The area of NW Wedel Jarlsberg Land south of Bellsund (Spitsbergen), between Dunderbukta in the west and the Berzeliustinden mountain group in the east, consists of five fault-bounded blocks: (1) the Renardbreen Block (Middle–Late Proterozoic basement rocks), (2) the Chamberlindalen Block (Late Proterozoic basement rocks), (3) the Martinfjella Block (Late Proterozoic through Early Ordovician basement rocks), (4) the Berzeliustinden Block (Late Proterozoic and Early Ordovician basement rocks covered by Late Palaeozoic–Tertiary platform deposits), (5) the Reinodden Block (Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks). The paper presents an outline of lithostratigraphy (Middle/Upper Proterozoic–Lower Ordovician: Hecla Hoek Succession) and architecture of the Caledonian basement in which several thrust-sheets and thrust-folds have been recognized. It also discusses some aspects of Tertiary overthrusting, faulting and rotation with affected the basement rocks and remodelled its Caledonian architecture.
Diagenetic carbonate deposits (concretions, cementation bodies and cementstone bands) commonly occur in organic carbon-rich sequence of the Agardhfjellet Formation (Upper Jurassic) in Spitsbergen . They are dominated by dolomite/ankerite and siderite. These deposits originated as a result of displacive cementation of host sediment in a range of post-depositional environments, from shallow subsurface to deep-burial ones. Preliminary results of the carbon and oxygen isotopic survey of these deposits in southern Spitsbergen (Lĺgkollane, Ingebrigtsenbukta, Reinodden, and Lidfjellet sections) show the δ13C values ranging between –13.0‰ and –1.8‰ VPDB, and the δ18O values between –16.0‰ and –7.7‰ VPDB. These results suggest that the major stage of formation of the carbonate deposits occurred during burial diagenesis under increased temperature, most probably in late diagenetic to early catagenic environments. Carbonate carbon for mineral precipitation was derived from dissolution of skeletal carbonate and from thermal decomposition of organic matter.
The occurrence of coreless winters in the South Shetland Islands region is related to increase in the intensity of cyclonic circulation and to the presence of massive and rapid advection of warm air northerly and westerly. Coreless winter developments depend on large-scale oceanic processes – the presence of positive anomalies in sea surface temperature (SST) in the Bellingshausen Sea over the range 080°–092°W and the retreat of sea ice extent southwards. When negative anomalies of SST in the same region are observed and the sea ice extent advances northwards, a winter with clearly marked cold core is experienced at the Arctowski Station on the South Shetlands.
Ninety eight polychaete species were found in the shallow sublittoral of Admiralty Bay. The most abundant were Leitoscoloplos kerguelensis, Tauberia gracilis, Ophelina syringopyge, Rhodine intermedia, Tharyx cincinnatus, Aricidea (Acesta) strelzovi, Apistobranchus sp., Cirrophorus brevicirratus and Microspio moorei. Mean abundance of polychaetes was estimated at 120 ind./ 0.1m2. As a result of cluster analysis several polychaete assemblages were distinguished. The highly specific assemblage with two characteristic species, Scoloplos marginatus and Travisia kerguelensis, from shallow areas with sandy bottom situated far from glaciers; a distincly specific assemblage with Apistobranchus sp. from poorly sorted sediments in the bottom areas situated on the slopes at the base of steep rubble shores; the richest and most diverse, highly specific polychaete assemblage from the central basin of the bay with Tauberia gracilis as the most characteristic species, as well as two assemblages from the bottom areas neighbouring glaciers and influenced by the intensive enrichment of very small grain-sized sediments with Ophelina cylindricaudata and Tharyx cincinnatus. Clear assemblages’ arrangement was observed along the gradient: sand, silty sand, silt towards clay silt. Other important factors, supporting the proposed classification of assemblages and their character, include the sorting coefficient of the sediment (So) as well as the slope of the bottom. The between-habitat diversity of polychaete fauna is strongly connected with the phenomena occurring in the neighbouring terrestrial coastal areas.
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