Nauki Ścisłe i Nauki o Ziemi

Polish Polar Research

Zawartość

Polish Polar Research | 1988 | vol. 9 | No 1 |

Abstrakt

Productacean brachiopod assemblages are described from 10 taphocoenoses from various facies of the Upper Permian Kapp Starostin Formation in Spitsbergen. Time and space relationships among the investigated phena are based upon a previously established chronostratigraphic correlation of the strata. 15 productacean species are distinguished, based upon analysis of their morphology and ecology. Their paleontological descriptions take into account the ranges of their ecophenotypic variation. Shells adapted to three modes of life are recognized among the considered Productacea: (1) forms stabilizing within loose bottom sediments, (2) forms floating at the surface of soft substrates, and (3) forms living just below the surface of quaggy substrates. Distribution of the productacean assemblages in the Kapp Starostin Formation is analyzed within the framework of a reconstruction of the history of the Permian sea in this area. The main ecological controls upon this distribution include stratification of the water, substrate suitability for settlement, and coastal influences on the marine environment. Because of their spatially limited distribution and unrecognized evolution within the considered time interval, the investigated brachiopods cannot be employed for biochronostratigraphy.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Krzysztof Małkowski

Abstrakt

Results of field investigations in 1986 in Calypsostranda, southern coast of Bellsund, are presented. Soils of dry, wet and very wet tundra were studied. Strong skeleton, presence of carbonates, neutral or alkaline reaction, low content of available phosphorus and potassium, high content of organic carbon (in mineral soils) are the most characteristic properties of investigated soils. Regularities in vertical distribution of some components were distinguished.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Zbigniew Klimowicz
Stanisław Uziak

Abstrakt

Studies over talus cones in nothwestern Wedel Jarlsberg Land enable to define main parameters of these forms, their morphogenetic features and longitudinal profiles. Three zones of occurrence of talus cones have been distinguished, dependent on microlimatic influence of glaciers. Zone A (below 150 m a.s.l.) is not influenced by glaciers. Zone В (from 150 to 350 m a.s.l.) is influenced by glacier snouts. Zone С (over 350 m a.s.l.) is under influence of firn fields. Most intensive development of talus cones in the studied area occurred during the Little Ice Age.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Jerzy Nitychoruk
Jan Dzierżek

Abstrakt

Monthly and dekadal mean soil temperatures were evaluated with a use of measurements at depths of 5, 10, 20 and 50 cm, collected during the expeditions 1978—1986 and additionally at depths of 80 and 100 cm during the expeditions 1980—1986. Fourier analysis revealed a phase shift of 1 to 2 dekads between neighboring measurement depths.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Mirosław Miętus

Abstrakt

On the ground of continuous records of air and soil temperature at standard levels, changes of soil temperature against changes of air temperature have been analyzed at thick and without snow cover. The first example concerns a six-day winter thaw, and the second one a four-day autumn cooling. A particular influence of energy advection has been noted. A delay of changes of soil temperature was found to increase with depth in relation to air temperature. A hypothesis on correlation between air temperature at a height of 5 cm and soil temperature at a depth of 5 cm has been verified.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Mirosław Miętus

Abstrakt

Obervations of wind directions and air temperatures in Hornsund, Spitsbergen, in 1978—1985 were used to compute frequency distribution of wind directions and mean air temperatures at particular wind directions. Prevailing easterly winds (60°, 90° and 120°) resulted in lower air temperatures (to —2.2°C) than winter and spring means and in higher (nearly 1°C) than summer and autumn mean temperatures. Greatest positive deviations from mean seasonal temperatures are observed in winter at southerly and southwesterly winds and reach 10°C. Greatest negative deviations from mean seasonal temperatures are noted at northerly winds (330° and 360°) in autumn and reach —3.7°C.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Danuta Wielbińska
Ewa Skrzypczak

Abstrakt

Net of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen content measurements were made in situ at 24 stations in Admiralty Bay with the use of automatic analyzer Martek MK IV. Results proved a presence of two water masses located horizontally one over the other, with the boundary at depth of 15—35 m. The main, lower mass consists of homogenous waters inflowing from the Bransfield Strait. The upper, thin and much differentiated layer is formed through interaction of the main underlying water mass with meltwaters from glaciers and sea ice. It is probably formed along the whole archipelago and carried by surface currents into the bay where it is subjected to further modifications. Local salinity and temperature extremes are associated with glacier water runoff; local dissolved oxygen maxima seem to be connected with phytoplankton distribution. Strong currents occurring in te bay due to water circulation may cause local, short term and sometimes considerable fluctuations in values of parameters recorded at individual stations.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Eduard J. Sarukhanyan
Ryszard Tokarczyk

Abstrakt

Observations from 1978—81, 1983 and 1985 collected at the Polish Polar Arctowski Station (King George Island, South Shetland Islands) were used to calculate frequencies of wind directions in 30° sectors and mean air temperatures observed at each wind direction. Results reveal that all over the year the warmest air masses flow onto the South Shetland Islands from the northwest while the coolest ones from the southeast and east.

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Danuta Wielbińska
Ewa Skrzypczak

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