Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research

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Polish Polar Research | Early Access |

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Abstract

The paper presents data on the total phenolic and flavonoid content in Deschampsia antarctica È. Desv. plants collected from natural habitats, plants cultured in vitro, regenerated plants, and plants cultivated in a growth chamber. It was found that the shoots (aerial parts) had higher phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to the roots. The largest amount of these substances was found in wild plants from Great Yalour Island. The content of phenolics and flavonoids in plants cultured in vitro was generally comparable to that in plants collected from natural habitats except for some clones. HPLC analysis revealed five main metabolites present in similar ratios in the studied samples of wild and in vitro plants. Minor substances varied slightly in different extracts, however their presence did not depend on plant growth conditions. No significant qualitative differences in HPLC profiles were found between the wild and in vitro plants. The studied samples did not contain quercetin, kaempferol and luteolin, whereas orientin was found in all studied samples of D. antarctica.
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Authors and Affiliations

Maryana Twardovska
1
Iryna Konvalyuk
1
Kateryna Lystvan
2
Igor Andreev
1
Ivan Parnikoza
1 3
Viktor Kunakh
1

  1. Department of Cell Population Genetics, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,150 Acad. Zabolotnogo Str., 03143, Kyiv, Ukraine
  2. Department of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Cell Biology and Genetic, Engineering of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 148 Acad. Zabolotnogo Str., 03143, Kyiv, Ukraine
  3. State Institution National Antarctic Scientific Center, Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, 16 Shevchenko Ave., 01601, Kyiv, Ukraine
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Abstract

Studies of isotopic ages were conducted for rock samples of the Keller, Visca Anchorage and Domeyko Glacier formations. Together they form a part of the Martel Inlet Group, a terrestrial calc-alkaline volcanic and volcanoclastic suite and they crop out along the Keller Peninsula on King George Island. The U-Pb and 40Ar-39Ar isotope data from the Keller Peninsula lava flows, although differing in quality, made it possible to obtain reliable age intervals. The stratified volcanogenic rocks of Keller Peninsula, Visca Anchorage and Domeyko Glacier formations of the Keller Peninsula were emplaced there near the Early/Late Palaeocene boundary (ca. 62.11 ± 0.66 Ma ago), in the Early Eocene (ca. 56.3–51.9 Ma) and near the Early/Middle Eocene boundary (ca. 49.9–47.9 Ma), respectively. A certain difference in the ages of Eocene volcanogenic formations, in particular tectonic blocks of King George Island, may indicate a migration of centres of volcanic activity over time, from northwest to southeast.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jerzy Nawrocki
1
Magdalena Pańczyk
1
Agata Kozłowska-Roman
1

  1. Polish Geological Institute – NRI, Rakowiecka 4, 00-975 Warszawa, Poland
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Abstract

The Arctic region is under considerable pressure from the rapidly growing global tourism industry. The goal of this article is to present the current state of tourism in Spitsbergen, including the results of empirical research about the type of tourists and their preferences in organizing a trip, i.e. motivation, choice of attractions, etc. The survey in Longyearbyen town was conducted in 2018 and 2019 during two summer and two winter trips. As a result, a total of n=214 questionnaires were collected, presenting interesting insights into tourists’ profiles and their motivation in coming to the island. Based on the results, the Arctic tourism sector is characterized by seasonality, which significantly affects the distribution of tourist arrivals throughout the year. During the last 15 years, Spitsbergen island noticed the greatest boom in tourism linked to the development of transport infrastructure (new ports and airports) and accommodation (hotels). From one side, the tourism industry contributes significantly to employment in Longyearbyen, still from the other side, it burdens the local community and challenges their lives due to increased pollution of air, water and ground. The increased tourism also poses serious threats to the natural environment, which is already under pressure due to global warming resulting in melting Arctic glaciers and increased sea level. Therefore, it is crucial to implement new regulations to control and manage the development of tourism while protecting nature and its residents.
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Authors and Affiliations

Magdalena Kugiejko
ORCID: ORCID

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Abstract

This study presents the determination of the content of selected metals (Ba, Ca, Fe, Nb, Rb, Sr, Y, Zn, and Zr) in postglacial deposits from two glacial valleys (Ebbadalen and Elsadalen) in the Petunia Bay (southern Spitsbergen). The aim of the research was to experimentally check the usefulness of the handheld energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique in the study of samples from the polar zone, before performing the future field tests. Deposit analyses were performed (in parallel) with two handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometers from different manufacturers, to investigate the accuracy and reliability of the instruments. The statistical analysis of the results indicated that the measurements carried out with two spectrometers were statistically significantly different, which was probably due to the different calibration characteristics used by the manufacturers. However, the analysis of the spatial distribution of element concentrations using Geographic Information System tools showed that the distribution maps of elements concentrations were similar regardless of the spectrometer used in the analyses.
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Authors and Affiliations

Lidia Kozak
1
Juliana Silva Souza
1
Adam Nawrot
2
Jędrzej Proch
1
Marcin Kaźmierski
3
Agnieszka Zawieja
4
Przemysław Niedzielski
1

  1. Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego 8, 61-614 Poznań, Poland
  2. Institute of Geophysics Polish Academy of Sciences, Księcia Janusza 64, 01-452 Warszawa, Poland
  3. Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Faculty of Geographical and Geological Sciences, Bogumiła Krygowskiego 10, 61-680 Poznań, Poland
  4. MEWO S.A., Starogardzka 16, 83-010 Straszyn, Poland
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Abstract

Humic substances are ubiquitous in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Humic acids (HAs) actively interact with organic and inorganic components of lake sediments. This interaction depends on the molecular structure and elemental composition of HAs. The presented research focuses on the investigation of the composition and molecular structure of humic acids isolated from lakes located in the Lena Delta in the Russian Arctic. The findings of the research are needed to estimate the potential capacity of humic acids to bind microelements, particularly toxic metals, in stable compounds. Surface sediment samples (0–10 cm) were collected from 8 lakes by Van Veen grab during the summer period of the “Expedition LENA 2019”. We analyzed elemental composition of the HAs samples. The results showed that the studied HAs of lake sediments are characterized by low nitrogen content and prevalence of aliphatic fragments in their molecular structure. Furthermore, it was found that the studied humic acids are less mature, showing mineralization processes dominant over humification, and have relatively low potential to complexation compared with soils of the Lena Delta as well as lake sediments of territories with more boreal climate conditions.
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Authors and Affiliations

Alina V. Guzeva
1
Ekaterina A. Krylova
2
Irina V. Fedorova
2

  1. St. Petersburg Federal Research Center of RAS, Institute of Limnology RAS, Sevastyanova 9, St. Petersburg, 196105, Russia
  2. St. Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya enb. 7/9, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia
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Abstract

Extremely dense fog event was studied on the 3rd December 2001, which occurred in the city of Apatity, the Kola Peninsula, northwestern Russia. Fog had low visibility (30–50 m) and lasted 17 h. Variations of atmospheric pressure and electric field before and during the fog event were measured. Multiple Taper Method (MTM) of spectral analysis has revealed pulsations of the atmospheric electric field in the frequency band of 0.007–0.05 Hz with a power-law turbulence spectrum. MTM and wavelet decomposition analysis results indicate the appearance of two types of atmospheric pressure oscillations under the fog conditions: low-frequency variations with periods of internal gravity waves and a substantial increase in pulsation intensity (more than an order of magnitude) in the high frequency (0.03–0.35 Hz) range. These results may help to improve the understanding of the microphysics of fog formation, development, and dissipation. High-frequency pulsations generation of atmospheric pressure under the fog conditions is also of interest because their period is close to the range of infrasonic oscillations, which can have negative consequences for human health.
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Authors and Affiliations

Oleg I. Shumilov
1
Elena A. Kasatkina
1
Dmitry V. Makarov
1
Marek Krapiec
2

  1. Institute of North Industrial Ecology Problems, Kola Science Centre RAS, Fersman 14a, Apatity, Russia
  2. University of Science and Technology (AGH), Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland

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