The paper presents historical concepts and paradigms of the institution of university as well as its present and future models.
As a starting point, the origin, structure and function of the medieval university are discussed; then, four basic concepts of university formed in the 19th century are given, namely the German model of Wilhelm Humboldt and Johann Fichte, the English model of Cardinal Newman, the American model formed aft er foundation of the John Hopkins University and the French model – the Napoleonic model ofuniversity.
What follows is an analysis of the changes and evolution of universities in the 20th century. It is indicated that the essence of today’s university is composed of the following activities: didactics, research and professional training. A great significance of general and formal education is also emphasized. Th e priority is given to practising basic disciplines at universities and the significance of the humanities for general education of students, including philosophy, theology and ethics is stressed.
The author is warning us against single-discipline education in a situation when all contemporary problems, whether economic, political, social, ethical or technical, can only be solved on the interdisciplinary basis via cooperation of experts in different fields. The gap between visions of the world shaped by natural sciences and the humanities should be gradually bridged. To this end, a paradigm of the future university is put forward. The paradigm should provide for cultivation of the values derived from the Classical University rooted in the Greco-Roman and Christian tradition, mathematical exactness of scientific research and quality professional training of the Positivist University, as well as the ecological and holistic vision and education of the youth, in a spirit of tolerance of the Postmodern University.
The paradigm of the university of the future should encompass three significant elements, i.e. the mission of a contemporary academic school, the conditions in which it is functioning and the rules it should follow. The paper indicates that, though destined to an ongoing change, the mission of universities for centuries has featured the same components, namely intellectual and ethical education of the youth and scientific research. The contemporary university should act as “the eyes of the world” that perceive its main problems and provide guidance in solving them.
The contemporary university must duly take into account the external conditions, namely globalisation, multiculturalism, ecological threats, rapid communications and technological progress, a growth of negative social phenomena such crime, moral degradation and terrorism; a growing infl uence of the media on life of societies, anti-intellectualism, relativism and radical individualism triggered by the Post-modem era. The rules that a contemporary academic school should act in accordance with are given as follows: a quest for the highest standards in didactics, research and other activities; full freedom of scientifi c research; a focus on discovering the truth and sharing it with others; ethical responsibility of scholars and university professors; the spirit of duty in education; forming amicable and stable academic communities; partnership in cooperation with other scholars and universities; aiming at the integration of Christian knowledge and faith.
The paper ends with a citation from Pope John Paul’s II. address to the chancellors of all Polish academic schools in 1997, in which he stressed the role of ethical sensitivity of scholars today, owing to which the bond may be maintained both between the True and the Good and the freedom of scientific research and ethical responsibility for its outcomes.
Starting with Bologna and Paris, a classical model of a European university usually contained four faculties: theological, philosophical, legal (of secular and canon law) and medical. One must remember that establishing theological faculty had to be agreed with the Holy See. The same university structure existed in Poland too, when in 1364 the Cracow University came into being. Beginning from 1397 it had its Theological Faculty. The faculty also functioned at other universities: in Vilnius (1578), in Zamość (the Zamość Academy, 1595), in Lviv (1759), in Warsaw (1817), in Lublin (the Catholic University of Lublin, 1918), again in Warsaw (the Academy of Catholic Theology, 1954 and later the Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University, 1999), in Opole (1994), in Poznań (1988), in Olsztyn (1999), in Katowice (2000), in Toruń (2001) and in Szczecin (2003).
Besides, after eradication of the Theological Faculty in Cracow, there came into being Papal Theological Faculty (1959), transformed into Papal Theological Academy (1974). A Theological Faculty was also founded in Wrocław (1964), transformed into Papal Theological Faculty (1974), in Poznań (1968), transformed into Papal Theological Faculty (1974) and then in Warsaw – as the Papal Theological Faculty (1982). The Catholic University of Lublin (where there was a Theological Faculty), as well as Papal Theological Faculties have got the status of ecclesiastical schools which are treated as higher education public schools.
In the Third Polish Republic (aft er 1989) there were created theological faculties at the following public universities: in Opole (1994), in Olsztyn (1999), at the Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw (1999), in Poznań (1998), in Katowice (2000), in Toruń (2001) and in Szczecin (2003). In accordance with the regulations of Polish law and canon law, the named above faculties are liable to both ecclesiastical authorities and state authorities.
On the first place, author presents the situation of theological faculties before the II World War. The Roman Catholic Church in Poland had five of them: in Cracow, Wilnius, Lwow, Warsaw and within the framework of Catholic University of Lublin. The four of them developed their educational activity in many various ways at the national universities.
After the II World War, due to the changing border lines of Polish country – the Roman Catholic Church lost theological faculties in Wilnius and Lwow. The Faculty of Theology at the Wrocław University, existing since the year of 1702 and which was active even during the time of II World War (within the border lines of the III Reich), could not exist after the end of the war. In the year of 1954 the authorities of People’s Republic of Poland – without the permission of the Holly See liquidated theological faculties from the Jagiellonian University (founded by Saint Queen Jadwiga in 1397) and from the Warsaw University–removing it arbitrary to the previously non-existent Academy of Catholic’s Theology in Warsaw. The academy was a national school, and Polish Episcopal Conference, under certain conditions, only acknowledged its foundation. Academic degrees and scholars titles of this academy were canonically invalid.
Card. Karol Wojtyla creating the Episcopal Conference of Catholic’s Science and Council of the Polish Episcopal Conference caused reaction of the Holly See. Vatican’s authorities renewed the activity of Faculty of Theology in Wrocław (the year of 1968) and erected new – non-existent till now – Faculty of Theology in Poznań. Moreover, the Holly See did not approve the closure of theological faculties in Cracow and Warsaw. Thank to that, in People’s Republic of Poland – there were five theological faculties, under Church’s jurisdiction, in a similar way to the pre-war territory of the country. In 1974, they received the noble title of “Pope’s faculties”. Certainly, academic degrees and scholars titles, gained at these faculties by their graduates and scholars were invalid to the state authorities. After long negotiations, the Deal (June 30th 1989) was accepted by the government of People’s Republic of Poland and Polish Episcopal Conference. The Deal stated the approval of all Pope’s faculties and the faculty of philosophy of Society of Jesus in Cracow. In return, the Holly See resumed Academy of Catholic’s Theology (ACT) and granted its canonical validation. Imposed Deal was a serious contribution to the normalization of Church-State relations in Poland. It is certain, that it was also a great achievement of the Roman Catholic Church, and was accomplished– as it is commonly considered – not without the influence of electing, on October 16th 1978, card. Karol Wojtyla for pope John Paul II.
Der Autor antwortet auf die moderne Einwände gegen das Heimatrecht der Theologie in der Universitas litterarum (Peter Hünermann). Es geht um bleibende säkulare Anfragen, um pragmatische und postmodernistische Einwände und nicht zulezt um Bekenntnis- und Magisterium Ecclesiae-gebundenheit der Theologie.
In the course of his pontifi cate John Paul II delivered over 200 speeches to research workers, students, senates and chancellors of universities on various forums. As the research worker he always cared about the good of the university which he regarded as the masterpiece of culture for the sake of research efforts undertaken by it which include particular aspects of the reality and the didactic and educational activity which serves the entire mankind and the future of the young generation.
Indeed John Paul II addressed his speeches, letters and proclamations to Catholic universities but the subjects touched by him have an universal character, that is to say they relate to all universities. In the present study it has been treated of the most important aspects of the activity of the university. First of all the university ought to serve the truth. The pope considers the truth to be the greatest value from which all other values originate and to which they aim; every truth comes from God who is the Highest Truth.
John Paul II insists strongly on the ethical dimension of scientific research, especially in the subject of biogenetics and bioethics, since all scientific researches have to serve the good of the man and his development and also the respect of dignity of the human. As according to John Paul II modern universities become more and more dehumanised, therefore he insists on the restitution of their humanistic visage since the man and his good have to be the fundamentals of all knowledge. Two further arguments exposed by the pope refer to the neccessity of interdisciplinary research for the sake of fragmentation of particular scientific areas and their results, as well as the need of their synthesis and high qualifications of the professor’s staff who on the one hand have to deepen their specialistic knowledge and have to be the real authority for the young people. The university not only teaches but also educates.
Joseph Ratzinger binds together the triptych “theology – the university – science” by the common issue of a search for the truth and the service to the truth. Theology is being done “in the Church and with the Church”, it belongs to the Church and depends upon her. Thus, theology is ecclesial in its essence, it teaches not in its own name but on behalf of the Church.
The ethos of the university – particularly of a Catholic university – consists in the common witness to the truth and in forming the transcendent dimension of man. Thus, the service to the human person is expressed by the university in developing “a new humanism” as a response to cultural and spiritual desires of the humankind. The mission of the university is not only its service to knowledge but also to the education, which means bearing witness to the truth that has been found.
According to Benedict XVI both theology and the university with science should know how to unite the two ways of knowing – faith and reason into one common tone, with its unique enhancing of reason. In a characteristic way Ratzinger gives special attention to rationality which leads to the ultimate Truth.
University and the Church need each other. Following the example of Christ incarnated, Christianity “incarnates” the spiritual. The Church and theology need university and cooperation with other sciences to be able to “incarnate” Christ’s issue into our world. Th e university, on the other hand, needs the Church and theology because otherwise it would be deprived of cultural and spiritual foundation: there is no alternative to a discussion about Christ (God and a human). Theology is sometimes defined as scientia fidei; it is determined by the mind and faith. It’s a discussion about God, but due to the Christ event it is also a discussion about mankind. Th erefore it has the form of a dialogue, a discussion. The dialogue is always held in a specific context (nowadays postmodern), in which theology not only has to ask but also answer the question about the meaning. In this sense it is wisdom. Theology as a discussion has to approach the most urgent human problems. These include agnosticism towards which Benedict XVI suggests the “veluti si Deus daretur” rule, relativism in case of which theology cannot stop asking about truth, despair in case of which theology reminds about God, in whom there is no darkness.
After 1989 the cooperation between catholic theological departaments and the secular academies was standarized. The rules of cooperation between seminaries and theological departaments, existing either in ecclesiastical universities or in the state-controlled ones, were also circumscribed. The aim of this collaboration is to gain the academic degrees by the prospective priests.
The Author of an article recalls the legal rules, that regulate this cooperation and points the chances of it. Th anks to the collaboration, the seminary is raising academic qualifications of employees, and the students are being educated by the university standards.
The university gains an unique group of students, whose spiritual and moral formation, may be an example for a modern graduate in theology. Moreover, throughout affiliating seminaries to the theological departaments, the university has chance to benefit of the rich seminary archives and libraries, and to examine the great architectural, musical and painting treasures, concentrated in diocesancities.
The organization of graduate and postgraduate studies at the Faculty of Theology of the Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw reveals the specificity of the theology in Warsaw. In the future, the Faculty of Theology should pay a special attention to the high level of the specialisations within the scope of the classical theology, but on the other hand should care about new specialisations, which should be more attractive.
Biblical studies, fundamental theology, dogmatic theology, moral theology are at the very heart of theology. It is necessary to foster doctoral and habilitation thesis in the field of these specialisations and to care for their high, world-class level. Considering the needs of the Church, the development of the liturgical studies and catechetical studies needs to be supported.
As far as future career opportunities for graduates of the Faculty of Theology are concerned, new specializations should be promoted, such as media education and journalism, theology of culture, tourism in biblical countries. A scientific reflection on the role of mass media and on the relations between theology and culture is also very important. Th ere should be place for vetera et nova at university, for the theology conceived in the traditional way and for attempts at practising theology in a new way.
The Faculty of Theology of Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw is endowed with rich history. It existed at the Royal University of Warsaw, established in 1816.
It operated until the University was closed in 1831; then its activity was continued at the Main Seminary (1823–1835), and fi nally at the Roman-Catholic Clerical Academy (1835–1867). The Theological Faculty came into being again at the University of Warsaw in 1918. Aft er the World War II, the faculty became active in 1945, in 1954 it became part of the Academy of Catholic Theology and since 1999 it has been included into the Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University. The achievements of the faculty are important, it has employed many eminent theologians and instructed thousands of graduates. Its merits for the Church and Polish culture are not to be neglected.
The following scientific grades in theology were awarded at the Theological Faculty of the Academy of Catholic Theology (1954–1999): 85 professional bachelor’s degrees, 4853 master’s degrees, 762 canonical licentiates, 313 doctor’s degrees, 92 nostrifications of doctorates and 89 post-doctoral degree.
The following scientific grades in theology have been awarded at the Th eological Faculty of Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University (from 1 October 1999 to 16 June 2008): 3916 bachelor’s degrees, 5718 master’s degrees, 1315 canonical licentiates, 299 doctor’s degrees, 71 nostrifications of doctorates, 45 post-doctoral degrees and 23 professor’s degrees in theology. In addition, the Institute of Studies of the Family has awarded 1733 master’s degrees in studies of the family.
Nowadays, the Theological Faculty of Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University is composed of six institutes: Institute of Theology, Institute of Media Education and Journalism, Institute of the Studies of Culture, Institute of Theology in Radom, Institute of Apostleship Theology, Institute of Studies of the Family. The Theological Faculty includes as well the Non-local Didactical Centre in Gdynia. Three clerical seminaries are affiliated at the Theological Faculty: Higher Clerical Seminary in Płock, Gdańsk Clerical Seminary in Gdańsk-Oliwa, Higher Clerical Seminary of Catholic Apostleship in Ołtarzew. The following institutions are bound with the Faculty of Theology of the Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University with the cooperation agreement: Archdiocese Clerical Seminary in Białystok, Higher Clerical Seminary in Łódź, Higher Clerical Seminary in Łomża, Franciscan Higher Clerical Seminary in Łódź-Łagiewniki, Higher Clerical Seminary of the Salesian Society in Ląd nad Wartą, Higher Clerical Seminary of the Salesian Society in Łódź.
The Theology Department was opened in January 1918. It came into existence as one of the first four departments of the Catholic University of Lublin. Its activity became part of the university’s mission which is conducting research in harmony with science and faith, educating the catholic intelligentsia and contributing to christian culture.
The identity of the Department manifests itself in the high standard of scientific research and academic education as well as in deepening and promoting the christian concept of the world and man in the context of challenges of the present time.
This article presents an outline history, organization and the main trends in scientific research carried out in the Theology Department of John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin.
It was at the request of Blessed Queen Hedwig and her husband Jagiełło that on 11 January 1397 Pope Boniface IX signed a bull allowing foundation of the Faculty of Theology in Kraków. This very date begin a six hundred years’ period of the Faculty’s activities. Unfortunately in 1954 the Faculty of theology was removed by the unilateral edict of the communist Cabinet. This decision, however, did not cease the actual and canonical existence of the faculty. In 1959 the Apostolic
See issued a decree stating that the Faculty of Theology in accordance with its Founding Charter and character “remains under the supervision of one ecclesiastic authority and in the future is to be formed according to the laws passed by the Apostolic see”. In 1974 owing to the eff orts of Cardinal Karol Wojtyła the Faculty was bestowed the honourable title Pontifical.
A turning point in the history of the Faculty of Theology in Kraków came when on 8 December 1981 the Holy father issued a Motu proprio Beata Hedvigis in virtue of which the Pontifi cal Academy of Theology with three faculties: theology, philosophy and Church history was establish.
The aim of this Faculty of Theology is to provide versatile and systematic knowledge of God’s revelation, its sources, message and forms of transmission, the attitude of man towards God revealing himself to him and the many forms of this Revelation in various centuries and ways of Church life.
In studies leading to acquire Master’s degree, which lasts six years, there are mainly alumni preparing for priesthood coming from diocesan and religious seminaries as well as theological institutes affi liated with the Academy. Th ere are also theological studies for laity and nuns who have graduated from the Inter-Congregational Higher Education of Catechetic. The Faculty includes the following 32 chairs which are grouped in 8 specializations: biblical theology, fundamental theology, dogmatic theology, moral theology, theology of spirituality, practical theology, liturgy and canon law. Besides within the Faculty there are: Institute of Liturgy, Institute of Family and Institute of Canon Law. The Faculty has contracts with 15 seminaries for candidates for ordained ministry and 4 institutes of higher theological education which allow them to graduate their alumni.
After the removal from the University the Faculty has graduated 11 105 people (ordained and lay people) in the theology, it has also conferred 308 doctorate degrees in theology (DD) and 85 degrees of habilitation. In 2007 there was 1396 students.
The Faculty has the accreditation of University Accreditation Commission (UAC). The Faculty is also member of Conference of Catholic Theological Institutions (COCTI). It collaborates also wit different foreign faculties, especially within the LLP-Erasmus (the EU Programm).
The Theological Faculty of The Opole University has existed since 1994. The full academic rights were obtained in 2001. The Faculty encompasses 17 departments and 2 academic units. Two major courses are taught: theology and family science. The Faculty issues 5 journals and 8 book series. About 30 books are published every year. An important area of academic research is the history of the Church and liturgy in Silesia. The Faculty cooperates with Polish and overseas academic institutions. One of the most important events was the conferring of an Honorary Doctorate on John Paul II by the Opole University as the initiative of the Theological Faculty.
Pontifical Faculty of Theology in Wrocław has inherited Leopoldinum Academy, which has been in existence since 15 November 1702, run by Jesuits and transformed into the University of Wrocław in 1811. Aft er the Second World War, the Department of Catholic Theology did not reappear at the University but started its independent existence, firstly at Priests’ Seminar as an Academic Theological Centre, and since 1974 as Pontifical Faculty of Theology, recognized by the Apostle’s Capital as the follower of the University of Wrocław. The Faculty conducts uniformed Master of Art studies and Doctorate studies. Moreover, it is in possession of the right to bestow habilitation. Th ere are 25 departments at the Faculty, which are grouped into 4 institutes, 33 independent University workers and 38 Assistant Professors lecture there. There are almost 1900 students studying in the daily system, extramural system, in PHD studies and post-graduate studies.
The Department was established at the University of Nicolas Copernicus on October 1st, 2001. Its faculty members were recruited from among the theologians working in two diocesan Seminaries – in Torun and in Włocławek. The first dean was prof. dr hab. George Bagrowicz. His successor, prof. dr hab. John Perszon was elected in 2005, to be then reelected in 2008. Currently, the Department comprises forty two full-time faculty members who specialize in various theological disciplines. There are 480 students.
The Department offers graduate degrees, i.e., master’s and doctoral degrees. Students can choose from among four diff erent specializations: priestly, pastoralcatechetic, “Caritas” social work and studies on the family. The programs operate with the Polish grading system as the formal grading, but students are also graded according to the ECTS grading scale.
One of the highest priorities of the Department has always been promoting international cooperation with other centers of theological studies. Among them, especially three are to be mentioned: Th e School of Theology of the University of Navarra (Spain), Katolisch-Theologische Fakultät of the University of Würzburg (Germany), The Department of Theology of the Vytautas Magnus University (Lithuania). Conferences attended by foreign theologians have been organized in Torun and our faculty members actively participated in conferences organized abroad.
The main academic periodical of the Department is “Teologia i Człowiek” (“Theology and Man”). There are also four theological series where members of the Faculty publish their papers: Euntes Docete, Scripta Theologica Thorunensia, Biblia et Patristica Thorunensia and Series Biblica Paulina. In cooperation with the Department of Pedagogy another semi-annual journal “Paedagogia Christiana”.
Among the most recent academic projects created by the Department of Th eology is an online collection of biblical articles (www.biblistyka.umk.pl). It is an indispensible means for research for all Polish theologians. The project is entirely sponsored by the University of Nicolas Copernicus.
The Department of Theology Section in Tarnów was established formally as a result of transformation of The Institute of Theology in Tarnów. This Institute was founded in 1822 for educating the clergy serving Tarnów diocese and its activities were always strongly connected to the Seminary in Tarnów. Since the communists took control over our country in 1945, the Institute existed only formally, but in fact, it was always identified with The Seminary in Tarnów.
Bishop professor habilitated doctor Józef Życiński, who was at that time the Tarnów bishop, transformed the Institute of Theology into the Theology and Pastoral Institute and strongly contributed to its aggregation to the Theology Department of the Pontifical Academy of Theology in Kraków in 1993. Since then, the graduates of the Institute have had the opportunity to obtain the MA degree in theology. Thanks to efforts of bishop doctor Wiktor Skworc, the Congregation of the Catholic Education established the Department of Theology Section in Tarnów of the Pontifical Academy of Th ology in Kraków (WTST) instead of the Institute.
In 2007 the Department of Theology Section in Tarnów obtained the rights to confer a PhD degree in theology. Since the aggregation of the Institute of Theology Section in Tarnów to the Theology Department of the Pontifical Academy of Thology, about 90 to 100 students receive their MA degrees annually. Approximately, half of this group consists of the secular and another half of the monastic. Since the beginning, the number of secular candidates accepted, has always been limited. There are the following profiles to choose from: sacerdotal, pastoral and catechetical, social and charity.
The scientific journal of the Department is „Tarnowskie Studia Teologiczne” – „Tarnów Theology Studies” issued half a year.
1. Wymagania dotyczące tekstu
Redakcja "Studiów Nauk Teologicznych PAN" przyjmuje teksty dotychczas nigdzie niepublikowane. Teksty z zakresu teologii, religiologii i dyscyplin pokrewnych nie powinny przekraczać objętości 40 tys. znaków (ze spacjami), czyli 20-23 strony. Preferowana edytor tekstu Times New Roman 12, interlinia 1,5; przypisy: 10, interlinia pojedyncza. Wystarczy nadesłanie wersji elektronicznej na adres:
Nadesłane prace zostaną poddane procedurze recenzyjnej. O jej wyniku, treści nadesłanych recenzji, jak też decyzji redakcji odnośnie do publikacji autor zostanie poinformowany.
Przyjmujemy teksty w języku polskim oraz językach kongresowych.
Do każdego tekstu należy dołączyć:
- krótką notę biograficzną
- streszczenie w języku angielskim i polskim, każdorazowo o objętości ok. 1000 znaków,
- wykaz słów kluczowych,
- wykaz skrótów stosowanych przez autora w tekście lub przypisach
2. Zasady sporządzania przypisów
1. Numer przypisu w tekście umieszczamy przed znakiem interpunkcyjnym kończącym zdanie lub jego część, np. W napisanych krótko przed śmiercią testamencie1, poeta wspomina swoich dobroczyńców2.
2. Cytowanie książek: inicjał imienia, nazwisko (-a) autora (-ów), tytuł dzieła (pisany kursywą bez cudzysłowu), wydawnictwo, miejsce i rok wydania (przed rokiem zaznaczamy części wydawnicze (np. 32007), wykaz cytowanych stron. Fragmenty opuszczone w cytatach należy zaznaczyć trzema kropkami w nawiasach kwadratowych.
3. Powtarzanie przypisu: nie stosujemy takich słów, jak np. tamże, tenże, itp., ale powtarzamy skrócony zapis bibliograficzny (inicjał imienia, nazwisko, tytuł lub jego część oraz strony).
4. Przykład zapisu przypisów
1 A. Derdziuk, Teologia moralna w służbie wiary Kościoła, Wydawnictwo KUL Lublin 2010, 125-134.
2 A. Derdziu
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