The Divine Revelation – and in consequence Christian theology – connects a term ‘holiness’ with the nature of God who in relation to His creature is totally transcendent but in the same time is close to it and in His Son Jesus Christ, in a sense, united with it. Strictly speaking it is possible to talk about holiness under one condition: if one believes in the Holy One – God who is the source of any holiness. Holiness of God was fully revealed in Jesus Christ who through His revelation-salvifc deeds allowed human beings to participate in God’s holiness. Church, however, being holy from her nature (and participating in God’s holiness) has a task to proclaim holiness in the world and to practice it. The essence of holiness is always the same although holiness could be practiced in the Church and the world in many different ways. So understood holiness of Christian life – achieved especially in everyday life or in a way of heroic virtues – has a very important meaning for the credibility of Christianity. Holiness is present not only in a spiritual (‘inside’) life but also has outside refections which is so much important for a contemporary mentality marked by praxis and praxeology. holiness, however, could be recognized only from a perspective of faith.
Heresy is usually defned as an error concerning the content of faith. In this article heresy is shown as a sin requiring conversion and penance and not just a withdrawal of one’s views. A sin of heresy is compared to adultery or idolatry, for which the same penance used to be assigned (e.g. Synod of Elvira in 306, can. 22). In this context the condemnation of Nestorius by the Council of Ephesus in 431 is characteristic because it is focused on the insult to Jesus Christ and not on erroneous conceptions. It is also the case with the formulas of condemnation of heretics where such invectives as contamination, sacrilegium or perfdia were often used, and those terms belong to the feld of morality rather than to intellectual disputes or differences.
The paper presents unequivocal arguments in favour of the procedural nature of the canonical confrmation of holiness, as regards the process of beatifcation and canonization on the diocesan level. It was also underlined by Cardinal Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints on 18 February 2008 in his intervention, concerning the Instruction issued by the Congregation and approved by the Pope, on stricter obeying the existing law. It was clearly stressed by the Cardinal that the document is not legislative in nature but is an administrative act of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints. He also rejected the common and false opinion that Pope John Paul II allegedly replaced procedural methodology in canonical processes of the confrmation of holiness by a methodology of historical-critical research. The Italian term “inchiesta” is to be understood not as a solely scientifc inquiry but also procedural. The interpretation of the internal regulations of the Congregation and its doctrine are in favour of the canonical procedure, which is analogous to ordinary canonical processes both in the diocesan and in the Roman phase. Eventually, the paper refers to the nature of the fnal decision of the pope in cases of beatifcation or canonization, which proves that the canonical confrmation of holiness in the Church is complex and unique to this kind of cases.
This presentation outlines the movement of the contemporary Church away from the institutional ecclesiology. Within the context of the post-conciliar ecclesiology and being inspired by the thought of Y. Congar, I have developed 5 principles of reform (the Word of God and liturgy, love and witness, anthropological, ecumenical, interreligious). I have also submitted a few practical indications of this reform (tradition and modernity, unity with a whole, freedom and moral standards, respect for the transcendental reality) in order to perform it. The reform of the Church properly understood becomes her development, which should be seen as a long process, inscribed in the history of the Church as well as in the life of a believer. In their everyday life today’s mystics follow this way of the Church’s development and of their own conversion. Mysticism is not just for those who have been specially elected, but by the grace of Baptism, every Christian is called to holiness and to the practice of mysticism. Even not being aware of it, many are practicing it. Thus those principles and indications of the ecclesial reform also apply to our everyday life of following Christ in his Church.
The topic of this paper is the universal call to holiness with reference to the notion of „ordinary holiness”. The contemporary teaching of the Catholic Church, particularly since Vatican II, has underlined that holiness is both a gift and a task for all Christians. It is illustrated with several papal pronouncements by Paul VI, John Paul II and Benedict XVI. Finally the paper points out to some examples which confrm that any activity in life is appropriate for fulflling the call to holiness. It is also noticed that ordinary holiness is a positive reaction and response of Christ’s disciples to the signs of the time they face. Some of those signs of the time are nowadays: man’s changing attitude to the truth, to human life as a fundamental value, to conjugal love which is in its essence faithful and exclusive, as well as to service as a form of daily love.
A lot of beatifcations and canonizations have taken place in recent years. This has led to the publication of life histories, either scientifc or popular in character, of those elevated to the glory of the altars. After 1945 the frst important book was Hagiografa polska (The Polish Hagiography). Another important book was Twoje imię (Your Name) by H. Fros and F. Sowa, republished several times. In his article E. Walewander explains methodological requirements for a hagiographical text which is to be historical in nature, based on historical sources and using methods characteristic of Church history. A similar publication is Sancti. Miracula. Peregrinationes by A. Witkowska, which is a collection of essays on various hagiographical issues. The two-volume edition of Staropolskie piśmiennictwo hagiografczne (The Old Polish Hagiographical Writings) by A. Witkowska and J. Nastalska is a bio-bibliographical dictionary of hagiographers of the pre-partition Poland and a collection of old Polish hagiographical texts. Drogi rozwojowe hagiografi polskiej w wiekach średnich (The Developments of Polish Hagiography in the Middle Ages) by J. Starnawski is a study in the development of Polish writings in the Middle Ages. In the post-war Polish hagiography most publications have been biographical in nature, while there are still not enough methodological and research studies in hagiography of the 19th and 20th c.
Among the so-called lost icons of modern culture (as Rowan Williams once put it) holiness should be perhaps seen with a particular concern. Christianity has always perceived holiness as a universal calling which Christ’s disciples are never to neglect. The Lutheran pastor and theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer emerges as a signifcant example of radical discipleship in his consistent and faithful pursuit of holiness. The one who believes in Christ is to follow Him not by withdrawing from this world but rather in the midst of the world as Christ himself lived and to „drink the earthly cup to the dregs like Christ himself”. Consequently, „holiness begins and ends with God and moves toward the needy of the world” (A. Lawrence). John Paul II would often stress that holiness is one of those precious signs of the Spirit’s active presence among all Christ’s followers which should play an ever more growing role in the ecumenical exchange of gifts. When Christians base their hope on the Lord’s prayer and not their own strength, they can trust that „the great ecumenism of holiness will not fail, with God’s help, to bring results” (John Paul II).
One of the oldest ways of showing the practical realization of a call to holiness is the imitation of Christ. In the past this idea, with additional role models included, was also used in the moral theological refection on human development and sanctifcation. However, those attempts found it diffcult to defne the subject of imitation as well as imitation itself. Also today, with some reservations, the idea of imitation can be used for a methodical presentation of the Christian vocation to holiness and of concrete ways how this vocation can be realized. When taken together with the biblical category of the vocation and of the gift, this idea allows to present Christian moral life in a synthetic way and can be the reference point for specifc moral obligations. However, when using the category of imitation in the correct presentation of a call to holiness, correct terms are needed as well as an understanding of the vocation as found in Revelation and in particular and modern behavioural sciences. Such a presentation would emphasize important features of Christian morality, especially its religious, personalistic and social character, and would manifest misconceptions of both extreme autonomy and extreme heteronomy.
This paper discusses the essence of marriage in the world’s major religions (Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, religions of primitive peoples) and presents the customs and forms of concluding marriage as well as the ethics of marital cohabitation. The paper goes on to analyse selected statements by the teaching offce of the Church on the subject of marriage and family in various religions. The question of „mixed” or interreligious marriage is analysed from the perspective of religious rules, law and interreligious dialogue. Attention is drawn to the pastoral care shown by the Catholic Church to mixed marriages and families. This care is a manifestation of interreligious dialogue. Each religion has its own unique understanding of the institution of marriage and family. A mixed marriage brings together two different views of this institution: these views are mutually exclusive in some aspects and coincident in other aspects. Marriage and family undoubtedly constitute the foundation of societies representing various cultures and religions. The religious views on marriage exert an indisputable impact on the moral and social order of individual groups, communities and societies.
This article presented the critical remarks relating to the understanding of the resurrection, proposed by Ph. Clayton and S. Knapp in their book The Predicament of Belief. Science, Philosophy, Faith. The main objections relate to the incorrect putting the research problem, that is interpretation of the resurrection compatible with modern science and erroneous approach to the New Testament’s relations about the resurrection of Christ. A way of solving of this problem is also causing reservations, that is to support the proposed understanding of the resurrection on the theory of emergence, its participatory approach and an understanding of the resurrection appearances as the personal but nonphysical theory of Jesus’ postmortem presence. Doubts are also caused by panentheism, and above all by the rejection of the deity of Jesus Christ. Taking all this into account, it turns out that the resurrection becomes subjective and deeply spiritual event, and the divine action is performed by the impact on the human minds and is not a miraculous event, and it does not suspend the laws of nature. According to the authors, such an approach is compatible with modern science. It is doubtful, however, whether their understanding of the resurrection of Christ makes it possible to understand the phenomenon of Christianity.
Business ethics is a complex issue that has been studied a lot. This paper discusses just one of its aspects and presents the assumptions of ethics of economic activity arising from Christian anthropology. They include respect for the dignity of the human person, taking into consideration the social dimension of human life and the affrmation of man’s integral development. All those are particulars of the general principle that man is the creator, the centre and the goal of the whole life and economic activity. These assumptions are in no way unrealistic and idealized expectations in relation to economic and business activity, they rather prove that the economic sphere of life is not ethically neutral, neither is it inhuman nor antisocial. As a dimension of man’s activity it is subject to a moral assessment. Since all stages of economic activity deal with man, his behaviour and needs, they involve moral implications. Even if in certain circumstances unethical behaviour may lead, though temporarily, to economic success, the economic and moral facets are intertwined. J. Messner was right when he stressed that in one’s striving for economic goals immoral means are at the same time uneconomic. The present fnancial and economic crisis proves his thesis.
1. Wymagania dotyczące tekstu
Redakcja "Studiów Nauk Teologicznych PAN" przyjmuje teksty dotychczas nigdzie niepublikowane. Teksty z zakresu teologii, religiologii i dyscyplin pokrewnych nie powinny przekraczać objętości 40 tys. znaków (ze spacjami), czyli 20-23 strony. Preferowana edytor tekstu Times New Roman 12, interlinia 1,5; przypisy: 10, interlinia pojedyncza. Wystarczy nadesłanie wersji elektronicznej na adres:
Nadesłane prace zostaną poddane procedurze recenzyjnej. O jej wyniku, treści nadesłanych recenzji, jak też decyzji redakcji odnośnie do publikacji autor zostanie poinformowany.
Przyjmujemy teksty w języku polskim oraz językach kongresowych.
Do każdego tekstu należy dołączyć:
- krótką notę biograficzną
- streszczenie w języku angielskim i polskim, każdorazowo o objętości ok. 1000 znaków,
- wykaz słów kluczowych,
- wykaz skrótów stosowanych przez autora w tekście lub przypisach
2. Zasady sporządzania przypisów
1. Numer przypisu w tekście umieszczamy przed znakiem interpunkcyjnym kończącym zdanie lub jego część, np. W napisanych krótko przed śmiercią testamencie1, poeta wspomina swoich dobroczyńców2.
2. Cytowanie książek: inicjał imienia, nazwisko (-a) autora (-ów), tytuł dzieła (pisany kursywą bez cudzysłowu), wydawnictwo, miejsce i rok wydania (przed rokiem zaznaczamy części wydawnicze (np. 32007), wykaz cytowanych stron. Fragmenty opuszczone w cytatach należy zaznaczyć trzema kropkami w nawiasach kwadratowych.
3. Powtarzanie przypisu: nie stosujemy takich słów, jak np. tamże, tenże, itp., ale powtarzamy skrócony zapis bibliograficzny (inicjał imienia, nazwisko, tytuł lub jego część oraz strony).
4. Przykład zapisu przypisów
1 A. Derdziuk, Teologia moralna w służbie wiary Kościoła, Wydawnictwo KUL Lublin 2010, 125-134.
2 A. Derdziu
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