones than those in other phases, and then antibacterial compounds from K. marxianus (K2, pH=2.0; K8, pH=8.0) and S. cerevisiae (S2, pH=2.0; S8, pH=8.0) were obtained. Their main components were organic acids and killer toxins. K2 had more propanoic acid and S2 had more oxalic acid than others. The inhibition zones of K2, K8, S2 and S8 against three Gram-negative bacteria and three Gram-positive bacteria were 12.03-23.30 mm, their MICs were 0.01-0.13 g/mL, and MBCs were 0.03-0.50 g/mL. Meantime, the inhibition zones of K2, K8, S2 and S8 against five pathogenic E. coli were 16.10-25.26 mm, their MICs were 0.03-0.13 g/mL, and MBCs were 0.13-1.00 g/mL. These four antibacterial compounds from yeasts in koumiss had broad antibacterial spectrum. In addition, K2 and S2 were better than K8 and S8.
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Authors and Affiliations

Y.J. Chen
1 2
C.G. Du
1 3
Y.Q. Guo
1
Y.F. Zhao
1
C. Aorigele
2
C.J. Wang
3
H. Simujide
2
W. Aqima
2
X.Y. Zhang
1

  1. Vocational and Technical College, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Baotou 014109, P.R. China
  2. College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010018, P.R. China
  3. College of Veterinary Medicine, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010018, P.R. China
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyze cases of granulocytic anaplosmosis diagnosed in 53 hunting dogs in Poland. Medical records of dogs naturally infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were retrospectively evaluated with regard to clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities at the time of presentation, therapy and course of disease. The most common clinical signs in A. phagocytophilum-positive dogs included in the study were lethargy (100%), inappetence (94%) and fever (92.5%). Thrombocytopenia was the most common laboratory abnormality (100%), followed by a drop in haematocrit level (79.3%) and increased AST activity (75.5%).
Of the 53 infected dogs, 51 (96%) recovered and two dogs (with neurological symptoms) died.
Analysis of these cases indicates that A. phagocytophilum infection must be considered in differential diagnosis in dogs living in Poland, especially in hunting dogs with thrombocyto- penia and Ixodes ricinus tick invasions.
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Authors and Affiliations

O. Teodorowski
1
S. Winiarczyk
2
P. Debiak
3
M. Skrzypczak
4
Ł. Mazurek
2
Ł. Adaszek
2

  1. “Teodorowscy” Veterinary Clinic in Mikołów, Poland
  2. Department of Epizootiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences, Głęboka 30, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
  3. Department and Clinic of Animal Surgery, Laboratory of Radiology and Ultrasonography, University of Life Sciences, Głęboka 30, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
  4. Second Department of Gynecology, Prof. F. Skubiszewski University School of Medicine, Lublin, Poland
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility to predict outcomes of artificial insemi- nation (AI) in dairy cows based on in-line milk progesterone (P4) concentration. The research was carried out on the herd of loose housing 245 dairy cows of 2-4 lactations, with average milk yielding 11.000 kg per cow. Milk sampling, measuring, and recording of milk P4 concentration was carried out using the Herd Navigator (HN). The grouping was performed according to the following three indices: the first by reproductive condition – pregnant or not pregnant after AI, the second by P4 concentration from day 20 before AI to day 20 after AI, and the third by P4 concentration at AI time. There was a significant difference in P4 concentration in the group of pregnant cows from day 15 to day 9 before AI, and it was by 18.3% higher com- pared to that in the group of non-pregnant cows in the said period (p<0.01). The milk P4 concen- trations began to differ mostly from day 10 after AI. At that time, the average P4 concentration in the group of pregnant dairy cows was by 36.8% higher compared to that in the group of non-pregnant cows (p<0.01). A statistically significant difference between the ratio of the cows with high, medium, and low P4 concentration on days 20-16 before AI (p<0.01) was determined. The highest number of cows with up to 2-3 ng/ml P4 concentration became pregnant at the AI time.
In-line milk P4 records captured on day 10-15 before AI can be used to predict the proper for reproduction period. By P4 concentrations on day10 after AI, the ratio of pregnant cows in herd can be assessed.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Gavelis
1
A. Juozaitis
2
R. Japertienė
1
G. Palubinskas
1
V. Juozaitienė
1
V. Žilaitis
3

  1. Department of Animal Breeding, Veterinary Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Tilžės St. 18, Kaunas, Lithuania
  2. Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary Academy,Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Tilžės St. 18, Kaunas, Lithuania
  3. Large Animal Clinic, Veterinary Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Tilžės St. 18, Kaunas, Lithuania
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Abstract

This study was conducted to consider the effect of cadmium (Cd) on the liver and serum levels of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), and the role of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in preserving cells against Cd toxicity. Rats were randomly divided into five groups, including G1 (control), G2 (single dose of Cd), G3 (continuous administration of Cd), G4 (single dose of Cd + continu- ous administration of NAC), and G5 (continuous administration of Cd + continuous administra- tion of NAC). Rats in G2 and G4 groups were exposed with single dose of Cd on the first day of study. Continuous administration of Cd and NAC was used every day for 4 weeks. Levels of Zn and Cu were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Expression of matrix metallo- proteinases-2 ( MMP2) and MMP9 genes was evaluated using RT-PCR. The mean level of Cd in serum and liver tissue of G2 group increased significantly by about 26-27%, whereas in G3 group, it increased significantly by about 50-60%. While NAC treatment significantly raised Zn and Cu values, Cd levels significantly decreased in the serum and tissue samples of rats exposed to single or continuous Cd. Exposure to single and continuous administration of Cd caused a significant increase in MMP2 expression by 10.14-fold (P=0.016) and 27.61-fold (P<0.001), respectively. Single and continuous administration of Cd led to a significant increase in MMP9 expression by 3.63-fold (P=0.046) and 43.12-fold (P<0.001), respectively. NAC treatments decreased the expression of MMP2 and MMP9 in rats exposed to single or continuous Cd. Cd exposure was strongly associated with Zn and Cu depletion, and overexpression of MMP2 and MMP9. NAC can protect the liver against Cd toxicity by elevating Zn and Cu contents and down-regulating proteolytic enzymes.
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Authors and Affiliations

M.M. Jaafarzadeh
1
N. Ranji
1
E. Aboutaleb
2

  1. Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lakan Blvd, Rasht, Iran. P.O.Box: 3516-41335
  2. Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Fuman-Saravan Rd, Rasht, Iran
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Abstract

Theileriosis is a significant hemoprotozoal disease of domestic and wild ruminants in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Ovines are mainly infected by T. ovis and T. lestoquardi, causing economic losses. Due to data scarceness in the Sulaymaniyah governorate, north of Iraq, this study was conducted to investigate subclinical theileriosis using microscopic examination and PCR. A total of 450 blood samples were collected from eight districts in Sulaymaniyah. The samples were randomly taken from clinically healthy sheep in 40 farms from April to Octo- ber 2017. Following the organism verification, PCR products were sequenced and aligned. The study results revealed that 76.0% (n=342) and 58.0% (n=261) of the examined samples were positive for Theileria spp. by PCR and microscopic examination. T. ovis was reported in 76.0% (n=342) of all tested samples, while T. lestoquardi was present in 28.4% (n=97) of the positive specimens. Higher infection rates were observed during July and August. Analysis of the 18S rRNA gene partial sequence of the studied isolates with corresponding sequences in GenBank showed high degrees of identities with T. ovis and T. lestoquardi isolates reported from Iraq and other countries. T. uilenbergi and T. sp. OT3 were detected only through analysis of obtained partial sequences from Theileria-positive samples. Following analysis, T. uilenbergi isolates represented a high homology degree with Theileria isolates from Iraq and China. The newly identified T. sp. OT3 showed >99% identity with T. sp. OT3 isolates of Chinese and Spanish origin.
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Authors and Affiliations

S.H. Abdullah
1
S.A. Ali
2

  1. Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Madame Mitterrand, Sulaymaniyah 46001, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  2. Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Madame Mitterrand, Sulaymaniyah 46001, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
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Abstract

Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are commonly known for their neurotoxicity. In the current experiments, two OPs used agriculturally, chlorpyrifos and dimethoate, were separately adminis- tered with centrally acting caffeine that is known to affect the pharmacological action of other substances. The aim of this study was to determine whether the combination of OP and caffeine may influence their neurotoxic potential. For this purpose, some neurobehavioral effects of this concomitant exposure were assessed in adult Swiss mice. All substances were given intra- peritoneally (i.p.) as single injections. In the passive avoidance task, chlorpyrifos (100 mg/kg) administered together with caffeine (40 mg/kg) significantly impaired acquisition. In the rota-rod test, the addition of caffeine at doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg, induced motor coordination impairment in chlorpyrifos (100 mg/kg)-treated mice. Neurobehavioral impairments were not observed for caffeine, chlorpyrifos and dimethoate (50 mg/kg) given separately as well as for the combina- tion of dimethoate and caffeine. Chlorpyrifos (100 mg/kg) alone and in combination with caffeine (40 mg/kg) significantly reduced acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The current study shows that concomitant exposure to caffeine and chlorpyrifos can cause neurotoxic effects in mice despite the absence of these effects when caffeine and chlorpyrifos are administered alone. How- ever, the possible mechanisms involved need further investigations.
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Authors and Affiliations

K. Łukawski
1 2
G. Raszewski
3
K. Kruszyński
1
S.J. Czuczwar
2

  1. Department of Physiopathology, Institute of Rural Health, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-090 Lublin, Poland
  2. Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-090 Lublin, Poland
  3. Department of Toxicology and Food Protection, Institute of Rural Health, Jaczewskiego 2, 20-090 Lublin, Poland
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Abstract

Blastocystis sp. is one of the most frequently detected intestinal parasites in humans and can inhabit a wide range of animals. Close contact with animals is one of the transmission factors of Blastocystis sp. infection in humans. In this study, we aimed to investigate the molecular prevalence and subtypes of Blastocystis sp. in stray cats living in İzmir, Turkey. The PCR target- ing the barcode region in the SSU rRNA gene was performed with DNA samples isolated from feces (n:465) to investigate the presence of Blastocystis sp. PCR positive samples were sequen- ced for subtyping analysis. Among the samples analyzed, Blastocystis sp. DNA was detected in 17 (3.65%) of them and sequence data were obtained from only seven isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that seven Blastocystis sp. isolates clustered with the reference Blastocystis ST4 isolates. Similarity rates were between 83.22% and 99.25%. In addition, Blastocystis database results confirmed that all of these were “allele 42” corresponding to ST4. As a result, the present study shows for the first time the presence of “ST4 allele 42”, the prevalent subtype in humans, in stray cats in İzmir, Turkey. This finding supports the notion that stray cats can be a source of Blastocystis sp. infection in humans.
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Authors and Affiliations

H. Can
1
A.E. Köseoğlu
1
S. Erkunt Alak
1
M. Güvendi
1
C. Ün
1
M. Karakavuk
2
A. Değirmenci Döşkaya
3
M. Aykur
3
A. Aksoy Gökmen
4
A.Y. Gürüz
3
M. Döşkaya
3

  1. Ege University Faculty of Science Department of Biology Molecular Biology Section, 35040-Bornova/İzmir, Turkey
  2. Ege University Ödemiş Vocational School, 35750-Ödemiş/İzmir, Turkey
  3. Ege University Faculty of Medicine Department of Parasitology, 35100-Bornova/İzmir, Turkey
  4. İzmir Katip Çelebi University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Microbiology, 35360-Karabağlar/İzmir, Turkey
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Abstract

This study details the relationship between maternal plasma oxidant-antioxidant enzymes with colostrum quality, serum gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM concentrations of calves in the different calving seasons. Holstein breed cows between two and eight lactations and their calves were enrolled in the study. Holstein cows calving in winter (n=45) and their calves (n=45) were assigned to the winter group, while cows calving in summer (n=45) and their calves (n=45) were assigned to the summer group. Samples for malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were collected on day -21±3 before expected calving and also on calving day (Day 0). IgG and the specific gravity of the colostrum were determined after calving. Serum GGT and IgG and IgM were measured before the feeding, with colostrum, of calves (0 hours) and also in the 24th hour following the feeding of colostrum. Plasma MDA levels at -21±3 and 0 days in the summer cows were determined to be higher. GSH-Px activity was higher in the winter cows. IgG levels and the specific gravity of the colos- trum were also higher in the winter cows. Calf IgG levels at the 24th hour of life were higher in the winter cows. In the winter group, IgM levels at 0 and 24 hours were also higher. While MDA was negatively correlated with IgG, IgM, GGT, IgG and the specific gravity of colostrum, GSH-Px activity had a positive correlation with IgG, IgM, GGT, IgG and the specific gravity of colostrum. The observed differences in plasma MDA, GSH-Px, calf serum IgG and IgM levels, and colostrum quality between both groups suggest a possible seasonal effect. The relationship between maternal oxidant-antioxidant enzymes, colostrum quality, and passive calf immunity revealed that these enzymes could be used as indicators in the evaluation of calf health and colos- trum quality.
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Authors and Affiliations

H.E. Çolakoğlu
1
M.O. Yazlık
1
E.Ç. Çolakoğlu
2
U. Kaya
3
R. Bayramoğlu
4
S. Kurt
5
R. Vural
1
Ş. Küplülü
1

  1. Ankara University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 06110, Ankara, Turkey
  2. Ankara University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 06110, Ankara, Turkey
  3. Hayat Mustafa Kamel University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, 31001, Hatay, Turkey
  4. Veterinary Practitioner, Farm Animal Managament Practicer, Western Thrace, Greece
  5. Dicle University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 21200, Diyarbakır, Turkey
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Abstract

Respiratory diseases constitute a major health problem in small ruminant herds around the world, and parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV-3) has been shown to play a vital role in their etiology. This cross-sectional study describes the serological status of the non-vaccinated dairy goat popu- lation in Poland with respect to PIV-3 infection and investigates the relationship between the presence of antibodies to PIV-3 and some basic herd-level and animal-level factors, including small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection. Serum samples from 1188 goats from 48 herds were tested for the concentration of antibodies to PIV-3 using a quantitative immunoenzymatic assay. Specific antibodies were detected in all tested goats from all herds. The concentration of PIV-3 antibodies varied from 8.4 to >240 ng/ml (median 95.9 ng/ml) and was significantly higher in goats from larger herds and from these herds in which cough was often observed by farmers. Moreover, it was noted that female goats had higher antibody concentrations than males. On the other hand, the concentration of PIV-3 antibodies did not prove to be significantly linked to the presence of SRLV infection. This study shows that PIV-3 infection in the Polish goat population is widespread and appears to contribute to the occurrence of respiratory diseases in goat herds.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Moroz
1
M. Czopowicz
1
M. Mickiewicz
1
L. Witkowski
1
O. Szaluś-Jordanow
2
T. Nalbert
1
M.D. Klimowicz-Bodys
3
I. Markowska-Daniel
1
E. Bagnicka
4
J. Kaba
1

  1. Division of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159c, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
  2. Department of Small Animal Diseases with Clinic, Institute of Veterinary Medicine,Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159c, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
  3. Division of Infectious Diseases of Animals and Veterinary Administration,Department of Epizootiology and Clinic of Birds and Exotic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, pl. Grunwaldzki 45, 50-366 Wroclaw, Poland
  4. Institute of Genetics and Animal Biotechnology,Polish Academy of Sciences, Postępu 36A, Jastrzębiec, 05-552 Magdalenka, Poland
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Abstract

Taraxacum Officinale, commonly called dandelion, is herbaceous perennial belonging to the family of Asteraceae, having good antibacterial effects which are related to its phenolic substances. In this study, the effect of phenolic contents as well as the antibiofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus of phenolic extract from T. Officinale were evaluated in vitro. With 70% metha- nol-water (v/v) as a solvent, the dandelion was extracted by ultrasonic assisted extraction method. Subsequent identification and quantification of phenol in extract was carried out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration and anti- bacterial kinetic curve of dandelion phenolic extract were analyzed by spectrophotometry. Changes in extracellular alkaline phosphatase (AKP) contents, electrical conductivity, intracellular protein contents, and DNA of S. aureus after the action of dandelion phenolic extract were determined to study its effect on the permeability of S. aureus cell wall and cell membrane. The results showed that chlorogenic acid (1.34 mg/g) was present in higher concentration, followed by luteolin (1.08 mg/g), ferulic acid (0.22 mg/g), caffeic acid (0.21 mg/g), and rutin (0.19 mg/g) in the dandelion phenolic extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of dandelion phenolic extract against S. aureus was 12.5 mg/mL. The antibacterial kinetic curve analysis showed that the inhibitory effect of dandelion phenolic extract on S. aureus was mainly in the exponential growth phase. After applying the dandelion phenolic extract, the growth of S. aureus was signifi- cantly inhibited entering into the decay phase early. Furthermore, after the action of dandelion, the extracellular AKP contents of S. aureus, the electrical conductivity and the extracellular protein contents were all increased. The phenolic extract also affected the normal reproduction of S. aureus. These results suggest that dandelion has an inhibitory effect on S. aureus, and the mechanism of its action was to destroy the integrity of the cell walls and cell membranes.
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Authors and Affiliations

P. Xu
1 2 3
X.B. Xu
1
A. Khan
4
T. Fotina
3
S.H. Wang
2

  1. School of Life Science and Basic Medicine, Xinxiang University, Jinsui St. 191, 453003 Xinxiang, China
  2. College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Eastern Hua Lan Street, 453003 Xinxiang, China
  3. Department of Veterinary Medicine, Sumy National Agrarian University, Herasima Kondratieva St. 160, 40021 Sumy, Ukraine
  4. College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801, P.R. China
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate biomarkers of heat stress (HS) from an automatic milk- ing system (AMS), the relationships between measurements of the temperature-humidity index (THI), reticulorumen pH and temperature, and some automatic milking systems parameters in dairy cows (rumination time (RT), milk traits, body weight (BW) and consumption of concen- trate (CC)) during the summer period. Lithuanian Black and White dairy cows (n=365) were selected. The cows were milked with Lely Astronaut® A3 milking robots with free traffic. Biomarkers were collected from the Lely T4C management program for analysis. The pH and temperature of the contents of the cow reticulorumen were measured using specific Smax-tec boluses. The farm zone’s daily humidity and air temperature were obtained from the adjacent weather station (2 km away). According to this study, during HS, the higher THI positively cor- relates with milk lactose (ML), which increases the risk of mastitis and decreases CC, RT, BW, MY, reticulorumen pH, and F/P. Some biomarkers of HS can be milk yield, milk lactose, somatic cell count, concentrate intake, rumination time, body weight, reticulorumen pH, and milk fat – protein ratio. We can recommend monitoring these parameters in the herd management program to identify the possibility of heat stress.
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Authors and Affiliations

R. Antanaitis
1
M. Urbutis
1
V. Juozaitienė
2
D. Malašauskienė
1
M. Televičius
1

  1. Large Animal Clinic, Veterinary Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Tilžės 18, Kaunas, Lithuania
  2. Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Vytautas Magnus University, K. Donelaičio 58, Kaunas, Lithuania
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Abstract

This study was carried out to determine the morphometric and volumetric features of the mandible in Van cats by using computed tomography (CT) and a three-dimensional (3D) software program. The study also aimed at presenting the biometrical differences of these mea- surements between genders. A total of 16 adult Van cats (8 males, 8 females) were used in the study. The cats were anesthetized using a ketamine-xylazine combination. They were then scanned using CT under anesthesia and their images were obtained. The scanned images of the mandible in each cat were used for the reconstruction of a 3D model by using the MIMICS 20.1 (The Materialise Group, Leuven, Belgium) software program. Later, morphometric (17 parame- ters), volumetric, and surface area measurements were conducted and statistical analyses were carried out. In our morphometric measurements, it was found that TLM (total length of the mandible), PCD (pogonion to coronoid process distance), CAP (length from the indenta- tion between the condyle process and angular process to pogonion), CAC (length from the inden- tation between the condyle process and the angular process to back of alveole C1), CML (length between C1 - M1), RAH (ramus height), MDM (mandible depth at M1), MHP (height of the mandible in front of P3), and ABC (angular process to back of alveole C1 distance) were greater in male cats; while MWM (mandible width at M1 level) was greater in female cats and was statistically significant (p<0.05). The length and height of the mandible were 6.36±2.42 cm and 3.01±1.81 cm in male cats, respectively. On the other hand, in female cats, the length and height of the mandible were 5.89±2.57 cm and 2.71±1.26 cm, respectively. The volume of the mandible was measured to be 7.39±0.93 cm3 in male cats and 5.40±0.49 cm3 in female cats. The surface areas were 63.50±5.27 cm2 in male cats and 52.73±3.89 cm2 in female cats. In con- clusion, in this study, basic morphometric parameters of the mandible in adult Van cats were found by using CT and a 3D modeling program. The differences between male and female cats were also determined in the study.
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Authors and Affiliations

O. Yilmaz
1
İ. Demircioglu
2

  1. Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Van Yuzuncu Yil University, 65080, Van, Turkey
  2. Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Harran University, 63200, Şanlıurfa, Turkey
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Abstract

The etiology of Postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) includes stress οn preparturition and constipation associated with low water intake or low fiber intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a raw crude fibre concentrate (Arbocel®) on sow’s metabolism and performance.
100 sows from a farm suffering from PDS, were divided into two groups, with equal distribu- tion of their parity (1 to 5 parity): a) T1 group (control group): 50 sows were fed with regular gestation feed (GF), pre-farrowing feed (PFF), and lactation feed (LF), b) T2 group: 50 sows were fed with regular GF, PFF and LF supplemented with topdress Arbocel® from 104th day of gestation until 7th day of lactation). Health parameters [faeces score (FS), PDS score (PDSS), body condition score (BCS)], performance parameters and liter characteristics were recorded. Blood samples were collected from 25 sows / group (5 sows per parity) 24 h after birth of last piglet and on 14th day of lactation for the evaluation of insulin, leptin and ghrelin levels in the serum, using commercial ELISA kits.
In T2 group, BCS at farrowing (p<0.001), FS (p=0.001) and PDSS (p=0.003) were improved significantly. The number of piglets stillborn and dead due to crushing decreased (p=0.001), while the number of liveborn (p=0.016) and weaned piglets (p=0.001) increased in T2 group. Moreover, in T2 group, the BW of piglets at weaning was higher (p<0.001). A significant increase of insulin (p=0.032) and leptin (p=0.032) levels in serum was noticed in T2 group 24 h after farrowing. In conclusion, the supplementation of extra crude fibre in breeding stock with PDS problems due to nutritional imbalance has beneficial effects on their health and performance.
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Authors and Affiliations

V.G. Papatsiros
1
M.-S. Katsarou
2
N. Drakoulis
2
G. Maragkakis
1
E. Tzika
3
D. Maes
4
P.D. Tassis
3
M. Lagiou
5
G. Christodoulopoulos
1

  1. Clinic of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Trikalon 224, Karditsa, 43100, Greece
  2. Research Group of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics, Faculty of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens,Athens, Panepistimiopolis of Zographou, 15771, Greece
  3. Farm Animal Clinic, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 11 St. Voutyra str., 546 27 Thessaloniki, Greece
  4. Department of Reproduction, Obstetrics and Herd Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan, 133 Entrance 4, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
  5. Research Group of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics, Faculty of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Panepistimiopolis of Zographou, 15771, Greece
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Abstract

Spleen is highly vascularized organ and bleeding control during partial splenectomy is a big challenge. In this study conventional methods of electrocautery, absorbable suturing and advance methods of topical hemostat Surgicel® were compared to control bleeding during partial splenec- tomy. Twelve healthy dogs (n=4) were divided in A, B and C groups. After partial splenectomy Surgicel®, electrocautery and absorbable horizontal mattress sutures were used to control hemor- rhages in group A, B and C respectively. Bleeding time and loss of blood volume was evaluated during surgery. In addition, blood samples were taken on day 0 pre-surgery and on days 3, 10 and 17 post-surgery to evaluate changes in biochemical parameters after the application of dif- ferent hemostatic techniques. Ultrasonography was also performed at alternative days to check any gross changes in the spleen. Dogs in group A showed minimum bleeding time and loss of blood volume as compared to group B and C. Drop in red blood cells count was compared be- tween group A, B and C showing significant change (p≤0.05) at day 3, 10 and 17, while a sig- nificant decline in hemoglobin was found in group C followed by groups B and A at 3rd and 10th day. There was no difference between platelet counts in various groups. Ultrasonography showed no significant changes in the spleen parenchyma. It was concluded that Surgicel® was an effective material for controlling hemorrhage in veterinary patients.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Zahir
1
H. Akbar
1
R. Akhtar
1
S. Imran
1
N. Hussain
1
H. Rasheed
1
T. Sajjad
1
M. Asif
1

  1. University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, CMS, Lahore, Pakistan
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Abstract

Viral diseases have caused devastating effect on poultry industry leading to significant losses in economy of world. In the presented study, the ability of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV) to grow in two cell lines was evaluated. Both chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) and DF-1 cells were used and cytopathic effects (CPE) produced by these viruses were observed. The titer of virus in terms of TCID50 was determined after 24h up to four days for each virus. The same type of CPE was observed for all viruses used in the study in both DF-1 and CEF cells. IBDV showed CPE causing rounding of cells while NDV caused formation of multicellular large nuclei, cell fusion and rounding of cells. Giant cells with inclusions and aggregation of cells with intact monolayer was observed for AIV. In growth kinetic study, higher titer of IBDV and NDV was observed in CEF cells than DF-1 cells while for AIV, DF-1 cells showed higher titer than CEF cells. These results would be useful for furthers comparative studies on growth of different cell lines of various viruses to find a suitability for vaccine production.
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Authors and Affiliations

S. Anam
1
S.U. Rahman
1
S. Ali
1
M. Saeed
2
S.M. Goyal
3

  1. Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
  2. National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
  3. College of Veterinary Population Medicine, 1333 Gortner Avenue, University of Minnesota, USA
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Abstract

The development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) is still a valid and intensely studied issue. However, literature in the field has no data on this topic in the dog. The present investiga- tions were performed in three groups of fetuses from mongrel dogs – from the third, sixth- -seventh, and ninth week of pregnancy – and in 3-5-day-old puppies (3 specimens for each age group). The tissues (the medial parts of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum with the cecum and a small portion of the adjacent ascending colon) were cut using a cryostat and the sections were processed for single- and double-labeling immunohistochemistry using antisera against acetylat- ed tubulin (AcTub), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), galanin (GAL), neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). In the 3-week-old fetuses, some oval cells invading the gut wall were found. From the seventh week of pregnancy onwards, two different enteric ganglia were present: submucosal and myenteric. The estimated number of nerve elements in the 9-week-old fetuses was much higher than that observed in the 6-7-week-old individuals. There was no significant difference in the estimated number of nerve structures between the 9-week-old fetuses and the 3-5-day-old puppies. The colonization pattern and the develop- ment of the ENS in the canine small intestine are very similar to those observed in other mam- mals. However, a few exceptions have been confirmed, regarding the time of appearance of the VIP-, GAL-, and CGRP-immunoreactive neurons, and their distribution in different portions of the canine bowel during development.
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Authors and Affiliations

T. Serzysko
1
A. Skwarek
1
E. Chudziak
1
M. Malina
1
J. Kaleczyc
1
W. Sienkiewicz
1

  1. Department of Animal Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
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Abstract

In a dairy cow herd consisted of herd of 200 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows and heifers, clinical signs of mastitis in 40 out of 170 animals were observed. Treatments with antibiotics were proved ineffective. Milk bacterial cultures from 15 affected animals revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa. An autogenous vaccine was administered subcutaneously, twice in a month period, to all adults. Cases of clinical mastitis declined significantly (p<0.0001) during next 3 months.
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Authors and Affiliations

E.J. Petridou
1
I.A. Fragkou
2
S.Q. Lafi
3
N.D. Giadinis
4

  1. Laboratory of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
  2. Veterinary Service, Ministry of Rural Development and Food, Athens, Greece
  3. Department of Pathology and Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid, Jordan
  4. Clinic of Farm Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
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Abstract

Conventionally, Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) has been considered to comprise a single geno- type, PSV-1; however, a potentially novel member of PSV was recently discovered. In the present study, we propose a genotype definition of PSV based on phylogenetic and genetic analyses of the polyprotein, P1, and VP1 genes of available PSV sequences. Two genotypes, with pro- posed names PSV-1 and PSV-2, were identified. Moreover, the cut-off values (number of diffe- rences per site between amino acid sequences) for the definition of genotypes were established to be 0.1115 (polyprotein), 0.176 (P1), and 0.272 (VP1). The findings of this study are expected to enrich knowledge of PSV classification.
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Authors and Affiliations

T. Yang
1
Y. Lu
1
L. Zhang
1

  1. College of Life Sciences and Resource Environment, Yichun University, Yichun, Jiangxi 336000, China
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Abstract

Small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV), which causes caprine arthritis encephalitis in goats and ovine progressive pneumonia (maedi-visna disease) in sheep, is classified in genus Lentiviruses belonging to Retroviridae family. It persists in infected goats and sheep, which mostly are sub- clinical. A serological survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of small ruminant lentivirus infection in Thai goat population. Serum samples were taken from 1,925 goats distributed throughout the country, then they were tested for the presence of SRLV antibodies using commer- cial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kits. Results revealed that a total of 68 goats were found seropositive, representing the apparent prevalence and true prevalence of 3.57% and 2.60%, respectively. The seroprevalence, revealed in this study, was lower than in the previous reports. The decreasing of seroprevalence might be caused by successful control strategies from Department of Livestock Development (DLD).
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Authors and Affiliations

T. Mongkonwattanaporn
1
P. Lertwatcharasarakul
2
P. Intaravichai
3
T. Rukkwamsuk
1

  1. Department of Large Animal and Wildlife Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, 1 Moo 6, Malaiman Road, Kamphaeng Saen, Nakhon Pathom 73140, Thailand
  2. Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, 1 Moo 6, Malaiman Road, Kamphaeng Saen, Nakhon Pathom 73140, Thailand
  3. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Applied Zoology, HRH Princess Chulabhorn Collage of Medical Science, Chulabhorn Royal Academy, 906 Kamphaeng Phet 6 Road, Talat Bang Khen, Lak Si, Bangkok 10210, Thailand

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