Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research


Polish Polar Research | 2021 | vol. 42 | No 4

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Seasonal variations of the isotopic and chemical compositions of snowpits can provide useful tools for dating the age of the snowpit and examining the sources of aerosol. Based on the seasonal layers with D and 18O maxima and minima, it was determined that the snowpit, conducted in the vicinity of the Jang Bogo Station in Antarctica, contained snow deposited over a three-year period (2008–2010). Distinct seasonal variations of stable water isotopes were observed, with a slope of 8.2 from the linear isotopic relationship between oxygen and hydrogen, which indicates that the snow accumulated during three years without a significant post-depositional process. The positive correlations (r > 0.85) between Na+ and other ions in the winter period and the positive relationship the concentrations of the methanesulphonic acid (MSA) and non-sea salt sulfate (nssSO42–) in the warm period (r = 0.6, spring to summer) indicate the significant contributions of an oceanic source to the snowpit. Based on principal component analysis, the isotopic and chemical variables were classified into species representing input of sea-salt aerosol and suggesting potential seasonal markers. This study will support further investigations using ice cores in this region.
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Authors and Affiliations

Soon Do Hur
Jiwoong Chung
Yalalt Namgerel
1 2
Jeonghoon Lee

  1. Division of Glacial Environmental Research, Korea Polar Research Institute, 26, Songdomirae-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 21990, Korea
  2. Department of Science Education, Ewha Womans University, 52, Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750, Korea
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Atmospheric gases and chemical impurities can be stored and chemically transformed in the tropospheric ice. Impurities are rejected during freezing of the ice to the grain boundaries, free ice surfaces or inclusions. Surface snow and tropospheric ice, however, may be exposed to high temperatures and, eventually, the gases and chemical impurities can be released into the environment. It is important to study the surface structure and transport mechanisms at temperatures near the melting point because the location of impurities and their interactions with water molecules in the ice are not yet sufficiently explained. In this work, the evolution of a scratch on the bicrystalline ice surface was studied at −5 ℃. The surface transport mechanisms near the melting point were studied and, as a consequence, the surface structure could be determined. An ice sample was kept immersed in ultra-pure silicone oil to prevent evaporation and, thus, isolate the effect of surface diffusion. The ice sample was made with water with chemical conditions similar to the water of polar ice sheets. Photographs of the scratch were taken periodically, for approximately 50 hours, using a photographic camera coupled to an optical microscope. From these images, the evolution of the width of the scratch was studied and the surface diffusion was the dominant transport mechanism in the experiment. Finally, the ice surface self-diffusion coefficient at −5 ℃ was determined and it was very similar to the super-cooled water diffusion coefficient. A liquid-like behavior of ice surfaces near the melting point was found and it could have a strong influence on the reaction rates with atmospheric gases.
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Authors and Affiliations

Guillermo Aguirre Varela
1 2
Carlos L. Di Prinzio
1 2
Damián Stoler

  1. FAMAF, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Medina Allende and Haya de la Torre, 5000 Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba, Argentina
  2. IFEG-CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Medina Allende and Haya de la Torre, 5000 Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba, Argentina
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In this article we investigate diatom assemblages in surface sediments of the subarctic Lake Imandra. We examine taxonomic composition and ecological structure and describe spatial variations of diatoms over the lake area. The diatom flora described here are characterized by abundance of planktonic centric species. The habitats of diatoms in the different stretches of Lake Imandra reflect local environmental conditions and are determined by the type and intensity of the anthropogenic impact. Stephanodiscus minutulus, S. alpinus, Aulacoseira islandica are the most abundant species in the area of the lake affected by industrial effluents and eutrophication, while Pantocsekiella comensis is most typical in the background sites of the lake. Diatoms’ taxonomic diversity is high in shallow bays where aquatic vegetation is common. Abundance of diatoms in areas affected by anthropogenic eutrophication reflects the high intensity of plankton primary production. Differences in the ecological structure of the diatom assemblages in different parts of Lake Imandra are caused by significant hydrochemical heterogeneity of the water quality.
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Authors and Affiliations

Sofia Vokueva
Dmitrii Denisov

  1. Institute of the North Industrial Ecology Problems, Federal Research Center “Kola Science Center of RAS”, 8a Akademgorodok Street, 184209, Apatity, Murmansk region, Russia
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In this work we summarize the current knowledge on the spatial distribution, host specificity and genetic diversity of Onchobothrium antarcticum, an endemic Antarctic cestode. We recorded it in seven fish species, elasmobranchs Amblyraja georgiana, Bathyraja eatonii, and B. maccaini and teleosts Antimora rostrata, Chionobathyscus dewitti, Dissostichus mawsoni, and Muraenolepis marmorata, caught in the Ross Sea, the D’Urville Sea, the Mawson Sea, and the Weddell Sea. The infection of A. rostrata from the part of its distribution to the south of the Falkland Islands is reported for the first time. We obtained partial 28S rDNA and cox1 sequences of plerocercoids and adults of O. antarcticum and analyzed them together with a few previously published sequences. Based on the results of the phylogenetic analysis, we cannot rule out that O. antarcticum is in fact a complex of cryptic species.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ilya I. Gordeev
1 2
Tatyana A. Polyakova
Alexander A. Volkov

  1. Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1/12, 119234, Moscow, Russia
  2. Department of Pacific Salmons, Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography, V. Krasnoselskaya Str. 17, 107140, Moscow, Russia
  3. Moscow representative office of A.O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of RAS, Leninsky Pr. 38/3, 119991, Moscow, Russia
  4. Department of Molecular Genetics, Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography, V. Krasnoselskaya Str. 17, 107140, Moscow, Russia
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The coexistence of two congeneric amphipods, boreal Gammarus oceanicus, and arctic G. setosus, was studied during the summer seasons of 2017-2019 in the region of Isfjorden, Forlandsundet, and Prins Karl Forland island in the west-central part of the Svalbard archipelago (Arctic). Across the study area species distribution often overlapped, but the domination patterns mirrored environmental conditions preferred by each species. Both species, however, were able to survive in suboptimal conditions. On a small spatial scale (in one sample) the species were separated, which may suggest an antagonistic relationship between them. The ongoing changes in the environment of Svalbard will likely affect these two species differently. The increasing intrusion of Atlantic waters will probably favor the further expansion of G. oceanicus along the Svalbard coasts. This will be due to the gradual advance of the existing population, as an influx of individuals from the Nordic seas seems unlikely. G. setosus will remain the dominant species in cold-water areas such as the inner fjords and the northeastern coast of Svalbard and may find new suitable habitats in lagoons or estuaries fed by melting glaciers. Despite predicted changes in the distribution range of both species, their future coexistence should still be possible due to the wide range of environmental tolerance and the heterogeneity of the Svalbard coastal habitats.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jan Marcin Węsławski
Joanna Legeżyńska
Lech Kotwicki
Mikołaj Mazurkiewicz
Sergej Olenin

  1. Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, Sopot 81-712, Poland
  2. Marine Research Institute, Klaipėda University, Universiteto al. 17, 92294, Klaipėda, Lithuania

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